Alfred L. Kroeber
Alfred Louis Kroeber was an American cultural anthropologist. He received his Ph. D. under Franz Boas at Columbia University in 1901, the first doctorate in anthropology awarded by Columbia. He was the first professor appointed to the Department of Anthropology at the University of California, Berkeley, he played an integral role in the early days of its Museum of Anthropology, where he served as director from 1909 through 1947. Kroeber provided detailed information about Ishi, the last surviving member of the Yahi people, whom he studied over a period of years, he was the father of the acclaimed novelist and writer of short stories Ursula K. Le Guin. Kroeber was born in Hoboken, New Jersey, to upper middle-class parents: Florence Kroeber, who immigrated at the age of 10 to the United States with his parents and family from Germany, Johanna Muller, of German descent, his family moved into New York when Alfred was quite young, he was tutored and attended private schools there. He had three younger siblings and all had scholarly interests.
The family was bilingual, speaking German at home, Kroeber began to study Latin and Greek in school, beginning a lifelong interest in languages. He attended Columbia College at the age of 16, joining the Philolexian Society and earning an A. B. in English in 1896 and an M. A. in Romantic drama in 1897. Changing fields to the new one of anthropology, he received his Ph. D. under Franz Boas at Columbia University in 1901, basing his 28-page dissertation on decorative symbolism on his field work among the Arapaho. It was the first doctorate in anthropology awarded by Columbia. Kroeber spent most of his career in California at the University of California, Berkeley, he was both a Professor of Anthropology and the Director of what was the University of California Museum of Anthropology. The anthropology department's headquarters building at the University of California is named Kroeber Hall in his honor, he was associated with Berkeley until his retirement in 1946. Kroeber married Henrietta Rothschild in 1906.
She died in 1913, after several years of illness. In 1926 he married again, to Theodora Kracaw Brown, a widow whom he met as a student in one of his graduate seminars, they had two children: Karl Kroeber, a literary critic, the science fiction writer Ursula Kroeber Le Guin. In addition, Alfred adopted Theodora's sons by her first marriage and Clifton Brown, who both took his surname. In 2003, Clifton and Karl Kroeber published a book of essays on Ishi's story, which they co-edited, Ishi in Three Centuries; this is the first scholarly book on Ishi to contain essays by academics. Alfred Kroeber died in Paris on October 5, 1960. Although he is known as a cultural anthropologist, he did significant work in archaeology and anthropological linguistics, he contributed to anthropology by making connections between archaeology and culture, he conducted excavations in New Mexico and Peru. In Peru he helped found the Institute for Andean Studies with the Peruvian anthropologist Julio C. Tello and other major scholars.
Kroeber and his students did important work collecting cultural data on western tribes of Native Americans. The work done in preserving information about California tribes appeared in Handbook of the Indians of California. In that book, Kroeber first described a pattern in California groups where a social unit was smaller and less hierarchically organized than a tribe, elaborated upon in The Patwin and their Neighbors in which Kroeber first coined the term "tribelet" to describe this level of organization. Kroeber is credited with developing the concepts of culture area, cultural configuration, cultural fatigue. Kroeber's influence was so strong that many contemporaries adopted his style of beard and mustache as well as his views as a cultural historian. During his lifetime, he was known as the "Dean of American Anthropologists". Kroeber and Roland B. Dixon were influential in the genetic classification of Native American languages in North America, being responsible for theoretical groupings such as Penutian and Hokan, based on common languages.
He is noted for working with Ishi, claimed to be the last California Yahi Indian. His second wife, Theodora Kracaw Kroeber, wrote a well-known biography of Ishi in Two Worlds. Kroeber's relationship with Ishi was the subject of a film, The Last of His Tribe, starring Jon Voight as Kroeber and Graham Greene as Ishi. Kroeber's textbook, was used for many years. In the late 1940s, it was one of ten books required as reading for all students during their first year at Columbia University, his book, Configurations of Cultural Growth, had a lasting impact on social scientific research on genius and greatness. Kroeber served early on as the plaintiffs' director of research in Indians of California v. the United States, a land claim case. His associate director and the director of research for the federal government in the case had both been students of his: Omer Stewart of the University of Colorado, Ralph Beals of the University of California, Los Angeles, respectively. Kroeber's impact on the Indian Claims Commission may well have established the way expert witnesses presented testimony before the tribunal.
Several of his former students served as expert witnesses.
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
California State Route 20
State Route 20 is a state highway in the northern-central region of the state of California, running east–west north of Sacramento. Its west end is at SR 1 in Fort Bragg, from where it heads east past Clear Lake, Yuba City and Nevada City to I-80 near Emigrant Gap, where eastbound traffic can continue on other routes to Lake Tahoe or Nevada. Portions of SR 20 are built near the routing of what was first a wagon road and a turnpike in the late 19th century; this road was extended through the state highway system all the way to Ukiah in the early 20th century, the missing link near Clear Lake was completed in 1932 before the official designation of this highway as SR 20 in 1934. There have been subsequent improvements to the road, such as the conversion of the Grass Valley portion of the route to freeway standards. State Route 20 begins at SR 1 less than 1 mile from the Pacific Ocean, it heads east climbing into the Mendocino Range along a ridge and crossing through Dunlap Pass. The highway continues to rise alongside the North Fork Big River and tributaries, crossing another summit and descending to Willits in the Little Lake Valley via Broaddus Creek.
An overlap with US 101 begins in Willits and heads southeasterly to Calpella, north of Ukiah in Redwood Valley. There SR 20 turns east again, crossing the Russian River, passing the north shore of Lake Mendocino, rising to a summit via the East Fork Russian River and Cold Creek; the roadway again descends alongside the Blue Lakes and Scotts Creek to the junction with SR 29 and the settlement of Upper Lake in the Clear Lake Basin. SR 20 follows the northeast shore of Clear Lake, staying right above the water line to avoid the adjacent hills. Where the lake ends, SR 20 continues east, intersecting SR 53 and following the North Fork Cache Creek and tributaries to the Lake-Colusa County line. During its final descent into the Sacramento Valley, SR 20 intersects SR 16 and curves north and back east, entering the valley via Salt Creek. Once it enters the flat Sacramento Valley, SR 20 takes a straight path, crossing I-5 in Williams, overlapping SR 45 near the west bank of the Sacramento River southeast from Colusa, turning back east to cross the Sacramento River and Sutter Bypass on its way to Yuba City.
The route crosses SR 99 west of central Yuba City, runs east through northern Yuba City to the Feather River, which it crosses on the 10th Street Bridge into Marysville. Within the central part of that city, SR 20 makes several turns, first turning south from 10th Street onto E Street east on 9th Street, north on B Street, east on 12th Street; the highway leaves Marysville to the northeast, paralleling the Yuba River on its north side as it enters the foothills of the Sierra Nevada. SR 20 rises into the Sierra along the north side of the Yuba River, crossing to the south side near Smartsville and climbing through several ravines to the Penn Valley; the current alignment, built in the mid-1980s as a two-lane freeway, continues east across rugged terrain to the city of Grass Valley, where it joins SR 49 on the Golden Center Freeway. The two routes travel northeast to Nevada City, where SR 49 turns northwest and SR 20 resumes its eastward course as a two-lane highway; the roadway climbs from Nevada City and follows Harmony Ridge and Washington Ridge before descending into the Bear Valley via a series of hairpin turns, climbing, just north of Emigrant Gap, to its end at I-80 at Yuba Pass.
The Pioneer Trail, a National Recreation Trail, parallels SR 20 from a point on Harmony Ridge to the Bear Valley, includes parts of a branch of the California Trail first used in 1850. SR 20 east of US 101 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System, although it is a two-lane surface road. All of SR 20 is on the Interregional Road System, a highway system that connects major economic centers of the state, has been selected by the California Department of Transportation as a High Emphasis Route and Focus Route from US 101 to SR 29 and SR 53 to I-80, with the designated corridor following SR 29 and SR 53 around the south side of Clear Lake, it is eligible for the State Scenic Highway System from SR 1 to SR 16 and SR 49 to I-80, has been designated as such for 6 miles near the east end. The east end of SR 20, from Bear Valley to Nevada City follows a branch of the Truckee Route of the California Trail, first used by California-bound emigrants in 1850. A turnpike was built here by the same company that opened the Pacific Turnpike in 1864.
By the end of the 1910s, a passable dirt and gravel road connected Ukiah and Nevada City via the south side of Clear Lake and Marysville. The portion between Lower Lake and Wilbur Springs was impassable in wet weather, at which times the Bartlett Springs and Bear Valley Toll-road via Upper Lake and Bartlett Springs was available for $1.50 each way or $2.50 round trip. This route followed the present SR 20, except around Clear Lake and between Marysville and Rough and Ready. Beyond Nevada City to Emigrant Gap, the old turnpike was not passable. Between Williams and Colusa, the road was paved in concrete, as it had been added to the state highway system as part
California State Legislature
The California State Legislature is a bicameral legislature consisting of a lower house, the California State Assembly, with 80 members. Both houses of the Legislature convene at the California State Capitol in Sacramento; the California State Legislature is one of just ten full-time state legislatures in the United States. The Democratic Party holds supermajorities in both houses of the California State Legislature; the Assembly consists of 61 Democrats and 19 Republicans, while the Senate is composed of 28 Democrats and 10 Republicans, with two vacancies. Except for a brief period from 1995 to 1996, the Assembly has been in Democratic hands since the 1970 election; the Senate, has been under continuous Democratic control since 1970. New legislators convene each new two-year session, to organize, in the Assembly and Senate Chambers at noon on the first Monday in December following the election. After the organizational meeting, both houses are in recess until the first Monday in January, except when the first Monday is January 1 or January 1 is a Sunday, in which case they meet the following Wednesday.
Aside from the recess, the legislature is in session year-round. Since California was given official statehood by the U. S. in September 9, 1850 as part of the Compromise of 1850, the state capital was variously San Jose and Benicia, until Sacramento was selected in 1854. The first Californian State House was a hotel in San Jose owned by businessman Pierre "Don Pedro" Sainsevain and his associates; the State Legislature meets in the California State Capitol in Sacramento. Members of the Assembly serve two-year terms. All 80 Assembly seats are subject to election every two years. Members of the Senate serve four-year terms; every two years, one half of the Senate is subject to election, with odd-numbered districts up for election during presidential elections, even-numbered districts up for election during midterm elections. Term limits were established in 1990 following the passage of Proposition 140. In June 2012, voters approved Proposition 28, which limits legislators to a maximum of 12 years, without regard to whether they serve those years in the State Assembly or the State Senate.
Legislators first elected on or before June 5, 2012 are restricted by the previous term limits, approved in 1990, which limited legislators to three terms in the State Assembly and two terms in the State Senate. The proceedings of the California State Legislature are summarized in published journals, which show votes and who proposed or withdrew what. Reports produced by California executive agencies, as well as the Legislature, were published in the Appendices to the Journals from 1849 to 1970. Since the 1990s, the legislature has provided a live video feed for its sessions, has been broadcast statewide on the California Channel and local Public-access television cable TV. Due to the expense and the obvious political downside, California did not keep verbatim records of actual speeches made by members of the Assembly and Senate until the video feed began; as a result, reconstructing legislative intent outside of an act's preamble is difficult in California for legislation passed before the 1990s.
Since 1993, the Legislature has hosted a web/ftp site in another. The current Website contains the text of all statutes, all bills, the text of all versions of the bills, all the committee analyses of bills, all the votes on bills in committee or on the floor, veto messages from the Governor. Before committees published reports for significant bills, but most bills were not important enough to justify the expense of printing and distributing a report to archives and law libraries across the state. For bills lacking such a formal committee report, the only way to discover legislative intent is to access the state archives in Sacramento and manually review the files of relevant legislators, legislative committees, the Governor's Office from the relevant time period, in the hope of finding a statement of intent and evidence that the statement reflected the views of several of the legislators who voted for the bill; the most sought-after legislative committee appointments are to banking and insurance.
These are sometimes called "juice" committees, because membership in these committees aids the campaign fundraising efforts of the committee members, because powerful lobbying groups want to donate to members of these committees. A bill is a proposal to repeal, or add to existing state law. An Assembly Bill is one introduced in the Assembly. Bills are designated in the order of introduction in each house. For example, AB 16 refers to the 16th bill introduced in the Assembly; the numbering starts afresh each session. There may be one or more "extraordinary" sessions; the bill numbering starts again for each of these. For example, the third bill introduced in the Assembly for the second extraordinary session is ABX2 3; the name of the author, the legislator who introduced the bill, becomes part of the title of the bill. The legislative procedure, is divided into distinct stages: Drafting; the procedure begins when a Assembly Member decides to author a bill. A legislator sends the idea for the bill to the California Office of the Legislative Counsel, which drafts it into bill form and returns the draft to the legislator for introduction.
Introduction or First Reading. A legislator introduces a bill for the first time by reading or having read: the bill number, name of
Jared William Huffman is an American politician, the U. S. Representative for California's 2nd congressional district since 2013, he is a member of the Democratic Party. From 2006 to 2012, Huffman was a member of the California State Assembly, representing the 6th district. Huffman chaired the Assembly Water, Parks & Wildlife Committee and chaired the Assembly Environmental Caucus, he was elected to Congress in November 2012 with more than 70% of the vote, defeating Republican candidate Dan Roberts. His congressional district covers the North Coast from the Golden Gate Bridge to the Oregon border. Huffman graduated from William Chrisman High School in 1982 and received his Bachelor of Arts in Political Science magna cum laude from University of California, Santa Barbara, where he was a member of the Phi Delta Theta Fraternity. At UCSB, Huffman was a three-time All-American volleyball player. Huffman was a member of the USA Volleyball Team in 1987 when the team was ranked #1 in the world and had won the World Championship.
He went on to graduate cum laude from Boston College Law School in 1990. Huffman became a consumer attorney specializing in public interest cases. Among his court victories was a case on behalf of the National Organization for Women, which required all California State University campuses to comply with Title IX. Huffman was a senior attorney for the Natural Resources Defense Council, he was a publicly elected director of the Marin Municipal Water District for twelve years, including three terms as board president. Huffman won the Democratic nomination for the 6th district in a hotly contested primary in June 2006 in which he surprised the political establishment with a victory over opponents Pamela Torliatt, a Petaluma city councilwoman, Cynthia Murray, a Marin County Supervisor, considered the frontrunner. Huffman defeated Assistant State Attorney General Damon Connelly, Marin County Democratic Chairman John Alden, sociologist Alex Easton-Brown. Huffman defeated Republican opponent Dr. Michael Hartnett by a more than 2:1 margin in the general election on November 7, 2006.
Huffman faced two opponents in the November 2008 general election: Republican Paul Lavery and Libertarian Timothy Hannan. He won with 70% of the vote and the 137,873 votes he received were among the most by any California Assembly candidate in 2008. In the Democratic primary, Huffman was unopposed and received 57,213 votes—the most of any California Assemblymember in that election. In the June 2010 California primary, Huffman defeated a fellow Democratic challenger Patrick Connally. Huffman faced Republican nominee Robert Stephens in the November 2010 general election, he won overwhelmingly with more than 70% of the vote—the highest winning margin of any candidate on the ballot in the North Bay that year. Due to California term limits, Huffman would have been unable to seek a fourth Assembly term in 2012. In his first four years as a legislator, Huffman authored and passed more than 40 pieces of legislation. In 2008, Huffman sponsored a bill, which he wrote with internet attorney Daniel Balsam that aimed to close what its proponents characterized as loopholes in the CAN-SPAM Act which made it more difficult to bring lawsuits against deceptive spammers.
Although the bill passed the State Assembly and Senate, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger vetoed the bill. On February 14, 2011, Jared Huffman cosponsored a bill with Paul Fong, California Assembly Bill 376, to make it illegal to possess, distribute, or sell shark fins, unless for research or commercial purposes. Upon his swearing-in on December 4, 2006, Assembly Speaker Fabian Núñez named Huffman the Chairman of the Committee on Environmental Safety and Toxic Materials. In August 2008, the new Assembly Speaker Karen Bass named Huffman to Chair the Water, Parks & Wildlife Committee. After 20-year Democratic incumbent Lynn Woolsey announced her retirement, Huffman entered the race to run for her seat in the 2nd District, renumbered from the 6th in redistricting. California's 2nd congressional district now covers six counties: Marin, Mendocino, Trinity and Del Norte. Huffman finished first in the top-two primary with 37% of the vote. In November, Huffman defeated Republican candidate Dan Roberts 71%–29%.
In his first re-election campaign in 2014, Huffman dominated the open primary, receiving 67.9% of the vote against 22.3% for second-place finisher Dale Mensing, a Republican. Huffman went on to defeat Mensing in the fall general election by 75 to 25%; the 2016 results were similar, with Huffman receiving 68.3% of the primary vote against 15.7% for Mensing, who again finished second, defeating Mensing in the general election by 76.5% to 23.5%. In the June 2018 open primary, Huffman received 72.5% of the vote. The two faced each other in the November 2018 runoff, where Huffman was re-elected with 77.0% of the vote. In April 2018, together with Jerry McNerney, Jamie Raskin, Dan Kildee, launched the Congressional Freethought Caucus, its stated goals include "pushing public policy formed on the basis of reason and moral values", promoting the "separation of church and state," opposing discrimination against "atheists, humanists, seekers and nonreligious persons", among others. Huffman and Raskin will act as co-chairs.
The following is a partial list of legislation introduced by Huffman. California Coastal National Monument Expansion Act of 2013 – a bill that "would expand the boundary of the California Coastal National Monument to include 1,255 acres of federal land known as the Point Arena-Stornetta public lands.
The Pomo are an indigenous people of California. The historic Pomo territory in northern California was large, bordered by the Pacific Coast to the west, extending inland to Clear Lake, between Cleone and Duncans Point. One small group, the Northeastern Pomo of the Stonyford vicinity of Colusa County, was separated from the core Pomo area by lands inhabited by Yuki and Wintuan speakers; the name pomo derives from a conflation of the Pomo words and. It meant "those who live at red earth hole" and was once the name of a village in southern Potter Valley near the present-day community of Pomo, it may have referred to local deposits of the red mineral magnesite, used for red beads, or to the reddish earth and clay, such as hematite, mined in the area. In the Northern Pomo dialect, -pomo or -poma was used as a suffix after the names of places, to mean a subgroup of people of the place. By 1877, the use of Pomo had been extended in English to mean the entire people known today as the Pomo; the Pomo had 20 chiefs at the same time.
The people called Pomo were linked by location and cultural expression. They were not or politically linked as one large unified group. Instead, they lived in small groups or bands, linked by geography and marriage. Traditionally they relied upon fishing and gathering for their food; the Pomo Indian cultures are several ethnolinguistic groups that make up a single language family in Northern California. Their historic territory extended from the Pacific Coast between Cleone and Duncans Point to Clear Lake; the Pomo Indians preferred to live in small groups which are called "bands". These bands were linked by geography and marriage; the Pomo cultures encompassed hundreds of independent communities. Like many other Native groups, the Pomo Indian of Northern California relied upon fishing and gathering for their daily food supply, they ate salmon, wild greens, mushrooms, grasshoppers, rabbits and squirrels. Acorns were the most important staple in their diet; the division of labor in Pomo Indian communities involved gathering and preparation of plant-based foods by women, while men were hunters and fishers.
The Pomo Indian culture is famed for its tradition of intricate basketry. A valued basket type incorporates bird feathers into design of the basket's weave; some of their most culturally important dances are "Ghost Dance" and "Far South". During a "Ghost Dance" ceremony, they believed, and a "Far South" dance was celebrated as the rite of passage for children to the tribe. The Pomoan languages became endangered after European colonization of their native territory. Contacts with Russian and English have impacted these languages, many are no longer spoken due to language shift to English. There are about twelve Pomo language varieties. Pomo known as Pomoan or less Kulanapan, is a language family that includes seven distinct and mutually unintelligible languages, including Northern Pomo, Northeastern Pomo, Eastern Pomo, Southeastern Pomo, Central Pomo, Southern Pomo, Kashaya. John Wesley Powell classified the language family as Kulanapan in 1891, using the name first introduced by George Gibbs in 1853.
This name for the language family is derived from the name of one Eastern Pomo village on the south shore of Clear Lake. Powers was the first to refer to this entire language family with the name "Pomo", the geographic names that have been used to refer to the seven individual Pomoan languages were introduced by Barrett; the Pomo people participated in shamanism. It included elaborate acting and dancing ceremonies in traditional costume, an annual mourning ceremony, puberty rites of passage, shamanic intervention with the spirit world, an all-male society that met in subterranean dance rooms; the Pomo believed in a supernatural being, the Kuksu or Guksu, who lived in the south and who came during ceremonies to heal their illnesses. Medicine men dressed up as their interpretation of a healer spirit. A shamanistic movement was the "Messiah Cult", introduced by the Wintun people, it was practiced through 1900. This cult believed in prophets who had dreams, "waking visions" and revelations from "presiding spirits", "virtually formed a priesthood".
The prophets earned much status among the people. The record of Pomo myths, legends and histories is extensive; the body of narratives is classed within the Central California cultural pattern. The Pomo had a strong mythology of world order, it includes the personification of the Kuksu or Guksu healer spirit, spirits from six cardinal directions, the Coyote as their ancestor and creator god. According to some linguistic theories, the Pomo people descend from the Hokan-speaking people. One theory places the ancestral community from which the Pomoan languages and cultures are descended in the Sonoma County, California region; this area was. In this hypothesis, about 7000 BCE, a Hokan-speaking people migrated into the valley and mountain regions around Clear Lake, their language evolved into Proto-Pomo; the lake was rich in resources. About 4000 BCE to 5000 BCE, some of the proto-Pomo migrated into the Russian River Valley and north to present-day Ukiah, their language diverged into western, southern and northern Pomo.
Another people Yukian speakers, lived first in the Ru
Mendocino County, California
Mendocino County is a county located on the north coast of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 87,841; the county seat is Ukiah. Mendocino County comprises CA Micropolitan Statistical Area, it is located west of the Central Valley. The county is noted for its distinctive Pacific Ocean coastline, its location along California's "Lost Coast", Redwood forests, wine production and liberal views about the use of cannabis and support for its legalization. In 2009 it was estimated that one-third of the economy was based on the cultivation of marijuana; the notable historic and recreational attraction of the "Skunk Train" connects Fort Bragg with Willits in Mendocino County via a steam-locomotive engine, along with other vehicles. Mendocino County was one of the original counties of California, created in 1850 at the time of statehood. Due to an minor white American population, it did not have a separate government until 1859 and was under the administration of Sonoma County prior to that.
Some of the county's land was given to Sonoma County between 1850 and 1860. The county derives its name from Cape Mendocino, named in honor of either Antonio de Mendoza, Viceroy of New Spain, 1535–1542, or Lorenzo Suárez de Mendoza, Viceroy from 1580 to 1583. Mendocino is the adjectival form of the family name of Mendoza. Neither Spanish nor Mexican influence extended into Mendocino County beyond establishing two Mexican land grants in southern Mendocino County: Rancho Sanel in Hopland, in 1844 and Rancho Yokaya that forms the majority of the Ukiah Valley, in 1845. In the 19th century, despite the establishment of the Mendocino Indian Reservation and Nome Cult Farm in 1856, the county witnessed many of the most serious atrocities in the extermination of the Californian Native American tribes who lived in the area, like the Yuki, the Pomo, the Cahto, the Wintun; the systematic occupation of their lands, the reduction of many of their members into slavery and the raids against their settlements led to the Mendocino War in 1859, where hundreds of Indians were killed.
Establishment of the Round Valley Indian Reservation in March 30, 1870, did not prevent the segregation that continued well into the 20th century. Other tribes from the Sierra Nevada mountains were relocated to the Round Valley Indian Reservation during the "California Trail Of Tears", where the Natives were forced to march in bad conditions to their new home in Round Valley. Many of these tribes thrown together were not friends with the other tribes they were forced to live with on the reservation, resulting in tensions still evident today. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 3,878 square miles, of which 3,506 square miles is land and 372 square miles is water. Humboldt County - north Trinity County - north Tehama County - northeast Glenn County - east Lake County - east Sonoma County - south The 2010 United States Census reported that Mendocino County had a population of 87,841; the racial makeup of Mendocino County was 67,218 White, 622 African American, 4,277 Native American, 1,450 Asian, 119 Pacific Islander, 10,185 from other races, 3,970 from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 19,505 persons. As of the census of 2000, there were 86,265 people, 33,266 households, 21,855 families residing in the county; the population density was 25 people per square mile. There were 36,937 housing units at an average density of 10 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 80.8% White, 0.6% Black or African American, 4.8% Native American, 1.2% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 8.6% from other races, 3.9% from two or more races. 16.5% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 12.2% were of German, 10.8% English, 8.6% Irish, 6.1% Italian and 5.6% American ancestry according to Census 2000. 84.4% spoke English and 13.2% Spanish as their first language. There were 33,266 households out of which 31.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.9% were married couples living together, 11.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.3% were non-families. 27.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.04. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.5% under the age of 18, 8.1% from 18 to 24, 25.6% from 25 to 44, 27.1% from 45 to 64, 13.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 98.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.1 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,996, the median income for a family was $42,168. Males had a median income of $33,128 versus $23,774 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,443. About 10.9% of families and 15.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.5% of those under age 18 and 7.7% of those age 65 or over. As of 2018, the district attorney of Mendocino County is C. David Eyster, the elected sheriff-coroner is Thomas D. Allman, the chief executive officer is Carmel J. Angelo. Mendocino County is legislatively governed by a board of five supervisors, each with a separate district.
The first district is represented by Carre Brown, serves the central-eastern region of the county, including Potter Valley, Redwood Valley and Talmage. The second district, represented by John McCowen, serves Ukiah; the third district, in the nort