Japanese is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people in Japan, where it is the national language. It is a member of the Japonic language family, its relation to other languages, such as Korean, is debated. Japanese has been grouped with language families such as Ainu and the now-discredited Altaic, but none of these proposals has gained widespread acceptance. Little is known of the language's prehistory, or when it first appeared in Japan. Chinese documents from the 3rd century recorded a few Japanese words, but substantial texts did not appear until the 8th century. During the Heian period, Chinese had considerable influence on the vocabulary and phonology of Old Japanese. Late Middle Japanese included changes in features that brought it closer to the modern language, the first appearance of European loanwords; the standard dialect moved from the Kansai region to the Edo region in the Early Modern Japanese period. Following the end in 1853 of Japan's self-imposed isolation, the flow of loanwords from European languages increased significantly.
English loanwords, in particular, have become frequent, Japanese words from English roots have proliferated. Japanese is an agglutinative, mora-timed language with simple phonotactics, a pure vowel system, phonemic vowel and consonant length, a lexically significant pitch-accent. Word order is subject–object–verb with particles marking the grammatical function of words, sentence structure is topic–comment. Sentence-final particles are used to make questions. Nouns have no grammatical number or gender, there are no articles. Verbs are conjugated for tense and voice, but not person. Japanese equivalents of adjectives are conjugated. Japanese has a complex system of honorifics with verb forms and vocabulary to indicate the relative status of the speaker, the listener, persons mentioned. Japanese has no genetic relationship with Chinese, but it makes extensive use of Chinese characters, or kanji, in its writing system, a large portion of its vocabulary is borrowed from Chinese. Along with kanji, the Japanese writing system uses two syllabic scripts and katakana.
Latin script is used in a limited fashion, such as for imported acronyms, the numeral system uses Arabic numerals alongside traditional Chinese numerals. A common ancestor of Japanese and Ryukyuan languages or dialects is thought to have been brought to Japan by settlers coming from either continental Asia or nearby Pacific islands sometime in the early- to mid-2nd century BC, replacing the languages of the original Jōmon inhabitants, including the ancestor of the modern Ainu language. Little is known about the Japanese of this period; because writing like the "Kanji" which devolved into the writing systems "Hiragana" and "Katakana" had yet to be introduced from China, there is no direct evidence, anything that can be discerned about this period of Japanese must be based on the reconstructions of Old Japanese. Old Japanese is the oldest attested stage of the Japanese language. Through the spread of Buddhism, the Chinese writing system was imported to Japan; the earliest texts found in Japan are written in Classical Chinese, but they may have been meant to be read as Japanese by the kanbun method.
Some of these Chinese texts show the influences such as the word order. In these hybrid texts, Chinese characters are occasionally used phonetically to represent Japanese particles; the earliest text, the Kojiki, dates to the early 8th century, was written in Chinese characters. The end of Old Japanese coincides with the end of the Nara period in 794. Old Japanese uses the Man'yōgana system of writing, which uses kanji for their phonetic as well as semantic values. Based on the Man'yōgana system, Old Japanese can be reconstructed as having 88 distinct syllables. Texts written with Man'yōgana use two different kanji for each of the syllables now pronounced き ki, ひ hi, み mi, け ke, へ he, め me, こ ko, そ so, と to, の no, も mo, よ yo and ろ ro; this set of syllables shrank to 67 in Early Middle Japanese, though some were added through Chinese influence. Due to these extra syllables, it has been hypothesized that Old Japanese's vowel system was larger than that of Modern Japanese – it contained up to eight vowels.
According to Shinkichi Hashimoto, the extra syllables in Man'yōgana derive from differences between the vowels of the syllables in question. These differences would indicate that Old Japanese had an eight-vowel system, in contrast to the five vowels of Japanese; the vowel system would have to have shrunk some time between these texts and the invention of the kana in the early 9th century. According to this view, the eight-vowel system of ancient Japanese would resemble that of the Uralic and Altaic language families. However, it is not certain that the alternation between syllables reflects a difference in the vowels rather than the consonants – at the moment, the only undisputed fact is that they are different syllables. A newer reconstruction of ancient Japanese shows strikingly similarities with Southeast-Asian languages with Austronesian languages. Old Japanese does not have /h/, but rather /ɸ/, reconstructed to an earlier */p/. Man'yōgana has
Croatian is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina, other neighboring countries. It is the official and literary standard of Croatia and one of the official languages of the European Union. Croatian is one of the official languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina and a recognized minority language in Serbia and neighboring countries. Standard Croatian is based on the most widespread dialect of Serbo-Croatian, more on Eastern Herzegovinian, the basis of Standard Serbian and Montenegrin. In the mid-18th century, the first attempts to provide a Croatian literary standard began on the basis of the Neo-Shtokavian dialect that served as a supraregional lingua franca pushing back regional Chakavian and Shtokavian vernaculars; the decisive role was played by Croatian Vukovians, who cemented the usage of Ijekavian Neo-Shtokavian as the literary standard in the late 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, in addition to designing a phonological orthography.
Croatian is written in Gaj's Latin alphabet. Besides the Shtokavian dialect, on which Standard Croatian is based, there are two other main dialects spoken on the territory of Croatia and Kajkavian; these dialects, the four national standards, are subsumed under the term "Serbo-Croatian" in English, though this term is controversial for native speakers, paraphrases such as "Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian" are therefore sometimes used instead in diplomatic circles. In the late medieval period up to the 17th century, the majority of semi-autonomous Croatia was ruled by two domestic dynasties of princes, the Zrinski and the Frankopan, which were linked by inter-marriage. Toward the 17th century, both of them attempted to unify Croatia both culturally and linguistically, writing in a mixture of all three principal dialects, calling it "Croatian", "Dalmatian", or "Slavonian", it is still used now in parts of Istria, which became a crossroads of various mixtures of Chakavian with Ekavian/Ijekavian/Ikavian dialects.
The most standardized form became the cultivated language of administration and intellectuals from the Istrian peninsula along the Croatian coast, across central Croatia up into the northern valleys of the Drava and the Mura. The cultural apex of this 17th century idiom is represented by the editions of "Adrianskoga mora sirena" by Petar Zrinski and "Putni tovaruš" by Katarina Zrinska. However, this first linguistic renaissance in Croatia was halted by the political execution of Petar Zrinski and Fran Krsto Frankopan by the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I in Vienna in 1671. Subsequently, the Croatian elite in the 18th century abandoned this combined Croatian standard; the Illyrian movement was a 19th-century pan-South Slavic political and cultural movement in Croatia that had the goal to standardize the regionally differentiated and orthographically inconsistent literary languages in Croatia, merge them into a common South Slavic literary language. Three major groups of dialects were spoken on Croatian territory, there had been several literary languages over four centuries.
The leader of the Illyrian movement Ljudevit Gaj standardized the Latin alphabet in 1830–1850 and worked to bring about a standardized orthography. Although based in Kajkavian-speaking Zagreb, Gaj supported using the more populous Neo-Shtokavian – a version of Shtokavian that became the predominant dialectal basis of both Croatian and Serbian literary language from the 19th century on. Supported by various South Slavic proponents, Neo-Shtokavian was adopted after an Austrian initiative at the Vienna Literary Agreement of 1850, laying the foundation for the unified Serbo-Croatian literary language; the uniform Neo-Shtokavian became common in the Croatian elite. In the 1860s, the Zagreb Philological School dominated the Croatian cultural life, drawing upon linguistic and ideological conceptions advocated by the members of the Illyrian movement. While it was dominant over the rival Rijeka Philological School and Zadar Philological Schools, its influence waned with the rise of the Croatian Vukovians.
Croatian is characterized by the Ijekavian pronunciation, the sole use of the Latin alphabet, a number of lexical differences in common words that set it apart from standard Serbian. Some differences are absolute, while some appear in the frequency of use. Croatian, although technically a form of Serbo-Croatian, is sometimes considered a distinct language by itself. Purely linguistic considerations of languages based on mutual intelligibility are incompatible with sociopolitical conceptions of language so that varieties that are mutually intelligible may be considered separate languages. Differences between various standard forms of Serbo-Croatian are exaggerated for political reasons. Most Croatian linguists regard Croatian as a separate language, considered key to national identity; the issue is sensitive in Croatia as the notion of a separate language being the most important characteristic of a nation is accepted, stemming from the 19th-century history of Europe. The 1967 Declaration on the Status and Name of the Croatian Literary Language, in which a group of Croatian authors and linguists demanded greater autonomy for the Croatian language, is viewed in Croatia as a linguistic policy milestone, a general milestone in national politics.
The terms "Serbo-Croatian" or "Serbo-Croat" are still used as a
Georgian is a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians. It is the official language of Georgia. Georgian is written in the Georgian script. Georgian is the literary language for all regional subgroups of Georgians, including those who speak other Kartvelian languages: Svans and the Laz. Georgian is the most pervasive of the Kartvelian languages, a family that includes Svan and Megrelian and Laz. Dialects of Georgian are from Imereti, Racha-Lechkhumi, Adjara, Kartli, Saingilo, Khevsureti, Pshavi, Fereydan and Meskheti; the history of the Georgian language can conventionally be divided into: Early Old Georgian: 5th–8th centuries Classical Old Georgian: 9th–11th centuries Middle Georgian: 11th/12th–17th/18th centuries Modern Georgian: 17th/18th century – presentGeorgian shares an ancestral language with Mingrelian/Laz and Svan. Georgian as separate from the other Kartvelian languages would have emerged in the 1st millennium BC in the area known as the Kingdom of Iberia; the earliest allusion to spoken Georgian may be a passage of the Roman grammarian Marcus Cornelius Fronto in the 2nd century: Fronto imagines the Iberians addressing the emperor Marcus Aurelius in their "incomprehensible tongue".
The evolution of Georgian into a written language was a consequence of the conversion of the Georgian elite to Christianity in the mid-4th century. The new literary language was constructed on an well-established cultural infrastructure, appropriating the functions and status of Aramaic, the literary language of pagan Georgia, the new national religion; the first Georgian texts are palimpsests dating to the 5th century. Georgian has a rich literary tradition; the oldest surviving literary work in Georgian is the 5th century Martyrdom of the Holy Queen Shushanik by Iakob Tsurtaveli. In the 11th century, Old Georgian gives rise to Middle Georgian, the literary language of the medieval kingdom of Georgia; the Georgian national epic, Shota Rustaveli's The Knight in the Panther's Skin, dates from the 12th century. In 1629, Alphabetum Ibericum sive Georgianum cum Oratione and Dittionario giorgiano e italiano were the first two books printed in the Georgian language using movable type in Rome supported by the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples of the Catholic Church for their evangelical movement in Georgian kingdoms.
This marked the beginning of the modern Georgian language. Symbols on the left are those of the IPA and those on the right are of the modern Georgian alphabet. Opinions differ on the aspiration of / t͡sʰ, t͡ʃʰ /. Opinions differ on how to classify /x/ and /ɣ/. Former / qʰ / has merged with / x /; the glottalization of the ejectives is rather light, in many romanization systems it is not marked, for transcriptions such as ejective p, t, ts, ch, k and q, against aspirated p‘, t‘, ts‘, ch‘ and k‘. The coronal occlusives are variously described as apical dental, laminal alveolar, "dental". Prosody in Georgian involves stress and rhythm. Stress is weak, linguists disagree as to where stress occurs in words. Jun and Lofstedt have proposed that Georgian stress and intonation are the result of pitch accents on the first syllable of a word and near the end of a phrase; the rhythm of Georgian speech is syllable-timed. Georgian contains many "harmonic clusters" involving two consonants of a similar type which are pronounced with only a single release.
There are frequent consonant clusters, sometimes involving more than six consonants in a row, as may be seen in words like გვფრცქვნი gvprtskvni and მწვრთნელი mts'vrtneli. Vicenik has observed that Georgian vowels following ejective stops have creaky voice and suggests this may be one cue distinguishing ejectives from their aspirated and voiced counterparts. Georgian has been written in a variety of scripts over its history; the Mkhedruli or "Military" script is completely dominant. Mkhedruli has 33 letters in common use; the letters of Mkhedruli correspond to the phonemes of the Georgian language. According to the traditional account written down by Leonti Mroveli in the 11th century, the first Georgian script was created by the first ruler of the Kingdom of Iberia, Pharnavaz, in the 3rd century BC. However, the first examples of a Georgian script date from the 5th century AD. There are now three Georgian scripts, called Asomtavruli "capitals", Nuskhuri "small letters", Mkhedruli; the first two are used together as upper and lower case in the writings of the Georgian Orthodox Church and together are called Khutsuri "priests' ".
In Mkhedruli, there is no case. Sometimes, however, a capital-like effect, called Mtavruli, "title" or "heading", is achieved by modifying the letters so that their vertical sizes are identical and they rest on the baseline with no descenders; these capital-like letters are used in page headings, chapter titles, monumental inscri
Apple strudel is a traditional Viennese strudel, a popular pastry in Austria and in many countries in Europe that once belonged to the Austro-Hungarian Empire. "Strudel" a German word, derives from the Middle High German word for "whirlpool" or "eddy". The apple strudel variant is called “strudel jabłkowy” in Poland, "jabolčni zavitek" in Slovenian, Almásrétes in Hungarian and Apfelstrudel in German; the oldest known strudel recipe is from 1697, a handwritten recipe housed at the Wienbibliothek im Rathaus. Whether as a type of sweet or savoury layered pastry with a filling inside, the strudel gained popularity in the 18th century through the Habsburg Empire. Austrian cuisine was formed and influenced by the cuisines of many different peoples during the many centuries of the Austrian Habsburg Empire's expansion. Strudel is related to the Ottoman Empire's pastry baklava, which came to Austria from Turkish via Hungarian cuisine. Strudel is most associated with the Austrian cuisine, but is a traditional pastry in the whole area belonging to the Austro-Hungarian empire.
In these countries, apple strudel is the most known kind of strudel. Apple strudel is considered to be the national dish of Austria along with Wiener Schnitzel and Tafelspitz. Apple strudel consists of an oblong strudel pastry jacket with an apple filling inside; the filling is made of grated cooking apples sugar and bread crumbs. Strudel uses an unleavened dough; the basic dough consists of flour and salt although as a household recipe, many variations exist. Apple strudel dough is a thin, elastic dough, the traditional preparation of, a difficult process; the dough is kneaded by flogging against a table top. Dough that appears thick or lumpy after flogging is discarded and a new batch is started. After kneading, the dough is rested rolled out on a wide surface, stretched until the dough reaches a thickness similar to phyllo. Cooks say; the dough is stretched to make it large enough to cover the kneading table. Filling is arranged in a line on a comparatively small section of dough, after which the dough is folded over the filling, the remaining dough is wrapped around until all the dough has been used.
The strudel is oven baked, served warm. Apple strudel is traditionally served in slices, sprinkled with powdered sugar. In traditional Viennese strudel the filling is spread over 3/4 of the dough and the strudel is rolled, incorporating the dough through the filling and making a swirl pattern when the strudel is cut across; this is the origin of the name which means whorl or whirlpool. Toppings of vanilla ice cream, whipped cream, custard, or vanilla sauce are popular in many countries. Apple strudel can be accompanied by tea, coffee or champagne, is one of the most common treats at Viennese cafés
Bengali known by its endonym Bangla, is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Bengalis in South Asia. It is the official and most spoken language of Bangladesh and second most spoken of the 22 scheduled languages of India, behind Hindi. In 2015, 160 million speakers were reported for Bangladesh, the 2011 Indian census counted another 100 million; the official and de facto national language of Bangladesh is Modern Standard Bengali. It serves as the lingua franca of the nation, with 98% of Bangladeshis being fluent in Bengali as their first language. Within India, Bengali is the official language of the states of West Bengal and the Barak Valley in the state of Assam, it is spoken in different parts of the Brahmaputra valley of Assam. It is the most spoken language in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal, is spoken by significant minorities in other states including Jharkhand, Mizoram and Odisha. With 250–300 million total speakers worldwide, Bengali is counted as the sixth most spoken native language in the world by population.
Dictionaries from the early 20th century attributed about to 50% of the Bengali vocabulary to native words (i.e. modified Prakrit words, corrupted forms of Aryan words, Native Austro-Asiatic e.g. Munda, Dravidian words. About 7% percent of Bengali words are unmodified Sanskrit, the remaining words are from Persian, Turkish, Portuguese and other languages. Dominant in the last group was Persian, the source of some grammatical forms. More recent studies suggest that the use of native and foreign words has been increasing because of the preference of Bengali speakers for the colloquial style. Bengali literature, with its millennium-old history and folk heritage, has extensively developed since the Bengali renaissance and is one of the most prominent and diverse literary traditions in Asia. In 1999, UNESCO recognized 21 February as International Mother Language Day in recognition of the language movement in East Bengal. Language binds together a culturally diverse region. Sanskrit was practiced by the priests in Bengal since the first millennium BCE.
But, the local people were speaking in some varieties of Prakrita languages. Dr. Suniti Kumar Chatterjee coined it as "eastern variety of Magdhi Prakrita". But, Dr. Muhammad Shahidullah argued that the language spoken by the Bengalis was distinct from Magdhi Prakrit, he explained that it included more non-Indo-Aryan vocabulary. Humayun Azad suggested that Purbo Magdhi Prakrita had substantial Dravidian and Austro-Asiatic words. During the Gupta Empire, Bengal was a hub of Sanskrit literature; the Middle Indo-Aryan dialects were influential in Bengal in the first millennium when the region was a part of the Magadha Realm. These dialects were called Magadhi Prakrit spoken in current Bihar state of India. Purbo Magdhi was distinct from Magdhi Prakrita; the Magdhi Prakrita evolved into Ardha Magadhi and become more distinct from the languages of Bengal day by day. Ardha Magadhi began to give way to what are called Apabhraṃśa languages at the end of the first millennium. Bengali language evolved a as distinct language by the course of time.
Along with other Eastern Indo-Aryan languages, Bengali evolved circa 1000–1200 CE from Sanskrit and Magadhi Prakrit. The local Apabhraṃśa of the eastern subcontinent, Purbi Apabhraṃśa or Abahatta evolved into regional dialects, which in turn formed three groups of the Bengali–Assamese languages, the Bihari languages, the Odia language; some argue that the points of divergence occurred much earlier – going back to 500, but the language was not static: different varieties coexisted and authors wrote in multiple dialects in this period. For example, Ardhamagadhi is believed to have evolved into Abahatta around the 6th century, which competed with the ancestor of Bengali for some time. Proto-Bengali was the language of the Sena dynasty. During the medieval period, Middle Bengali was characterized by the elision of word-final অ ô, the spread of compound verbs and Arabic and Persian influences. Bengali was an official court language of the Sultanate of Bengal. Muslim rulers promoted the literary development of Bengali.
Bengali became the most spoken vernacular language in the Sultanate. This period saw borrowing of Perso-Arabic terms into Bengali vocabulary. Major texts of Middle Bengali include Chandidas' Shreekrishna Kirtana; the modern literary form of Bengali was developed during the 19th and early 20th centuries based on the dialect spoken in the Nadia region, a west-central Bengali dialect. Bengali presents a strong case of diglossia, with the literary and standard form differing from the colloquial speech of the regions that identify with the language; the modern Bengali vocabulary contains the vocabulary base from Magadhi Prakrit and Pali tatsamas and reborrowings from Sanskrit and other major borrowings from Persian, Austroasiatic languages and other languages in contact with. During this period, the চলিতভাষা Chôlitôbhasha form of Bengali using simplified inflections and other changes, was emerging from সাধুভাষা Sadhubhasha as the form of choice for written Bengali. In 1948 the Government of Pakistan tried to impose Urdu as the sole state language in Pakistan, starting the Bengali language movement.
The Bengali Language Movement was a popular ethno-linguistic movement in the former East Bengal
Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent and Zimbabwe. It evolved from the Dutch vernacular of South Holland spoken by the Dutch settlers of what is now South Africa, where it began to develop distinguishing characteristics in the course of the 18th century. Hence, it is a daughter language of Dutch, was referred to as "Cape Dutch" or "kitchen Dutch". However, it is variously described as a creole or as a creolised language; the term is derived from Dutch Afrikaans-Hollands meaning "African Dutch". Although Afrikaans has adopted words from other languages, including German and the Khoisan languages, an estimated 90 to 95% of the vocabulary of Afrikaans is of Dutch origin. Therefore, differences with Dutch lie in the more analytic-type morphology and grammar of Afrikaans, a spelling that expresses Afrikaans pronunciation rather than standard Dutch. There is a large degree of mutual intelligibility between the two languages—especially in written form.
With about 7 million native speakers in South Africa, or 13.5% of the population, it is the third-most-spoken language in the country. It has the widest geographical and racial distribution of all the 11 official languages of South Africa, is spoken and understood as a second or third language, it is the majority language of the western half of South Africa—the provinces of the Northern Cape and Western Cape—and the first language of 75.8% of Coloured South Africans, 60.8% of White South Africans. In addition, many native speakers of Bantu languages and English speak Afrikaans as a second language, it is taught with about 10.3 million second-language students. One reason for the expansion of Afrikaans is its development in the public realm: it is used in newspapers, radio programs, TV, several translations of the Bible have been published since the first one was completed in 1933. In neighbouring Namibia, Afrikaans is spoken as a second language and used as a lingua franca, while as a native language it is spoken in 10.4% of households concentrated in the capital Windhoek, Walvis Bay and the southern regions of Hardap and ǁKaras.
It, along with German, was among the official languages of Namibia until the country became independent in 1990, 25% of the population of Windhoek spoke Afrikaans at home. Both Afrikaans and German are recognised regional languages in Namibia, although only English has official status within the government. Estimates of the total number of Afrikaans speakers range between 23 million; the term is derived from the Dutch term Afrikaans-Hollands meaning "African Dutch". An estimated 90 to 95% of the Afrikaans lexicon is of Dutch origin, there are few lexical differences between the two languages. Afrikaans has a more regular morphology and spelling. There is a degree of mutual intelligibility between the two languages in written form. Afrikaans acquired some lexical and syntactical borrowings from other languages such as Malay, Khoisan languages and Bantu languages, Afrikaans has been influenced by South African English. Dutch speakers are confronted with fewer non-cognates when listening to Afrikaans than the other way round.
Mutual intelligibility thus tends to be asymmetrical, as it is easier for Dutch speakers to understand Afrikaans than for Afrikaans speakers to understand Dutch. In general, mutual intelligibility between Dutch and Afrikaans is better than between Dutch and Frisian or between Danish and Swedish; the South African poet writer Breyten Breytenbach, attempting to visualize the language distance for anglophones once remarked that the differences between Dutch and Afrikaans are comparable to those between the Received Pronunciation and Southern American English. The Afrikaans language arose in the Dutch Cape Colony, through a gradual divergence from European Dutch dialects, during the course of the 18th century; as early as the mid-18th century and as as the mid-20th century, Afrikaans was known in standard Dutch as a "kitchen language", lacking the prestige accorded, for example by the educational system in Africa, to languages spoken outside Africa. Other early epithets setting apart Kaaps Hollands as putatively beneath official Dutch standards included geradbraakt and onbeschaafd Hollands, as well as verkeerd Nederlands.
Den Besten theorizes that modern Standard Afrikaans derives from two sources: Cape Dutch, a direct transplantation of European Dutch to southern Africa, and'Hottentot Dutch', a pidgin that descended from'Foreigner Talk' and from the Dutch pidgin spoken by slaves, via a hypothetical Dutch creole. Thus in his view Afrikaans is neither a creole nor a direct descendant of Dutch, but a fusion of two transmission pathways. A relative majority of the first settlers whose descendants today are the Afrikaners were from the United Provinces, though up to one-sixth of the community was of French Huguenot origin, a seventh from Germany. African and Asian workers and slaves contributed to the development of Afrikaans; the slave population was made up of people from East Africa, West Africa, India and the Dutch East Indies. A number were indigenous Khoisan people, who were valued as i