Gozo Channel Line
The Gozo Channel Company Limited known as Gozo Channel Line or the Gozo ferry, is a Maltese company founded in 1979 that operates ferry services between the islands of Malta and Gozo using Roll-on/roll-off ferries. Crossings happen throughout the day all-year round including weekends, public holidays, night services; the company's ferry services are the main connection between the two islands and it is used by millions of Gozitans and tourists every year. It operates three identical ferries, all of which were built between March 2000 and March 2002. In addition to the normal services of foot passengers and car passengers, Gozo Channel offers services for cargo vehicles and hazardous cargo. A ferry service connecting the islands of Malta and Gozo has existed for centuries, with records indicating that dgħajjes tal-latini were used as ferries as early as 1241 from the harbour of Mġarr. Dgħajjes tal-latini known as Gozo boats, remained in use until after the Second World War. A few survive to this day, such as the Maryanne operated by Captain Morgan Cruises, although this does not have any masts.
Despite this, the first regular passenger service between the islands was only inaugurated on 13 June 1885, when O. F. Gollcher & Sons Ltd provided an official mail service using the vessel Gleneagles. By the end of the 19th century G. P. Sammut & Co and Francesco Pace were offering ferry services; these three companies had stopped operating services by 1923, when the Malta Steamship Co Ltd took over with two vessels. In the late 1920s and 1930s Bernard Zammit and the Joseph Gasan, Giovanni Dacoutros & Grech Family started their own ferry services. More companies were formed after the war, including Joseph Gasan, the Magro Family, the Magro & Zammit Families and the Malta Aliscafi Ltd. At some points there was only one company operating services in the Gozo Channel while at other times there were more at the same time. E. Zammit & Sons Ltd was formed in 1966, by 1970 it was the only company offering ferry services across the Gozo Channel, it operated four vessels until Gozo Channel Company Limited was formed in 1979.
The following ships were used as ferries from Malta to Gozo between 1885 and 1978: Gozo Channel Company Limited was formed to operate ferry services in 1979. The four ships of E. Zammit & Sons Ltd were taken over by the new company, two more vessels were purchased in the year; the MV Għawdex began operating services to Sicily from 1981 onwards, but these stopped in 1995. Hovermarines or catamarans were used for express services between Malta and Gozo from 1988 to 2002. By 1990 the company was carrying 370,000 cars annually. By the mid-1990s a modernization program started and three brand new ships were built from 2000 to 2002. Mġarr ferry terminal was completely rebuilt from 2001 to 2008; the terminal at Ċirkewwa was rebuilt in the next few years and was completed in 2013. Notes
Gozo, known locally as Għawdex and in antiquity as Gaulos, is an island of the Maltese archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea. The island is part of Malta. After the island of Malta itself, it is the second-largest island in the archipelago. Compared to its southeastern neighbour, Gozo is more rural and known for its scenic hills, which are featured on its coat of arms; the island of Gozo has long been associated with Ogygia, the island home of the nymph Calypso in Homer's Odyssey. In that story, possessed of great supernatural powers, in love with Odysseus, holds him captive for a number of years, until releasing him to continue his journey home; as of March 2015, the island has a population of around 37,342, its inhabitants are known as Gozitans. It is rich in historic locations such as the Ġgantija temples, along with the other Megalithic Temples of Malta, are among the world's oldest free-standing structures; the island is rural in character and, compared to the main island Malta, less developed.
It was known for the Azure Window, a natural limestone arch, a remarkable geological feature, until its collapse in 2017. The island has other notable natural features, including Wied il-Mielaħ Window. There are many beaches on the island, as well as seaside resorts that are popular with both locals and tourists, the most popular being Marsalforn and Xlendi. Gozo is considered one of the top diving destinations in the Mediterranean and a centre for water sports. Gozo has been inhabited since 5000 BC, when farmers from nearby Sicily crossed the sea to the island. Due to the discovery of similar pottery found in both places from the Għar Dalam phase, it has been suggested that the first colonists were from the area of Agrigento, they are thought to have first lived in caves on the outskirts of. Gozo was an important place for cultural evolution, during the neolithic period the Ġgantija temples were built; the temple's name is Maltese for "belonging to the giants", because legend in Maltese and Gozitan folklore says the temples were built by giants.
Another important Maltese archaeological site in Gozo, which dates back to the neolithic period, is the Xagħra Stone Circle. Native tradition and certain ancient Greek historians maintain that Gozo is the island Homer described as Ogygia, home of the nymph Calypso. Gozo was occupied by the Carthaginians, it was annexed by Rome around 218 BC and minted its own bronze coins in the 1st century BC. These feature Astarte's head with a crescent obverse and a warrior, a star, the legend Gaulitōn reverse. In July 1551 Ottomans under Sinan Pasha and Dragut invaded and ravaged Gozo and enslaved most of its inhabitants, about 5,000, bringing them to Tarhuna Wa Msalata in Libya, their departure port in Gozo was Mġarr ix-Xini; the island of Gozo was repopulated between 1565 and 1580 by people from mainland Malta, undertaken by the Knights of Malta. The history of Gozo is coupled with the history of Malta, since Gozo has been governed by Malta throughout history, with the brief exception of a short period of autonomy following the uprising against the French forces after Napoleon's conquest of Malta, between 28 October 1798 and 20 August 1801.
The Gozo Civic Council was set up as a statutory local government in the island of Gozo on 14 April 1961, the first experiment in civil local government in Malta since the French occupation of 1798–1800. The law authorised the Council to raise taxes, although it never made use of this power. In 1971 the Malta Labour Party was voted into office; as its support in Gozo was weak and it favoured a more centralised administration it proposed a referendum on the abolition of the Council putting emphasis on the unpopular possibility of it raising taxes. In the Gozo Civic Council referendum, 1973, the overwhelming majority of voters voted for the abolition of the Gozo Civic Council. In the mid-1980s attempts were made to set up a Gozo committee, chaired by the Prime Minister and with the Gozitan Members of Parliament as members. However, it was only in 1987. Local government in the Gozitan localities was restored with the introduction of Local councils in 1993 with Gozo having 14 councils; the island has its own Latin bishopric, the Roman Catholic Diocese of Gozo, the only suffragan of the Metropolitan Archbishop of Malta.
Gozo contains a large number of Catholic churches. The Rotunda of Xewkija, in the village of Xewkija, has a capacity of 3,000, enough for the entire population of Xewkija village; the church bells are rung daily for the canonical hours Matins, Terce, Sext and vespers. The most famous church on the island is the sanctuary of Ta' Pinu, near the village of Għarb, in the west of Gozo. In the past, there were various options for reaching the island. A helicopter service which connected the two ceased operations in 2006. Visitors can reach the island by ferry. There are regular crossings between the port of Mġarr on Gozo and Ċirkewwa on the north-west coast of Malta; the Gozo Channel Line makes the trip every 45 minutes during the summer and as in the winter. A return journey takes around 25 minutes each way; the service is used by tourists and comm
Ulysses is a modernist novel by Irish writer James Joyce. It was first serialised in parts in the American journal The Little Review from March 1918 to December 1920 and published in its entirety in Paris by Sylvia Beach on 2 February 1922, Joyce's 40th birthday, it is considered to be one of the most important works of modernist literature and has been called "a demonstration and summation of the entire movement." According to Declan Kiberd, "Before Joyce, no writer of fiction had so foregrounded the process of thinking". Ulysses chronicles the peripatetic appointments and encounters of Leopold Bloom in Dublin in the course of an ordinary day, 16 June 1904. Ulysses is the Latinised name of Odysseus, the hero of Homer's epic poem the Odyssey, the novel establishes a series of parallels between the poem and the novel, with structural correspondences between the characters and experiences of Leopold Bloom and Odysseus, Molly Bloom and Penelope, Stephen Dedalus and Telemachus, in addition to events and themes of the early 20th-century context of modernism and Ireland's relationship to Britain.
The novel is allusive and imitates the styles of different periods of English literature. Since its publication, the book has attracted controversy and scrutiny, ranging from an obscenity trial in the United States in 1921, to protracted textual "Joyce Wars"; the novel's stream-of-consciousness technique, careful structuring, experimental prose—replete with puns and allusions—as well as its rich characterisation and broad humour, have led it to be regarded as one of the greatest literary works in history. Joyce first encountered the figure of Odysseus/Ulysses in Charles Lamb's Adventures of Ulysses, an adaptation of the Odyssey for children, which seems to have established the Latin name in Joyce's mind. At school he wrote an essay on the character, entitled "My Favourite Hero". Joyce told Frank Budgen, he thought about calling his short-story collection Dubliners by the name Ulysses in Dublin, but the idea grew from a story written in 1906 to a "short book" in 1907, to the vast novel that he began in 1914.
Leopold Bloom's home at 7 Eccles Street - Episode 4, Episode 17, Episode 18, Penelope Post office, Westland Row - Episode 5, Lotus Eaters. Sweny’s pharmacy, Lombard Street, Lincoln Place. Episode 5, Lotus Eaters the Freeman's Journal, Prince's Street, off of O'Connell Street Episode 7, Aeolus And - not far away - Graham Lemon's candy shop, 49 Lower O'Connell Street, it starts Episode 8, Lestrygonians Davy Byrne's pub - Episode 8, Lestrygonians National Library of Ireland - Episode 9, Scylla and Charybdis Ormond Hotel - on the banks of the Liffey - Episode 11, Sirens Barney Kiernan's pub, Episode 12, Cyclops Maternity hospital, Episode 14, Oxen of the Sun Bella Cohen's brothel. Episode 15, Circe Cabman’s shelter, Butt Bridge. - Episode 16, EumaeusThe action of the novel takes place from one side of Dublin Bay to the other, opening in Sandycove to the South of the city and closing on Howth Head to the North. Ulysses is divided into the three books, 18 episodes; the episodes do not have chapter headings or titles, are numbered only in Gabler's edition.
In the various editions the breaks between episodes are indicated in different ways. At first glance, much of the book may appear chaotic; the two schemata which Stuart Gilbert and Herbert Gorman released after publication to help defend Joyce from the obscenity accusations made the links to The Odyssey clearer, helped explain the work's internal structure. Joyce divides Ulysses into 18 episodes that "roughly correspond to the episodes in Homer's Odyssey". Homer's Odyssey is divided into 24 books, it has been suggested by scholars that every episode of Ulysses has a theme and correspondence between its characters and those of the Odyssey. The text of the published novel does not include the episode titles that are used below, nor the correspondences, which originate from explanatory outlines Joyce sent to friends, known as the Linati and Gilbert schemata. Joyce referred to the episodes by their Homeric titles in his letters, he took the idiosyncratic rendering of some of the titles, e.g. "Nausikaa" and the "Telemachiad" from Victor Bérard's two-volume Les Phéniciens et l'Odyssée which he consulted in 1918 in the Zentralbibliothek Zürich.
While the action of Joyce's novel takes place during one ordinary day in early twentieth-century Dublin, Ireland, in Homer's epic, Odysseus, "a Greek hero of the Trojan War... took ten years to find his way from Troy to his home on the island of Ithaca". Furthermore, Homer's poem includes violent storms and a shipwreck and monsters, gods and goddesses, a different world from Joyce's. Joyce's character Leopold Bloom, "a Jewish advertisement canvasser", corresponds to Odysseus in Homer's epic, it is 8 a.m. Buck Mulligan, a boisterous medical student, calls Stephen Dedalus up to the roof of the Sandycove Martello tower where they both live. There is tension between Stephen and M
Calypso is a genus of orchids containing one species, Calypso bulbosa, known as the calypso orchid, fairy slipper or Venus's slipper. It is a perennial member of the orchid family found in undisturbed montane forests, it has a small pink, pinkish-purple, or red flower accented with a white lip, darker purple spottings, yellow beard. The genus Calypso takes its name from the Greek signifying concealment, as they tend to favor sheltered areas on conifer forest floors; the specific epithet, refers to the bulb-like corms. Calypso orchids are 10 to 14 cm in height, their bright pink blooms can be a pleasant sporadic sight on hiking trails from late March onwards, though in the more northerly parts of their range they do not bloom until May and June. The plants live no more than five years; this species' range is circumpolar, includes California, the Rocky Mountain states and most of the most northerly states of the United States. Although the calypso orchid's distribution is wide, it is susceptible to disturbance, is therefore classified as threatened or endangered in several U. S. states and in Sweden and Finland.
It does not transplant well owing to its mycorrhizal dependence on specific soil fungi. The corms have been used as a food source by North American native peoples; the Thompson River Indians of British Columbia used it as a treatment for mild epilepsy. At least near Banff, the calypso orchid is pollinated by bumble bees, it relies on "pollination by deception", as it attracts insects to anther-like yellow hairs at the entrance to the pouch and forked nectary-like structures at the end of the pouch but produces no nectar that would nourish them. Insects learn not to revisit it. Avoiding such recognition may account for some of the small variation in the flower's appearance. Four natural varieties and one nothovariety are recognized: Calypso bulbosa var. americana Luer - most of Canada and northern United States Calypso bulbosa var. bulbosa - Sweden, Baltic States, much of Russia, Korea Calypso bulbosa nothovar. Kostiukiae Catling - Alberta Calypso bulbosa var. occidentalis Cockerell - from Alaska and British Columbia south through the Cascades and Sierra Nevada to California Calypso bulbosa var. speciosa Makino - Japan, China Media related to Calypso Orchid at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Calypso Orchid at Wikispecies Map of distribution Jepson Manual treatment of the species Wild orchid of Japan
The self-contained amphibious underwater Calypso 35mm film camera was conceived by the marine explorer Jacques Cousteau, designed by Jean de Wouters and manufactured by Atoms in France. It was distributed by La Spirotechnique in Paris from 1960; the camera operates down to 200 feet / 60 metres below sea level. The Calypso was sometimes advertised as the “CALYPSO-PHOT”. Nikon took over production and sold it from 1963 as the Nikonos, which subsequently became a well-known series of underwater cameras; the Calypso is suitable for water and air environment photography. It consists of two black enameled cast alloy body parts, they are locked together when the interchangeable lens is mounted on the camera, sealed by Vaseline greased O-rings to form a watertight unit. At the top, the Calypso has a built-in optical viewfinder for the 35mm standard lens, an accessory shoe on the top for separate viewfinders to suit various purposes; the body is covered in a grey sealskin imitation. Two carrying strap attachments doubles as opening levers to be hooked under the top protrusions either side and forced downwards to lift the top out when no lens is mounted on the camera.
The most unusual feature is the combined shutter release lever. It is operated by the index finger. In the stowed-away position, the shutter is cocked and the film wound on ready for the next picture. A small rocking lever in front of the accessory shoe serves as a shutter-release lock at this stage, it is disengaged by sliding it to the left-hand side. Depressing the lever releases the shutter and it relocates to the 65 degrees standoff position. Depressing the lever again cocks the shutter and winds on the film. At the camera base is a special flash sync connector protected by coin-operated O-ring sealed aluminium plug, as well as an automatic resetting frame counter, visible behind a glass window. No tripod socket is provided. A small rewind knob at the left-hand top is extended for easy access and to engage the film transport mechanism. No rewind release facility is required; the original lenses are listed below. SOM Berthiot 1:3.3 f=28 SOM Berthiot 1:3.5 f=35 Angénieux 1:2.8 f=45mmThe standard SOM BERTHIOT 1:3.5 f=35 lens is used both underwater and above due to the optical flat protecting front glass, but the lens has no filter thread at the front.
Two large aluminium knobs either side of the lens provides aperture and focusing controls. The special Calypso lens mount; the spring action of the O-ring locks the lens in place by two pins engaging in corresponding slots in the periphery of the lens mount. The lens release is accomplished by a quarter turn either way. Inside, the film cassette engages the rewind fork at the top, it is held in place by a hinged retaining ring at the bottom; the film lead passes under the fixed black film-pressure plate on its way to the slotted large diameter take-up spool. The spool always rotates the same angular amount to advance the film without a sprocket wheel drive. Acceptable frame spacing is accomplished by the large diameter take-up spool that reduces the effect of increasing spool diameter as more film is wound onto it; the vertical running metal-plate focal-plane shutter of the original Calypso has speeds from 1/30 to 1/1000 second, but a year, changed to 1/15 to 1/500 second. The camera was early on advertised, sold as, the Calypso Phot.
In order to reach a larger market the design was sold to Nikon in Japan, in 1963 released as the Nikonos, subsequently becoming a long-lived series of underwater cameras, culminating with the introduction of the short-lived 35mm SLR Nikonos RS in 1992
The Ultracraft Calypso is a family of Belgian homebuilt aircraft designed and produced by Ultracraft of Heusden-Zolder, introduced in the 1990s. The aircraft is supplied as a kit for amateur construction; the Calypso line all feature a strut-braced high wing, fixed conventional landing gear with optional wheel pants and a single engine in tractor configuration. The single-seat Calypso 1 is made from a combination of wood and metal with its flying surfaces covered in doped aircraft fabric and a fibreglass cowling, its 8.84 m span wing is supported by "V" struts and jury struts. The cabin width is 61 cm; the acceptable power range is 40 to 65 hp and the standard engines used are the 40 hp Rotax 447 or the 50 hp Rotax 503 two-stroke powerplants. The Calypso 1A has a typical empty weight of 155 kg and a gross weight of 285 kg, giving a useful load of 130 kg. With full fuel of 40 litres the payload for the pilot and baggage is 103 kg; the standard day, sea level, no wind, takeoff with a 40 hp engine is 61 m and the landing roll is 46 m.
The manufacturer estimates the construction time for the Calypso 1A from the supplied kit to be 300 hours. By 1998 the company reported that 12 kits had been sold and five Calypso 1s were completed and flying. Calypso 1A Initial version, single-seat with 40 to 65 hp engine. Calypso 1B Single-seat version with Citroën Visa automotive conversion engine or 65 hp Rotax 582 two-stroke, liquid-cooled powerplant. Calypso 2A Two-seat version with a wingspan of 9.05 m and a wing area of 15 m2, powered by a 65 hp Rotax 582 aircraft engine or a BMW automotive conversion engine. The 2A was designed to comply with the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale microlight category, including the category's maximum gross weight of 450 kg; the aircraft has a maximum gross weight of 450 kg. Calypso 2B Two-seat version with a wingspan of 8.05 m and a wing area of 13.4 m2, powered by a 85 hp Jabiru 2200 aircraft engine or a BMW automotive conversion engine. The 2B was designed to comply with the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale microlight category, including the category's maximum gross weight of 450 kg.
The aircraft has a maximum gross weight of 450 kg. Data from UltracraftGeneral characteristics Crew: one Capacity: one passenger Length: 5.5 m Wingspan: 8.65 m Wing area: 11.6 m2 Empty weight: 155 kg Gross weight: 285 kg Fuel capacity: 40 litres Powerplant: 1 × Rotax 447 twin cylinder, air-cooled, two stroke aircraft engine, 30 kW Propellers: 2-bladed wooden, fixed pitchPerformance Cruise speed: 120 km/h Stall speed: 58 km/h Never exceed speed: 155 km/h g limits: +4/-2 Maximum glide ratio: 11:1 Rate of climb: 6 m/s Wing loading: 25 kg/m2 Official website
Calypso Deep, located in the Ionian Sea south-west of Pylos, Greece, is the deepest part of the Mediterranean Sea, with a maximum depth of 5,267 m, at 36°34′N 21°8′E. Extremes on Earth NESTOR Project