Private schools known to many as independent schools, non-governmental funded, or non-state schools, are not administered by local, state or national governments. Children who attend private schools may be there because they are dissatisfied with public schools in their area, they may be selected for their academic prowess, or prowess in other fields, or sometimes their religious background. Private schools retain the right to select their students and are funded in whole or in part by charging their students for tuition, rather than relying on mandatory taxation through public funding; some private schools are associated with a particular religion, such as Judaism, Roman Catholicism, or Lutheranism. For the past century one in 10 U. S families has chosen to enroll their children in private school. In the United Kingdom and several other Commonwealth countries including Australia and Canada, the use of the term is restricted to primary and secondary educational levels. Private education in North America covers the whole gamut of educational activity, ranging from pre-school to tertiary level institutions.
Annual tuition fees at K-12 schools range from nothing at so called'tuition-free' schools to more than $45,000 at several New England preparatory schools. The secondary level includes schools offering years 7 through 12 and year 13; this category includes university-preparatory schools or "prep schools", boarding schools and day schools. Tuition at private secondary schools varies from school to school and depends on many factors, including the location of the school, the willingness of parents to pay, peer tuitions and the school's financial endowment. High tuition, schools claim, is used to pay higher salaries for the best teachers and used to provide enriched learning environments, including a low student-to-teacher ratio, small class sizes and services, such as libraries, science laboratories and computers; some private schools are boarding schools and many military academies are owned or operated as well. Religiously affiliated and denominational schools form a subcategory of private schools.
Some such schools teach religious education, together with the usual academic subjects to impress their particular faith's beliefs and traditions in the students who attend. Others use the denomination as more of a general label to describe on what the founders based their belief, while still maintaining a fine distinction between academics and religion, they include parochial schools, a term, used to denote Roman Catholic schools. Other religious groups represented in the K–12 private education sector include Protestants, Jews and the Orthodox Christians. Many educational alternatives, such as independent schools, are privately financed. Private schools avoid some state regulations, although in the name of educational quality, most comply with regulations relating to the educational content of classes. Religious private schools simply add religious instruction to the courses provided by local public schools. Special assistance schools aim to improve the lives of their students by providing services tailored to specific needs of individual students.
Such schools include tutoring schools to assist the learning of handicapped children. Private schools are one of three types of school in Australia, the other two being government schools and religious. Whilst private schools are sometimes considered "public" schools, the term "public school" is synonymous with a government school. Private schools in Australia may be favored for many reasons: prestige and the social status of the "old school tie"; some schools offer the removal of the purported distractions of co-education. Student uniforms for Australian private schools are stricter and more formal than in government schools – for example, a compulsory blazer. Private schools in Australia are always more expensive than their public counterpartsThere are two main categories of private schools in Australia: Catholic schools and Independent schools. Catholic schools form the second largest sector after government schools, with around 21% of secondary enrollments. Most Australian Catholic schools belong to a system, like government schools, are co-educational and attempt to provide Catholic education evenly across the states.
These schools are known as "systemic". Systemic Catholic schools are funded by state and federal government and have low fees. Catholic schools, both systemic and independent have a strong religious focus, most of their staff and students will be Catholic. Independent schools make up the last sector and are the most popular form of schooling for boarding students. Independent schools are non-government institutions that are not part of a system. Although most are non-aligned, some of the best known independent schools belong to the large, long-established religious foundations, such as the Anglican Church, Uniting Church and Pres
Kansas City jazz
Kansas City jazz is a style of jazz that developed in Kansas City, Missouri during the 1920s and 1930s, which marked the transition from the structured big band style to the musical improvisation style of Bebop. The hard-swinging, bluesy transition style is bracketed by Count Basie who in 1929 signed with the Bennie Moten's Kansas City Orchestra and Kansas City native Charlie Parker who ushered in the Bebop style in America. "While New Orleans was the birthplace of jazz, America's music grew up in Kansas City". Kansas City is known as one of the most popular "cradles of jazz". Other cities include New Orleans, Chicago, St. Louis, Pittsburgh and New York City. Kansas City was known for the organized musicians of the Local 627 A. F. M. which controlled a number of venues in the city. The first band from Kansas City to acquire a national reputation was the Coon-Sanders Original Nighthawk Orchestra, a white group which broadcast nationally in the 1920s. However, the Kansas City jazz school is identified with the black bands of the 1920s and 1930s, including bands led by Bennie Moten, Andy Kirk, Harlan Leonard, George E. Lee, William "Count" Basie, Jay McShann.
Kansas City in the 1930s was much the crossroads of the United States resulting in a mix of cultures. Transcontinental trips at the time whether by plane or train required a stop in the city; the era marked the zenith of power of political boss Tom Pendergast. Kansas City was a wide open town with liquor laws and hours ignored and was called the new Storyville. Most of the jazz musicians associated with the style were born in other places but got caught up in the friendly musical competitions among performers that could keep a single song being performed in variations for an entire night. Members of the big bands would perform at regular venues earlier in the evening and go to the jazz clubs to jam for the rest of the night. Jay McShann told the Associated Press in 2003: "You'd hear some cat play, somebody would say'This cat, he sounds like he is from Kansas City.' It was Kansas City Style. They knew it on the East Coast, they knew it on the West Coast. They knew it up North and they knew it down South."
Claude "Fiddler" Williams described the scene: Kansas City was different from all other places because we'd be jamming all night. And you come up here... playing the wrong thing, we'd straighten you out. Clubs were scattered throughout city but the most fertile area was the inner city neighborhood of 18th Street and Vine. Among the clubs were the Amos'n' Andy, Boulevard Lounge, Cherry Blossom, Chesterfield Club, Chocolate Bar, Dante's Inferno, Elk's Rest, Hawaiian Gardens, Hell's Kitchen, the Hi Hat, the Hey Hay Club, Lone Star, Old Kentucky Bar-B-Que, Paseo Ballroom, Pla-Mor Ballroom, Reno Club, Spinning Wheel, Street's Blue Room and Sunsetx. Kansas City jazz is distinguished by the following musical elements: A preference for a 4 feel over the 2 beat feel found in other jazz styles of the time; as a result, Kansas city jazz had a more relaxed, fluid sound than other jazz styles. Extended soloing. Fueled by the non-stop nightlife under political boss Tom Pendergast, Kansas City jam sessions went on well past sunrise, fostering a competitive atmosphere and a unique jazz culture in which the goal was to "say something" with one's instrument, rather than show off one's technique.
It was not uncommon for one "song" to be performed for several hours, with the best musicians soloing for dozens of choruses at a time. So-called "head arrangements"; the KC big bands played by memory and arranging the music collectively, rather than sight-reading as other big bands of the time did. This further contributed to the spontaneous Kansas City sound. A heavy blues influence, with KC songs based around a 12-bar blues structure, rather than the 32 bar AABA standard, although Moten Swing is in this AABA format. One of the most recognizable characteristics of Kansas City jazz is frequent, elaborate riffing by the different sections. Riffs were created - or improvised - collectively, took many forms: a) one section riffing alone, serving as the main focus of the music; the Count Basie signature tunes "One O'Clock Jump" and "Jumpin' at the Woodside", for example, are collections of complex riffs, memorized in a head arrangement, punctuated with solos. Glenn Miller's famous swing anthem "In the Mood" follows the Kansas City pattern of riffing sections, is a good example of the Kansas City style after it had been exported to the rest of the world.
Kansas City influence overtly transferred to the national scene in 1936 when record producer John H. Hammond cemented his career by discovering Kansas City talent, in the shape of Count Basie. Pendergast was to be convicted of income tax evasion in 1940 and the city cracked down on the clubs ending the era. Beginning in the 1970s Kansas City has attempted to celebrate the heritage by taking off the rough edges for family friendly environments. In the 1970s, the city tried to create a jazz enclave in the River Quay area on the Missouri River in the City Market neighborhood. Three of the clubs were bombed during a mob war that also led to the demise of mob influence of Las Vegas casinos, depicted in the 1995 movie Casino. In 1979, Bruce Ricker filmed The Last of the Blue Devils, a documentary starring Basie and singer Big Joe Turner, featuring many performers from the original era. In 1981 114 people died in the Hyatt Regency walkway collapse in an attempted recreation of the jazz scene during a tea dance.
In 1996 Kansas City native Robert Altman re
Architecture of Kansas City
The architecture of Kansas City and the metro area includes major works by many of the world's most distinguished architects and firms, including McKim and White. The city was founded in the 1850s at the confluence of the Missouri and Kaw rivers and grew with the expansion of the railroads and meatpacking industry. Prominent citizens settled in the Quality Hill neighborhood and commissioned fine homes in Italianate Renaissance Revival style, which continued to be the major influence for new structures past the turn-of-the century. George Kessler's urban plan for Kansas City with its expansive park and boulevard system, inspired by the City Beautiful Movement, made a profound and lasting impact on the city; the core of the downtown area developed in an early 20th-century building boom that continued into the Great Depression. The city has several buildings that place it among cities with the ten best examples of art deco architecture in the United States. Municipal Auditorium, the Kansas City Power and Light Building, Jackson County Courthouse have been called "three of the nation's Art Deco treasures."
J. C. Nichols, a prominent developer of commercial and residential real estate developed the Country Club Plaza, was active in the promotion of lasting architectural landmarks such as Liberty Memorial, Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art. A second period of building growth occurred from the 1960s through the 1980s. During this time, Kansas City, Missouri gained much of its modern skyline, including One Kansas City Place, the tallest building in Missouri at 623 feet. Suburban growth spread into Kansas with new homes and mid-rise office buildings. After a period of significant decline, downtown Kansas City has been revived by several major new works of architectural design. Sprint Center arena, the Power & Light District entertainment development, the Block Building addition to the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, H&R Block World Headquarters, 2555 Grand, Charles Evans Whittaker Federal Courthouse, Kemper Museum of Contemporary Art, American Century Towers, Bartle Hall Convention Center expansion, the Stowers Institute for Medical Research are among the most prominent and recognizable.
The first skyscraper/highrise in Kansas City was the New York Life Insurance Building, completed in 1890. It stands twelve floors tall at a height of 180 feet and was the first local building with elevators. After the New York Life Building was completed, Kansas City followed the national trend of constructing a plethora of buildings above ten stories. Within fifty years of the building's construction, over fifty buildings over ten floors were built in and around downtown. Louis Curtiss, among Kansas City's most innovative architects, designed the Boley Clothing Company Building, renowned as "one of the first glass curtain wall structures in the world." The six-story building features cantilever floor slabs, cast iron structural detailing, terra cotta decorative elements. Kansas City underwent an early skyscraper boom between 1920 and 1940. During this time, notable skyscrapers such as the Power and Light Building, Oak Tower, City Hall, the Jackson County Court House, the Bryant Building, the Fidelity National Bank building were constructed.
Today, many of these buildings are being renovated for various uses, from residential lofts to office spaces. Oak Tower was once a building filled with gothic architecture. In an effort to modernize the then-40-year-old building in the 1970s, Southwestern Bell tore down and placed cladding over its gargoyles. Frank Lloyd Wright designed three buildings that stand in the Kansas City area: the Frank Bott Residence, the Clarence Sondern House, Community Christian Church; this Frank Lloyd Wright building sits across from the Country Club Plaza's main shopping district, located on Main at East 46th Street. In April 1940, Community Christian Church came to Wright and asked him to design a new building for them after a fire had destroyed their last church. Wright based his design on a parallelogram including some features conceived for his last building for Johnson Wax Company, along with one additional unique feature: a spire of light. Due to high building costs, the scale of the church was reduced during construction.
The auditorium was cut back from a planned 1,200 seats to 900 seats, many details were eliminated, the building was sheathed in gunite, a form of lightweight concrete, over Wright's objections. The spire of light could not be built and illuminated due to technical limitations of the times. However, the church was served the congregation well. In 1994, the Spire of Light was completed as planned; the components are housed on the church roof inside of a perforated dome on the building's northwestern corner. The spire is created by four 16" xenon bulbs ignited by 40,000 volts of electricity in combination with a parabolic reflector, produces 300 million candela of illumination in a near perfect column; the spire can be seen for miles around Kansas City, can be spotted 10 miles north of the Plaza, depending on conditions. It has been calculated to stop at least 3 miles up above the earth, about half the maximum height at which jet airplanes fly; the spire of light is lit regularly
Economy of Kansas City
The economy of the Kansas City Metropolitan Area is anchored by Kansas City, the largest city in the state and the 37th largest in the United States. The Kansas City Metropolitan Area is the 27th largest in the United States, based on the United States Census Bureau's 2004 population estimates; the Kansas City area's economy is large and important in its region. It is the third largest beef-producing city in the US, is home to the second largest rail network; the area houses many factories, manufacturing plants, an official international trade zone, more foreign trade zone space than anywhere else in the nation. Kansas City is home to a number of large national and international companies, including: American Century Investments, mutual fund manager and broker Barts Electric, electrical contractor specializing in commercial and government installations Bernstein-Rein, nationally recognized advertising firm Black & Veatch Corporation Burns & McDonnell Engineering Bushnell Corporation, manufacturer of outdoor products specializing in optics and imaging Cerner Corporation Commerce Bancshares, large bank operating in Kansas and Illinois Crayola, a division of Hallmark Dairy Farmers of America Embarq Corporation, large telecommunications company based in Overland Park.
In the wider metropolitan area, the federal government, either directly or through contracts, employs 41,500 people. The combined annual payroll of these jobs is more than $3 billion; the largest federal agencies in the Kansas City area by number of permanent employees are: Department of Defense - 15,294 Department of Veterans Affairs - 2,740 Department of Treasury - 2,707 Social Security Administration - 1,708 Department of Agriculture - 1,451 Department of Homeland Security - 1,230 Department of Justice - 1,210 Department of Transportation - 1,048 General Services Administration - 883 Environmental Protection Agency - 540The U. S. Postal Service employs more than 6,000 in the Kansas City area. Postal jobs are counted separately from other federal jobs, because these positions are in the excepted service. Employees in these positions cannot earn competitive status or reinstatement rights for traditional federal employment. Kansas City has many business publications. Two of the most prominent are the Kansas City Business Journal, Ingram's Magazine.
Many of Kansas City's business scions frequently appear in the Independent, the local society magazine, KC Business Magazine. "The Role of Metro Areas in the U. S. Economy" - U. S. Conference of Mayors Economic Development Corporation of Kansas City
A chancellor is a leader of a college or university either the executive or ceremonial head of the university or of a university campus within a university system. In most Commonwealth and former Commonwealth nations, the chancellor is a ceremonial non-resident head of the university. In such institutions, the chief executive of a university is the vice-chancellor, who may carry an additional title, such as "president & vice-chancellor"; the chancellor may serve as chairman of the governing body. In many countries, the administrative and educational head of the university is known as the president, principal or rector. In the United States, the head of a university is most a university president. In U. S. university systems that have more than one affiliated university or campus, the executive head of a specific campus may have the title of chancellor and report to the overall system's president, or vice versa. In both Australia and New Zealand, a chancellor is the chairman of a university's governing body.
The chancellor is assisted by a deputy chancellor. The chancellor and deputy chancellor are drawn from the senior ranks of business or the judiciary; some universities have a visitor, senior to the chancellor. University disputes can be appealed from the governing board to the visitor, but nowadays, such appeals are prohibited by legislation, the position has only ceremonial functions; the vice-chancellor serves as the chief executive of the university. Macquarie University in Sydney is a noteworthy anomaly as it once had the unique position of Emeritus Deputy Chancellor, a post created for John Lincoln upon his retirement from his long-held post of deputy chancellor in 2000; the position was not an honorary title, as it retained for Lincoln a place in the University Council until his death in 2011. Canadian universities and British universities in Scotland have a titular chancellor similar to those in England and Wales, with day-to-day operations handled by a principal. In Scotland, for example, the chancellor of the University of Edinburgh is Anne, Princess Royal, whilst the current chancellor of the University of Aberdeen is Camilla, Duchess of Rothesay.
In Canada, the vice-chancellor carries the joint title of "president and vice-chancellor" or "rector and vice-chancellor." Scottish principals carry the title of "principal and vice-chancellor." In Scotland, the title and post of rector is reserved to the third ranked official of university governance. The position exists in common throughout the five ancient universities of Scotland with rectorships in existence at the universities of St Andrews, Aberdeen and Dundee, considered to have ancient status as a result of its early connections to the University of St Andrews; the position of Lord Rector was given legal standing by virtue of the Universities Act 1889. Rectors appoint a rector's assessor a deputy or stand-in, who may carry out their functions when they are absent from the university; the Rector chairs meetings of the university court, the governing body of the university, is elected by the matriculated student body at regular intervals. An exception exists at Edinburgh, where the Rector is elected by staff.
In Finland, if the university has a chancellor, he is the leading official in the university. The duties of the chancellor are to promote sciences and to look after the best interests of the university; as the rector of the university remains the de facto administrative leader and chief executive official, the role of the chancellor is more of a social and historical nature. However some administrative duties still belong to the chancellor's jurisdiction despite their arguably ceremonial nature. Examples of these include the appointment of new docents; the chancellor of University of Helsinki has the notable right to be present and to speak in the plenary meetings of the Council of State when matters regarding the university are discussed. Despite his role as the chancellor of only one university, he is regarded as the political representative of Finland's entire university institution when he exercises his rights in the Council of State. In the history of Finland the office of the chancellor dates all the way back to the Swedish Empire, the Russian Empire.
The chancellor's duty was to function as the official representative of the monarch in the autonomous university. The number of chancellors in Finnish universities has declined over the years, in vast majority of Finnish universities the highest official is the rector; the remaining universities with chancellors are University of Åbo Akademi University. In France, chancellor is one of the titles of the rector, a senior civil servant of the Ministry of Education serving as manager of a regional educational district. In his capacity as chancellor, the rector awards academic degrees to the university's gradua
Nondenominational Christianity consists of churches which distance themselves from the confessionalism or creedalism of other Christian communities by calling themselves nondenominational. The first non-denominational churches appeared in the United States in the course of the 20th century, in the form of independent churches, it experienced significant and continuous growth in the 21st century in the United States, where they represented the third Christian denomination in 2010. In Asia in Singapore and Malaysia, these churches are more numerous, since the 1990s; the first characteristic is that non-denominational churches are not affiliated with a denominational stream of evangelical movements, either by choice from their foundation or because they have detached themselves from their Christian denomination of origin in their history. This doesn’t prevent them from being a member of a church union. Non-denominational churches are recognizable from the evangelical movement though they are autonomous and have no other formal labels.
The movement is visible in the megachurches. The neo-charismatic churches use the term nondenominational to define themselves. Churches with a focus on seeker are more to identify themselves as non-denominational. Boston University religion scholar Stephen Prothero argues that nondenominationalism hides the fundamental theological and spiritual issues that drove the division of Christianity into denominations behind a veneer of "Christian unity", he argues that nondenominationalism encourages a descent of Christianity—and indeed, all religions—into comfortable "general moralism" rather than being a focus for facing the complexities of churchgoers' culture and spirituality. Prothero further argues that it encourages ignorance of the Scriptures, lowering the overall religious literacy while increasing the potential for inter-religious misunderstandings and conflict. Community Church movement Jesuism Local churches Non-church movement Non-denominational Muslim Non-denominational Judaism Postdenominationalism Sunday Christian Nondenominational Congregations Study
A university is an institution of higher education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines. Universities provide undergraduate education and postgraduate education; the word university is derived from the Latin universitas magistrorum et scholarium, which means "community of teachers and scholars". While antecedents had existed in Asia and Africa, the modern university system has roots in the European medieval university, created in Italy and evolved from cathedral schools for the clergy during the High Middle Ages; the original Latin word universitas refers in general to "a number of persons associated into one body, a society, community, corporation, etc". At the time of the emergence of urban town life and medieval guilds, specialized "associations of students and teachers with collective legal rights guaranteed by charters issued by princes, prelates, or the towns in which they were located" came to be denominated by this general term. Like other guilds, they were self-regulating and determined the qualifications of their members.
In modern usage the word has come to mean "An institution of higher education offering tuition in non-vocational subjects and having the power to confer degrees," with the earlier emphasis on its corporate organization considered as applying to Medieval universities. The original Latin word referred to degree-awarding institutions of learning in Western and Central Europe, where this form of legal organisation was prevalent, from where the institution spread around the world. An important idea in the definition of a university is the notion of academic freedom; the first documentary evidence of this comes from early in the life of the University of Bologna, which adopted an academic charter, the Constitutio Habita, in 1158 or 1155, which guaranteed the right of a traveling scholar to unhindered passage in the interests of education. Today this is claimed as the origin of "academic freedom"; this is now recognised internationally - on 18 September 1988, 430 university rectors signed the Magna Charta Universitatum, marking the 900th anniversary of Bologna's foundation.
The number of universities signing the Magna Charta Universitatum continues to grow, drawing from all parts of the world. According to Encyclopædia Britannica, the earliest universities were founded in Asia and Africa, predating the first European medieval universities; the University of Al Quaraouiyine, founded in Morocco by Fatima al-Fihri in 859, is considered by some to be the oldest degree-granting university. Their endowment by a prince or monarch and their role in training government officials made early Mediterranean universities similar to Islamic madrasas, although madrasas were smaller, individual teachers, rather than the madrasa itself, granted the license or degree. Scholars like Arnold H. Green and Hossein Nasr have argued that starting in the 10th century, some medieval Islamic madrasas became universities. However, scholars like George Makdisi, Toby Huff and Norman Daniel argue that the European university has no parallel in the medieval Islamic world. Several other scholars consider the university as uniquely European in origin and characteristics.
Darleen Pryds questions this view, pointing out that madaris and European universities in the Mediterranean region shared similar foundations by princely patrons and were intended to provide loyal administrators to further the rulers' agenda. Some scholars, including Makdisi, have argued that early medieval universities were influenced by the madrasas in Al-Andalus, the Emirate of Sicily, the Middle East during the Crusades. Norman Daniel, views this argument as overstated. Roy Lowe and Yoshihito Yasuhara have drawn on the well-documented influences of scholarship from the Islamic world on the universities of Western Europe to call for a reconsideration of the development of higher education, turning away from a concern with local institutional structures to a broader consideration within a global context; the university is regarded as a formal institution that has its origin in the Medieval Christian tradition. European higher education took place for hundreds of years in cathedral schools or monastic schools, in which monks and nuns taught classes.
The earliest universities were developed under the aegis of the Latin Church by papal bull as studia generalia and from cathedral schools. It is possible, that the development of cathedral schools into universities was quite rare, with the University of Paris being an exception, they were founded by Kings or municipal administrations. In the early medieval period, most new universities were founded from pre-existing schools when these schools were deemed to have become sites of higher education. Many historians state that universities and cathedral schools were a continuation of the interest in learning promoted by The residence of a religious community. Pope Gregory VII was critical in promoting and regulating the concept of modern university as his 1079 Papal Decree ordered the regulated establishment of cathedral schools that transformed themselves into the first European universities; the first universities in Europe with a form of corporate/guild structure were the University of Bologna, the University of Paris, the University of Oxford.
The University of Bologna began as a law school teach