Nita Naldi was an American stage performer and silent film actress. She was cast in theatrical and screen productions as a vamp, a persona first popularized by actress Theda Bara. Nita Naldi was born in New York City to working class Irish parents and Patrick Dooley, in 1894. Known in her youth as Nonna, she was named in honor of her great aunt, Mary Nonna Dunphy, a nun who in 1879 had founded Academy of the Holy Angels in Fort Lee, New Jersey. In 1910, young Nonna herself attended the Catholic school, the same year her father “‘left the family’”, her mother’s death in 1915 required Nonna to care for her two younger siblings. To support them and herself she took several jobs, including work as an artist’s model and a cloak model, she soon entered vaudeville with her brother Frank, by 1918 she was performing as a chorus girl at the Winter Garden Theatre in The Passing Show of 1918. Her appearance in that Broadway production led to more stage jobs, soon Naldi found herself in the Ziegfeld Follies of 1918 and 1919.
It was at this time when Nonna Dooley changed her name to "Nita Naldi," which she adapted from the name of a childhood friend, Florence Rinaldi. Working under her new name, Naldi continued acting on Broadway. Naldi was asked to perform in a short film with Johnny Dooley, a Scottish comedian who, despite his last name, was unrelated to her, she soon quit the film, after realizing that Dooley had romantic intentions with another woman. Naldi was offered a role in A Divorce of Convenience with Owen Moore. Following those two films, she had small roles in several independent films before being cast as the exotic character Gina in Paramount Pictures’s 1920 release Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde starring John Barrymore. Barrymore himself recommended her for the role after he “spotted” her dancing at the Winter Garden, her noted performance in that film subsequently afforded Naldi more career opportunities. It established her long-term friendship with Barrymore, who affectionately nicknamed her his “Dumb Duse”.
Naldi was selected by Spanish author Vicente Blasco Ibáñez for the role of Doña Sol in film version of his novel and Sand. Naldi was signed by Famous Players-Lasky for the role, it became her first pairing with screen idol Rudolph Valentino. Naldi and Valentino were never romantic, she would be one of the few to befriend his wife Natacha Rambova though that friendship would sour when the Valentinos divorced. Naldi during this time posed for famous Peruvian artist Alberto Vargas, who painted her embracing a bust of a satyr. In Vargas’s original “pin-up” painting, Naldi is depicted topless, although copies of the portrait that were published and distributed in the 1920s, such as in the art and entertainment magazine Shadowland, were “modified” by the addition of clothing to cover her visible left breast. While Valentino went on his one-man strike, which prevented him from appearing on film, Naldi took on several Famous Players-Lasky roles with growing importance including The Ten Commandments, directed by Cecil B.
DeMille. When Valentino returned and fixed his contract woes, she joined him for his final Famous Players-Lasky film, the now lost A Sainted Devil. Naldi left the company soon after. In 1924 the Valentinos and Naldi traveled to France in order to do research for the film The Hooded Falcon, never made. Upon returning to California, the duo made Cobra; the film was not well received, Cobra became the last film in which Naldi and Valentino starred together. The Valentinos' marriage was ending around this time. After Valentino signed a contract with United Artists, he banned Rambova from the set, she was given her own film as a consolation. Naldi starred in Rambova's 1925 production What Price Beauty? The film suffered distribution problems, was noted at the time, but is noteworthy for being actress Myrna Loy's first screen appearance. After finishing the Dorothy Gish film Clothes Make the Pirate, Naldi left for France for a short vacation, where she married J. Searle Barclay during this time. Despite multiple rumors that she had retired, Naldi began work on several films, including Alfred Hitchcock's second directorial effort, 1926's The Mountain Eagle.
She is mistakenly credited for appearing in Hitchcock's The Pleasure Garden. Naldi made one in Italy before retiring. Despite having an acceptable voice, Naldi never made a “talkie”. Due to the financial reversals caused by her retirement from films, as well as the Depression, Naldi filed for bankruptcy in 1932, she went back to the stage with Queer People and The Firebird in 1933. The press had been critical of her weight since 1924, but reviews to her appearances in both plays were harsh this time around—so harsh in fact that Naldi filed suit against one paper in 1934 for $500,000; the suit was dismissed in 1938. In 1942, Naldi was considered for For Whom the Bell did not receive the part, she never made another film. That same year she began appearing in a revue in New York with Mae Murray reciting the 1897 poem "A Fool There Was" in full kitsch. In 1952, she had a notable role in the play In Any Language, co-starring the legendary stage actress Uta Hagen. In 1955, she coached Carol Channing. Channing would be nominated for a Tony award for Best Actress in a Musical for that role.
During the 1952 presidential election, she supported Adlai Stevenson in his campaign. In
The New Testament is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible. The New Testament discusses the teachings and person of Jesus, as well as events in first-century Christianity. Christians regard both the New Testaments together as sacred scripture; the New Testament has accompanied the spread of Christianity around the world. It serves as a source for Christian theology and morality. Extended readings and phrases directly from the New Testament are incorporated into the various Christian liturgies; the New Testament has influenced religious and political movements in Christendom and left an indelible mark on literature and music. The New Testament is a collection of Christian works written in the common Greek language of the 1st century AD, at different times by various writers, the modern consensus is that it provides important evidence regarding Judaism in the 1st century. In all Christian traditions today, the New Testament consists of 27 books: the four gospels, The Acts of the Apostles, twenty-one epistles, Revelation.
The united Catholic Church defined the 27-book canon. The earliest known complete list of the 27 books is by the 4th-century eastern Catholic bishop Athanasius; the first time that church councils approved this list was with the councils of Hippo and Carthage in North Africa and Pope Innocent I ratified the same canon in 405, but it is probable that a Council in Rome in 382 under pope Damasus gave the same list first. These councils provided the canon of the Old Testament, which included the apocryphal books; the original texts were written in the first century of the Christian Era, in Greek, the common language of the Eastern Mediterranean from the conquests of Alexander the Great until the Muslim conquests in the 7th century AD. All the works that became incorporated into the New Testament are believed to have been written no than around 120 AD. John A. T. Robinson, Dan Wallace, William F. Albright dated all the books of the New Testament before 70 AD. Others give a final date of 80 AD or of 96 AD.
Collections of related texts such as letters of the Apostle Paul and the Canonical Gospels of Matthew, Mark and John were joined to other collections and single works in different combinations to form various Christian canons of Scripture. Over time, some disputed books, such as the Book of Revelation and the Minor Catholic Epistles were introduced into canons in which they were absent. Other works earlier held to be Scripture, such as 1 Clement, the Shepherd of Hermas, the Diatessaron, were excluded from the New Testament; the Old Testament canon is not uniform among all major Christian groups including Roman Catholics, the Greek Orthodox Church, the Slavic Orthodox Churches, the Armenian Orthodox Church. However, the twenty-seven-book canon of the New Testament, at least since Late Antiquity, has been universally recognized within Christianity; the phrase new testament, or new covenant first occurs in Jeremiah 31:31. The same Greek phrase for'new covenant' is found elsewhere in the New Testament.
In early Bible translations into Latin, the phrase was rendered foedus,'federation', in Jeremiah 31:31, was rendered testamentum in Hebrews 8:8 and other instances, from which comes the English term New Testament. Modern English, like Latin, distinguishes testament and covenant as alternative translations, the treatment of the term Διαθήκη diathḗkē varies in Bible translations into English. John Wycliffe's 1395 version is a translation of the Latin Vulgate and so follows different terms in Jeremiah and Hebrews: Lo! Days shall come, saith the Lord, I shall make a new covenant with the house of Israel, with the house of Judah. For he reproving him saith, Lo! Days come, saith the Lord, when I shall establish a new testament on the house of Israel, on the house of Judah. Use of the term New Testament to describe a collection of first and second-century Christian Greek scriptures can be traced back to Tertullian. In Against Marcion, written c. 208 AD, he writes of: the Divine Word, doubly edged with the two testaments of the law and the gospel.
And Tertullian continues in the book, writing: it is certain that the whole aim at which he has strenuously laboured in the drawing up of his Antitheses, centres in this, that he may establish a diversity between the Old and the New Testaments, so that his own Christ may be separate from the Creator, as belonging to this rival god, as alien from the law and the prophets. By the 4th century, the existence—even if not the exact contents—of both an Old and New Testament had been established. Lactantius, a 3rd–4th century Christian author wrote in his early-4th-century Latin Institutiones Divinae: But all scripture is divided into two Testaments; that which preceded the advent and passion of Christ—that is, the law and the prophets—is called the Old.
The East River is a salt water tidal estuary in New York City. The waterway, not a river despite its name, connects Upper New York Bay on its south end to Long Island Sound on its north end, it separates the borough of Queens on Long Island from the Bronx on the North American mainland, divides Manhattan from Queens and Brooklyn, which are on Long Island. Because of its connection to Long Island Sound, it was once known as the Sound River; the tidal strait changes its direction of flow and is subject to strong fluctuations in its current, which are accentuated by its narrowness and variety of depths. The waterway is navigable for its entire length of 16 miles, was the center of maritime activities in the city, although, no longer the case. Technically a drowned valley, like the other waterways around New York City, the strait was formed 11,000 years ago at the end of the Wisconsin glaciation; the distinct change in the shape of the strait between the lower and upper portions is evidence of this glacial activity.
The upper portion, running perpendicular to the glacial motion, is wide and has deep narrow bays on both banks, scoured out by the glacier's movement. The lower portion runs north-south, parallel to the glacial motion, it is much narrower, with straight banks. The bays that exist, as well as those that used to exist before being filled in by human activity, are wide and shallow; the section known as "Hell Gate" – from the Dutch name Hellegat or "passage to hell" given to the entire river in 1614 by explorer Adriaen Block when he passed through it in his ship Tyger – is a narrow and treacherous stretch of the river. Tides from the Long Island Sound, New York Harbor and the Harlem River meet there, making it difficult to navigate because of the number of rocky islets which once dotted it, with names such as "Frying Pan", "Pot and Cheese", "Hen and Chicken", "Nigger Head", "Heel Top"; the stretch widened. Washington Irving wrote of Hell Gate that the current sounded "like a bull bellowing for more drink" at half tide, whilte at full tide it slept "as soundly as an alderman after dinner."
He said it was like "a peaceable fellow enough when he has no liquor at all, or when he has a skinful, but who, when half-seas over, plays the devil." The tidal regime is complex, with the two major tides – from the Long Island Sound and from the Atlantic Ocean – separated by about two hours. The river is navigable for its entire length of 16 miles. In 1939 it was reported that the stretch from The Battery to the former Brooklyn Navy Yard near Wallabout Bay, a run of about 1,000 yards, was 40 feet deep, the long section from there, running to the west of Roosevelt Island, through Hell Gate and to Throg's Neck was at least 35 feet deep, eastward from there the river was, at mean low tide, 168 feet deep; the broadness of the river's channel south of Roosevelt Island is caused by the dipping of the hardy Fordham gneiss which underlies the island under the less strong Inwood marble which lies under the river bed. Why the river turns to the east as it approaches the three lower Manhattan bridges is geologically unknown.
In the stretch of the river between Manhattan Island and the borough of Queens, lies Roosevelt Island, a narrow 2-mile long island consisting of 147 acres. Politically part of Manhattan, it begins at around the level of East 46th Street of that borough and runs up to around East 86th Street. Called Blackwell's Island and Welfare Island, now named after President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, it was the site of a penitentiary, a number of hospitals, but now consists of apartment buildings, park land, the ruins of older buildings, it is connected to Queens by the Roosevelt Island Bridge, to Manhattan by the Roosevelt Island Tramway, to both by a subway station. The Queensboro Bridge runs across Roosevelt Island, but no longer has a passenger elevator connection to it, as it did in the past; the abrupt termination of the island on its north end is due to an extension of the 125th Street Fault. Other islands in the river are U Thant Island – Belmont Island – south of Roosevelt Island, named after U Thant, the former Secretary-General of the United Nations.
The Bronx River drains into the East River in the northern section of the strait, the Flushing River known as "Flushing Creek" empties into it near LaGuardia Airport via Flushing Bay. North of Randalls Island, it is joined by the Bronx Kill. Along the east of Wards Island, at the strait's midpoint, it narrows into a channel called Hell Gate, spanned by both the Robert F. Kennedy Bridge (formerly the Triborough
In Christianity, an archbishop is a bishop of higher rank or office. In some cases, such as the Lutheran Church of Sweden and the Church of England, the title is borne by the leader of the denomination. Like popes, metropolitans, cardinal bishops, diocesan bishops, suffragan bishops, archbishops are in the highest of the three traditional orders of bishops and deacons. An archbishop may be granted the title or ordained as chief pastor of a metropolitan see or another episcopal see to which the title of archbishop is attached. Episcopal sees are arranged in groups in which one see's bishop has certain powers and duties of oversight over the others, he is known as the metropolitan archbishop of. In the Catholic Church, canon 436 of the Code of Canon Law indicates what these powers and duties are for a Latin Church metropolitan archbishop, while those of the head of an autonomous Eastern Catholic Churches are indicated in canon 157 of the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches; as well as the much more numerous metropolitan sees, there are 77 Roman Catholic sees that have archiepiscopal rank.
In some cases, such a see is the only one in a country, such as Luxembourg or Monaco, too small to be divided into several dioceses so as to form an ecclesiastical province. In others, the title of archdiocese is for historical reasons attributed to a see, once of greater importance; some of these archdioceses are suffragans of a metropolitan archdiocese. Others are subject to the Holy See and not to any metropolitan archdiocese; these are "aggregated" to an ecclesiastical province. An example is the Archdiocese of Hobart in Australia, associated with the Metropolitan ecclesiastical province of Melbourne, but not part of it; the ordinary of such an archdiocese is an archbishop. Until 1970, a coadjutor archbishop, one who has special faculties and the right to succeed to the leadership of a see on the death or resignation of the incumbent, was assigned to a titular see, which he held until the moment of succession. Since the title of Coadjutor Archbishop of the see is considered sufficient and more appropriate.
The rank of archbishop is conferred on some bishops. They hold the rank not because of the see that they head but because it has been granted to them personally; such a grant can be given when someone who holds the rank of archbishop is transferred to a see that, though its present-day importance may be greater than the person's former see, is not archiepiscopal. The bishop transferred is known as the Archbishop-Bishop of his new see. An example is Gianfranco Gardin, appointed Archbishop-Bishop of Treviso on 21 December 2009; the title borne by the successor of such an archbishop-bishop is that of Bishop of the see, unless he is granted the personal title of Archbishop. The distinction between metropolitan sees and non-metropolitan archiepiscopal sees exists for titular sees as well as for residential ones; the Annuario Pontificio marks titular sees of the former class with the abbreviation Metr. and the others with Arciv. Many of the titular sees to which nuncios and heads of departments of the Roman Curia who are not cardinals are assigned are not of archiepiscopal rank.
In that case the person, appointed to such a position is given the personal title of archbishop. They are referred to as Archbishop of the see, not as its Archbishop-Bishop. If an archbishop resigns his see without being transferred to another, as in the case of retirement or assignment to head a department of the Roman Curia, the word emeritus is added to his former title, he is called Archbishop Emeritus of his former see; until 1970, such archbishops were transferred to a titular see. There can be several Archbishops Emeriti of the same see: The 2008 Annuario Pontificio listed three living Archbishops Emeriti of Taipei. There is no Archbishop Emeritus of a titular see: An archbishop who holds a titular see keeps it until death or until transferred to another see. In the Anglican Communion, retired archbishops formally revert to being addressed as "bishop" and styled "The Right Reverend", although they may be appointed "archbishop emeritus" by their province on retirement, in which case they retain the title "archbishop" and the style "The Most Reverend", as a right.
Archbishop Desmond Tutu is a prominent example, as Archbishop Emeritus of Cape Town. Former archbishops who have not received the status of archbishop emeritus may still be informally addressed as "archbishop" as a courtesy, unless they are subsequently appointed to a bishopric, in which case, the courtesy ceases. While there is no difference between the official dress of archbishops, as such, that of other bishops, Roman Catholic metropolitan archbishops are distinguished by the use in liturgical ceremonies of the pallium, but only within the province over which they have oversight. Roman Catholic bishops and archbishops are styled "The Most Reverend" and addressed as "Your Excellency" in most cases. In English-speaking countries, a Catholic archbishop is addressed as "Your Grace", while a Catholic bishop is addressed as "Your Lordship". Before December 12, 1930, the title "Most Reverend" was only for archbishops, while bishops were styled as "Right Reverend"; this practice is still followed by Catholic bishops in the United Kingdom to mirror that of
Jesus referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader. He is the central figure of Christianity, is described as the most influential person in history. Most Christians believe he is the incarnation of God the Son and the awaited Messiah prophesied in the Old Testament. All modern scholars of antiquity agree that Jesus existed although the quest for the historical Jesus has produced little agreement on the historical reliability of the Gospels and on how the Jesus portrayed in the Bible reflects the historical Jesus. Jesus was a Galilean Jew, baptized by John the Baptist and began his own ministry, he preached orally and was referred to as "rabbi". Jesus debated with fellow Jews on how to best follow God, engaged in healings, taught in parables and gathered followers, he was arrested and tried by the Jewish authorities, turned over to the Roman government, crucified on the order of Pontius Pilate, the Roman prefect. After his death, his followers believed he rose from the dead, the community they formed became the early Church.
The birth of Jesus is celebrated annually on December 25th as Christmas. His crucifixion is honored on his resurrection on Easter; the used calendar era "AD", from the Latin anno Domini, the equivalent alternative "CE", are based on the approximate birthdate of Jesus. Christian doctrines include the beliefs that Jesus was conceived by the Holy Spirit, was born of a virgin named Mary, performed miracles, founded the Christian Church, died by crucifixion as a sacrifice to achieve atonement for sin, rose from the dead, ascended into Heaven, from where he will return. Most Christians believe; the Nicene Creed asserts that Jesus will judge the living and the dead either before or after their bodily resurrection, an event tied to the Second Coming of Jesus in Christian eschatology. The great majority of Christians worship Jesus as the incarnation of God the Son, the second of three persons of the Trinity. A minority of Christian denominations reject Trinitarianism, wholly or as non-scriptural. Jesus figures in non-Christian religions and new religious movements.
In Islam, Jesus is considered one of the Messiah. Muslims believe Jesus was a bringer of scripture and was born of a virgin, but was not the son of God; the Quran states. Most Muslims do not believe that he was crucified, but that he was physically raised into Heaven by God. In contrast, Judaism rejects the belief that Jesus was the awaited Messiah, arguing that he did not fulfill Messianic prophecies, was neither divine nor resurrected. A typical Jew in Jesus' time had only one name, sometimes followed by the phrase "son of <father's name>", or the individual's hometown. Thus, in the New Testament, Jesus is referred to as "Jesus of Nazareth". Jesus' neighbors in Nazareth refer to him as "the carpenter, the son of Mary and brother of James and Joses and Judas and Simon", "the carpenter's son", or "Joseph's son". In John, the disciple Philip refers to him as "Jesus son of Joseph from Nazareth"; the name Jesus is derived from the Latin Iesus, a transliteration of the Greek Ἰησοῦς. The Greek form is a rendering of the Hebrew ישוע, a variant of the earlier name יהושע, or in English, "Joshua", meaning "Yah saves".
This was the name of Moses' successor and of a Jewish high priest. The name Yeshua appears to have been in use in Judea at the time of the birth of Jesus; the 1st-century works of historian Flavius Josephus, who wrote in Koine Greek, the same language as that of the New Testament, refer to at least twenty different people with the name Jesus. The etymology of Jesus' name in the context of the New Testament is given as "Yahweh is salvation". Since early Christianity, Christians have referred to Jesus as "Jesus Christ"; the word Christ was a office, not a given name. It derives from the Greek Χριστός, a translation of the Hebrew mashiakh meaning "anointed", is transliterated into English as "Messiah". In biblical Judaism, sacred oil was used to anoint certain exceptionally holy people and objects as part of their religious investiture. Christians of the time designated Jesus as "the Christ" because they believed him to be the Messiah, whose arrival is prophesied in the Hebrew Bible and Old Testament.
In postbiblical usage, Christ became viewed as a name—one part of "Jesus Christ". The term "Christian" has been in use since the 1st century; the four canonical gospels are the foremost sources for the message of Jesus. However, other parts of the New Testament include references to key episodes in his life, such as the Last Supper in 1 Corinthians 11:23. Acts of the Apostles refers to the early ministry of its anticipation by John the Baptist. Acts 1:1 -- 11 says more about the Ascension of Jesus. In the undisputed Pauline letters, which were written earlier than the gospels, the words or instructions of Jesus are cited several times; some early Christian groups had separate descriptions of the life and teachings of Jesus that are not included in the New Testament. These include the Gospel of Thomas, Gospel
Manhattan referred to locally as the City, is the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City and its economic and administrative center, cultural identifier, historical birthplace. The borough is coextensive with New York County, one of the original counties of the U. S. state of New York. The borough consists of Manhattan Island, bounded by the Hudson and Harlem rivers. S. mainland, physically connected to the Bronx and separated from the rest of Manhattan by the Harlem River. Manhattan Island is divided into three informally bounded components, each aligned with the borough's long axis: Lower and Upper Manhattan. Manhattan has been described as the cultural, financial and entertainment capital of the world, the borough hosts the United Nations Headquarters. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York City has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, Manhattan is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization: the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ.
Many multinational media conglomerates are based in Manhattan, the borough has been the setting for numerous books and television shows. Manhattan real estate has since become among the most expensive in the world, with the value of Manhattan Island, including real estate, estimated to exceed US$3 trillion in 2013. Manhattan traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan. Manhattan is documented to have been purchased by Dutch colonists from Native Americans in 1626 for 60 guilders, which equals $1038 in current terms; the territory and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York, based in present-day Manhattan, served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790; the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a world symbol of the United States and its ideals of liberty and peace.
Manhattan became a borough during the consolidation of New York City in 1898. New York County is the United States' second-smallest county by land area, is the most densely populated U. S. county. It is one of the most densely populated areas in the world, with a census-estimated 2017 population of 1,664,727 living in a land area of 22.83 square miles, or 72,918 residents per square mile, higher than the density of any individual U. S. city. On business days, the influx of commuters increases this number to over 3.9 million, or more than 170,000 people per square mile. Manhattan has the third-largest population of New York City's five boroughs, after Brooklyn and Queens, is the smallest borough in terms of land area. Manhattan Island is informally divided into three areas, each aligned with its long axis: Lower and Upper Manhattan. Many districts and landmarks in Manhattan are well known, as New York City received a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017, Manhattan hosts three of the world's 10 most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Grand Central Terminal.
The borough hosts many prominent bridges, such as the Brooklyn Bridge. Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, the Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village, part of the Stonewall National Monument, is considered the birthplace of the modern gay rights movement; the City of New York was founded at the southern tip of Manhattan, the borough houses New York City Hall, the seat of the city's government. Numerous colleges and universities are located in Manhattan, including Columbia University, New York University, Cornell Tech, Weill Cornell Medical College, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the world; the name Manhattan derives from the Munsee dialect of the Lenape language'manaháhtaan'. The Lenape word has been translated as "the place where we get bows" or "place for gathering the bows". According to a Munsee tradition recorded in the 19th century, the island was named so for a grove of hickory trees at the lower end, considered ideal for the making of bows.
It was first recorded in writing as Manna-hata, in the 1609 logbook of Robert Juet, an officer on Henry Hudson's yacht Halve Maen. A 1610 map depicts the name as Manna-hata, twice, on both the west and east sides of the Mauritius River. Alternative folk etymologies include "island of many hills", "the island where we all became intoxicated" and "island", as well as a phrase descriptive of the whirlpool at Hell Gate; the area, now Manhattan was long inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans. In 1524, Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano – sailing in service of King Francis I of France – became the first documented European to visit the area that would become New York City, he entered the tidal strait now known as The Narrows and named the land around Upper New York
The Godfather is a 1972 American crime film directed by Francis Ford Coppola and produced by Albert S. Ruddy, based on Mario Puzo's best-selling novel of the same name, it stars Marlon Al Pacino as the leaders of a fictional New York crime family. The story, spanning 1945 to 1955, chronicles the family under the patriarch Vito Corleone, focusing on the transformation of Michael Corleone from reluctant family outsider to ruthless mafia boss. Paramount Pictures obtained the rights to the novel for the price of $80,000, before it gained popularity. Studio executives had trouble finding a director, they and Coppola disagreed over who would play several characters, in particular and Michael. Filming took place on location around New York and in Sicily, was completed ahead of schedule; the musical score was principally composed with additional pieces by Carmine Coppola. The film was the highest-grossing film of 1972 and was for a time the highest-grossing film made, it won the Oscars for Best Actor and Best Adapted Screenplay.
Its seven other Oscar nominations included Pacino, James Caan, Robert Duvall, Coppola for Best Director. The Godfather is regarded as one of the greatest films in world cinema and one of the most influential in the gangster genre, it was selected for preservation in the U. S. National Film Registry of the Library of Congress in 1990, being deemed "culturally or aesthetically significant" and is ranked the second-greatest film in American cinema by the American Film Institute, it was followed by sequels The Godfather Part II and The Godfather Part III. In 1945, at his daughter Connie's wedding to Carlo Rizzi, Don Vito Corleone hears requests in his role as head of a New York crime family, his youngest son, a Marine during World War II, introduces his girlfriend, Kay Adams, to his family at the reception. Johnny Fontane, a famous singer and Vito's godson, seeks Vito's help in securing a movie role. Woltz refuses. Shortly before Christmas, drug baron Virgil "The Turk" Sollozzo, backed by the Tattaglia crime family, asks Vito for investment in his narcotics business and protection through his political connections.
Wary of involvement in a dangerous new trade that risks alienating political insiders, Vito declines. Suspicious, Vito sends Luca Brasi, to spy on them. Brasi is garroted during his first meeting with Bruno Sollozzo. Sollozzo has Vito gunned down in the street kidnaps Hagen. With Corleone first-born Sonny in command, Sollozzo pressures Hagen to persuade Sonny to accept Sollozzo's deal releases him; the family receives fish wrapped in Brasi's bullet-proof vest, indicating that Luca "sleeps with the fishes." Vito survives, at the hospital Michael thwarts another attempt on his father. Sonny retaliates with a hit on Bruno Tattaglia. Michael plots to murder Sollozzo and McCluskey: on the deception of settling the dispute, Michael meets them in a Bronx restaurant. There, retrieving a planted handgun, he kills both men. Despite a clampdown by the authorities, the Five Families erupt in open warfare and Vito fears for his sons' safety. Michael takes refuge in Fredo is sheltered by Moe Greene in Las Vegas.
Sonny attacks Carlo on the street for abusing Connie, threatens to kill him if it happens again. When it does, Sonny speeds to their home, but is ambushed at a highway toll booth and riddled with submachine gun fire. While in Sicily, Michael meets and marries Apollonia Vitelli, but a car bomb intended for him takes her life. Devastated by Sonny's death and realizing that the Tattaglias are controlled by the now-dominant Don Emilio Barzini, Vito attempts to end the feud, he assures the Five Families that he will withdraw his opposition to their heroin business and forgo avenging Sonny's murder. His safety guaranteed, Michael returns home to enter the family business and marry Kay, promising her that the business will be legitimate within five years. Kay gives birth to two children by the early 1950s, with his father at the end of his career and his brother too weak, Michael takes the family reins, he insists Hagen relocate to Las Vegas and relinquish his role to Vito because Tom is not a "wartime consigliere".
Michael travels to Las Vegas to buy out Greene's stake in the family's casinos. Michael is dismayed to see. In 1955, Vito suffers a fatal heart attack. At the funeral, Tessio, a Corleone capo, asks Michael to meet with Don Barzini, signalling the betrayal that Vito had forewarned; the meeting is set for the same day as the baptism of Connie's baby. While Michael stands at the altar as the child's godfather, Corleone assassins murder the other New York dons and Moe Greene. Tessio is executed for his treachery and Michael extracts Carlo's confession to his complicity in setting up Sonny's murder for Barzini. A Corleone capo, garrotes Carlo with a wire. Connie accuses Michael of the murder. Kay is relieved when Michael denies it, but when the capos arrive, they address her husband as Don Corleone and she watches as they close the door on her; the Corleone FamilyMarlon Brando as Vito Corleone patriarch of the family, born Vito Andolini in Sicil