Kouroussa or Kurussa is a town located in northeastern Guinea, is the capital of Kouroussa Prefecture. As of 2014 it had a population of 39,611 people. A trade center and river port from at least the time of the Mali Empire, Kouroussa has long relied upon its position near the upstream limit of navigation of the Niger River to make it an important crossroads for people and goods moving between the Guinea coast and the states of the western Soudan and Niger River valley; the town and surrounding area is a center of Malinke culture, is known for its Djembe drumming tradition. Kouroussa represented the southern end of the Manden: the Mandé heartland of the Mali Empire. Kouroussa's position as a river port has made it a historic center for regional trade, much like its larger neighbor Kankan. Much of the Jallonke population of the area migrated from the west when the Fula people conquered the Fouta Djallon in the 13th - 16th centuries. With the collapse of the empire, southern Manden confederations and states continued to exist, including in the area around Kouroussa.
In the 17th century the Fama Da Monzon Diarra of the Bambara Empire made Kouroussa the southern reach of his state. By the 18th century the Fula Muslim Imamate of Futa Jallon led by the Alamay of Timbo provided pressure from the south and west, while the growing Kong state became powerful to the south and east; the Mandé state around Kouroussa, called in some periods Hamana and in others Koumara, continued as an important trade center and small regional power, squeezed between these forces. The first known European visitor to the town was the French explorer René Caillié, who passed through the area in June 1827 on his journey to Djenné and Timbuktu. In his book Travels through Central Africa to Timbuctoo published in 1830, he wrote: Courouassa is a neat village, surrounded by a mud wall, from ten to twelve feet high and from eight to ten inches thick, it contains between four and five hundred inhabitants.... The inhabitants are called Dhialonkés, are chiefly idolaters, they do not travel, but occupy themselves peaceably in the cultivation of their little fields, which are fertilised by the inundations of the river.
By the arrival of Europeans, Kouroussa was a major trade stop between the Niger River valley and the coast, with the so-called "Leprince" overland route running from the coast via Kindia and Kouroussa. In the late 19th century French forces appeared in the region just to the north, establishing bases at Kayes, Mali, Bafoulabé and at Bamako. Countering the French expansion was the Fula Jihad state of which exploded out of neighboring Dinguiray to conquer both the Mandé states surrounding Kouroussa to the northwest and the Bambara to the northeast. To the south, the Wassoulou conquest state of Samori Ture appeared, sending his well armed forces against Kouroussa, its neighbors, the French alike, while the Futa Jallon state raided the area periodically; the French officer Aimé Olivier, attempting to convince the Imamate of Futa Jallon to sign a protectorate, passed through Kouroussa in the 1880s, at the beginning of the 1890s, French military under Louis Archinard established garrison posts at Kankan and Kouroussa, commanded from a larger post just downstream at Siguiri.
In 1893-1894, Commandant Briquelot set up a post at Kouroussa, as it lay along the main line for French fighting with the forces of Samori to the south. From here French forces raided areas controlled by Samori launching raids from here into the British territory of Sierra Leone. By 1895 while fighting with Samori continued, the French had set up a school to train local workers to identify and prepare wild rubber for French industrial purposes. Kouroussa became a regional center of rubber requisitions, which peaked in the second decade of the 20th century. Kouroussa was administered as part of the Siguiri Cercle, which included Kankan; the French, after annexing the Futa Jallon in the 1890s, added the region to the colony of French Upper Guinea a part of French West Africa, until Guinea's independence in 1959. During the colonial period the town was made a main trans-shipment point for commodities coming from French Sudan due to the construction of the Guinea-Niger railway, which met the river at Kouroussa in 1910, from which rainy season ship transport could reach Bamako.
As well as a collection center for wild rubber, the French encouraged the collection gold sifted from streams and dug by local small scale mines. The French attempted to promote local farming of groundnuts and cotton. There remains a monument to René-Auguste Caillié in Kouroussa, erected by the French. In 2001, Kouroussa was one of several places, hard hit by flooding, became a center for thousands of internally displaced people from the surrounding area. In 2005, Kouroussa was rocked by major protests against the government aimed at Kouroussa Prefect Charles Andre Haba, accused of embezzling local mining revenue; the town was reported at the time to be a center of the opposition Rally of the Guinean People With an estimated population of just over 10,000, Kouroussa functions more as a services and transport center for the surrounding agricultural region than as a metropolitan center in its own right. The majority of the surrounding population comes from the Malinke and Djallonke ethnic groups, who speak related Mande languages and follow the Muslim religion.
Kouroussa and the surrounding region is the centre of the Hamana-Malinke Mande sub-group -- "Hamana" being the name for the region, while the Malinke are the major Mande speaking ethnic group of the upper Niger valley. There are sizable minority communities of Fula and Dyula, the lat
A blacksmith is a metalsmith who creates objects from wrought iron or steel by forging the metal, using tools to hammer and cut. Blacksmiths produce objects such as gates, railings, light fixtures, sculpture, agricultural implements and religious items, cooking utensils and weapons. While there are many people who work with metal such as farriers and armorers, the blacksmith had a general knowledge of how to make and repair many things, from the most complex of weapons and armor to simple things like nails or lengths of chain; the "black" in "blacksmith" refers to the black firescale, a layer of oxides that forms on the surface of the metal during heating. The origin of "smith" is debated, it may come from the old English word "smythe" meaning "to strike" or it may have originated from the Proto-German "smithaz" meaning "skilled worker." Blacksmiths work by heating pieces of wrought iron or steel until the metal becomes soft enough for shaping with hand tools, such as a hammer and chisel. Heating takes place in a forge fueled by propane, natural gas, charcoal, coke or oil.
Some modern blacksmiths may employ an oxyacetylene or similar blowtorch for more localized heating. Induction heating methods are gaining popularity among modern blacksmiths. Color is important for indicating the workability of the metal; as iron heats to higher temperatures, it first glows red orange and white. The ideal heat for most forging is the bright yellow-orange color; because they must be able to see the glowing color of the metal, some blacksmiths work in dim, low-light conditions, but most work in well-lit conditions. The key is to have consistent lighting, but not too bright. Direct sunlight obscures the colors; the techniques of smithing can be divided into forging, heat-treating, finishing. Forging—the process smiths use to shape metal by hammering—differs from machining in that forging does not remove material. Instead, the smith hammers the iron into shape. Punching and cutting operations by smiths re-arrange metal around the hole, rather than drilling it out as swarf. Forging uses seven basic operations or techniques: Drawing down Shrinking Bending Upsetting Swaging Punching Forge weldingThese operations require at least a hammer and anvil, but smiths use other tools and techniques to accommodate odd-sized or repetitive jobs.
Drawing lengthens the metal by reducing one or both of the other two dimensions. As the depth is reduced, or the width narrowed, the piece is lengthened or "drawn out." As an example of drawing, a smith making a chisel might flatten a square bar of steel, lengthening the metal, reducing its depth but keeping its width consistent. Drawing does not have to be uniform. A taper can result as in making a woodworking chisel blade. If tapered in two dimensions, a point results. Drawing can be accomplished with a variety of methods. Two typical methods using only hammer and anvil would be hammering on the anvil horn, hammering on the anvil face using the cross peen of a hammer. Another method for drawing is to use a tool called a fuller, or the peen of the hammer, to hasten the drawing out of a thick piece of metal. Fullering consists of hammering a series of indentations with corresponding ridges, perpendicular to the long section of the piece being drawn; the resulting effect looks somewhat like waves along the top of the piece.
The smith turns the hammer over to use the flat face to hammer the tops of the ridges down level with the bottoms of the indentations. This forces the metal to grow in length much faster than just hammering with the flat face of the hammer. Heating iron to a "forging heat" allows bending as if it were a soft, ductile metal, like copper or silver. Bending can be done with the hammer over the horn or edge of the anvil or by inserting a bending fork into the hardy hole, placing the work piece between the tines of the fork, bending the material to the desired angle. Bends can be dressed and tightened, or widened, by hammering them over the appropriately shaped part of the anvil; some metals are "hot short". They become like Plasticine: although they may still be manipulated by squeezing, an attempt to stretch them by bending or twisting, is to have them crack and break apart; this is a problem for some blade-making steels, which must be worked to avoid developing hidden cracks that would cause failure in the future.
Though hand-worked, titanium is notably hot short. Such common smithing processes as decoratively twisting a bar are impossible with it. Upsetting is the process of making metal thicker in one dimension through shortening in the other. One form is to heat the end of a rod and hammer on it as one would drive a nail: the rod gets shorter, the hot part widens. An alternative to hammering on the hot end is to place the hot end on the anvil and hammer on the cold end. Punching may be done to make a hole. For example, in preparation for making a hammerhead, a smith would punch a hole in a heavy bar or rod for the hammer handle. Punching is not limited to holes, it includes cutting and drifting—all done with a chisel. The five basic forging processes are combined to produce and refine the shapes necessary for finished products. For example, to fashion a cross-peen hammer head, a smith would start with a bar the diameter of the ham
African French is the generic name of the varieties of a French language spoken by an estimated 120 million people in Africa spread across 24 francophone countries. This includes those who speak French as a first or second language in these 31 francophone African countries, but it does not include French speakers living in non-francophone African countries. Africa is thus the continent with the most French speakers in the world. French arrived in Africa as a colonial language; these African French speakers are now a large part of the Francophonie. In Africa, French is spoken alongside indigenous languages, but in a number of urban areas it has become a first language, such as in the region of Abidjan, Ivory Coast, in the urban areas of Douala and Yaoundé in Cameroon, or in Libreville, Gabon. In some countries it is a first language among some classes of the population, such as in Tunisia, Morocco and Algeria where French is a first language among the upper classes, but only a second language among the general population.
In each of the francophone African countries, French is spoken with local specificities in terms of pronunciation and vocabulary. There are many different varieties of African French, but they can be broadly grouped into four categories: the French spoken by people in West and Central Africa – spoken altogether by about 75 million people as either a first or second language; the French variety spoken by Maghrebis and Berbers in Northwest Africa, which has about 36 million first and second language speakers. The French variety spoken in Djibouti in the Horn of Africa; the French variety spoken by Creoles in the Indian Ocean, which has around 1.6 million first and second language speakers. The French spoken in this region is not to be confused with the French-based creole languages, which are spoken in the area. All the African French varieties differ from standard French both in terms of pronunciation and vocabulary, but the formal African French used in education and legal documents is based on standard French vocabulary.
In the colonial period, a vernacular form of creole French known as Petit nègre was present in West Africa. The term has since, become a pejorative term for poorly spoken African French. V. Y. Mudimbe describes African French as possessing "approximate pronunciation, repressed syntax, bloated or tortured vocabulary, intonation and accent stuck in the original African language flow; the differences from European French are due to influence from the mother tongues and the complexity of French grammatical rules, which inhibit its learning by most non-native speakers. The difficulty linguists have in describing African French comes from variations, such as the "pure" language used by many African intellectuals and writers versus the mixtures between French and African languages. For this, the term "creolization" is used in a pejorative way, in the areas where French is on the same level with one or more local languages. According to G. Manessy, "The consequences of this concurrency may vary according to the social status of the speakers, to their occupations, to their degree of acculturation and thus to the level of their French knowledge."Code-switching, or the alternation of languages within a single conversation, takes place in both Senegal and Congo-Kinshasa, the latter having four "national" languages – Kikongo, Lingala and Swahili – which are in a permanent opposition to French.
Code-switching has been studied since colonial times by different institutions of linguistics. One of these, located in Dakar, Senegal spoke of the creolization of French in 1968, naming the result "franlof": a mix of French and Wolof which spreads by its use in urban areas and through schools, where teachers speak Wolof in the classroom despite official instructions; the omnipresence of local languages in francophone African countries – along with insufficiencies in education – has given birth to a new linguistic concept: le petit français. Le petit français is the result of a superposition of the structure of a local language with a narrowed lexical knowledge of French; the specific structures, though different, are juxtaposed, marking the beginning of the creolization process. In the urban areas of francophone Africa, another type of French has emerged: Français populaire africain or FPA, it is used in the entirety of sub-Saharan Africa, but in cities such as Abidjan, Ivory Coast. At its emergence, it was associated with the ghetto.
It has become a symbol of social acceptance. FPA can be seen as a progressive evolution of Ivorian French. After diffusing out of Ivory Coast, it became Africanized under the influence of young Africans and cinema and dance. FPA has lexicon. For example, "Il ou elle peut me tuer!" or "Il ou elle peut me dja!" can either mean "This person annoys me much" or "I'm dying for him/her" depending on the circumstances. "Il ou elle commence à me plaire" signifies a feeling of exasperation, friendship can be expressed with "c'est mon môgô sûr" or "
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website
Dakar is the capital and largest city of Senegal. It is located on the Cap-Vert peninsula on the Atlantic coast and is the westernmost city on the African mainland; the city of Dakar proper has a population of 1,030,594, whereas the population of the Dakar metropolitan area is estimated at 2.45 million. The area around Dakar was settled in the 15th century; the Portuguese established a presence on the island of Gorée off the coast of Cap-Vert and used it as a base for the Atlantic slave trade. France took over the island in 1677. Following the abolition of the slave trade and French annexation of the mainland area in the 19th century, Dakar grew into a major regional port and a major city of the French colonial empire. In 1902, Dakar replaced Saint-Louis as the capital of French West Africa. From 1959 to 1960, Dakar was the capital of the short-lived Mali Federation. In 1960, it became the capital of the independent Republic of Senegal. Dakar is home to multiple national and regional banks as well as numerous international organizations.
From 1978 to 2007, it was the traditional finishing point of the Dakar Rally. Dakar will host the 2022 Summer Youth Olympics, making it the first African city to host the Olympics; the Cap-Vert peninsula was settled no than the 15th century, by the Lebou people, an aquacultural ethnic group related to the neighboring Wolof and Serer. The original villages: Ouakam, Ngor and Hann, still constitute distinctively Lebou neighborhoods of the city today. In 1444, the Portuguese reached the Bay of Dakar as slave-raiders. Peaceful contact was opened in 1456 by Diogo Gomes, the bay was subsequently referred to as the "Angra de Bezeguiche"; the bay of "Bezeguiche" would go on to serve as a critical stop for the Portuguese India Armadas of the early 16th century, where large fleets would stop, both on their outward and return journeys from India, to repair, collect fresh water from the rivulets and wells along the Cap-Vert shore and trade for provisions with the local people for their remaining voyage. The Portuguese founded a settlement on the island of Gorée, which by 1536 they began to use as a base for slave exportation.
The mainland of Cap-Vert, was under control of the Jolof Empire, as part of the western province of Cayor which seceded from Jolof in its own right in 1549. A new Lebou village, called Ndakaaru, was established directly across from Gorée in the 17th century to service the European trading factory with food and drinking water. Gorée was captured by the United Netherlands in 1588; the island was to switch hands between the Portuguese and Dutch several more times before falling to the English under Admiral Robert Holmes on January 23, 1664, to the French in 1677. Though under continuous French administration since, métis families, descended from Dutch and French traders and African wives, dominated the slave trade; the infamous "House of Slaves" was built at Gorée in 1776. In 1795, the Lebou of Cape Verde revolted against Cayor rule. A new theocratic state, subsequently called the "Lebou Republic" by the French, was established under the leadership of the Diop, a Muslim clerical family from Koki in Cayor.
The capital of the republic was established at Ndakaaru. In 1857 the French established a military post at Ndakaaru and annexed the Lebou Republic, though its institutions continued to function nominally; the Serigne of Ndakaaru is still recognized as the traditional political authority of the Lebou by the Senegalese State today. The slave trade was abolished by France in February 1794. However, Napoleon reinstated it in May 1802 finally abolished it permanently in March 1815. Despite Napoleon's abolition, a clandestine slave trade continued at Gorée until 1848, when it was abolished throughout all French territories. To replace trade in slaves, the French promoted peanut cultivation on the mainland; as the peanut trade boomed, tiny Gorée Island, whose population had grown to 6,000 residents, proved ineffectual as a port. Traders from Gorée decided to move to the mainland and a "factory" with warehouses was established in Rufisque in 1840. Large public expenditure for infrastructure was allocated by the colonial authorities to Dakar's development.
The port facilities were improved with jetties, a telegraph line was established along the coast to Saint-Louis and the Dakar-Saint-Louis railway was completed in 1885, at which point the city became an important base for the conquest of the western Sudan. Gorée, including Dakar, was recognised as a French commune in 1872. Dakar itself was split off from Gorée as a separate commune in 1887; the citizens of the city elected their own mayor and municipal council and helped send an elected representative to the National Assembly in Paris. Dakar replaced Saint-Louis as the capital of French West Africa in 1902. A second major railroad, the Dakar-Niger built from 1906–1923, linked Dakar to Bamako and consolidated the city's position at the head of France's West African empire. In 1929, the commune of Gorée Island, now with only a few hundred inhabitants, was merged into Dakar. Urbanization during the colonial period was marked by forms of racial and social segregation—often expressed in terms of health and hygiene—which continue to structure the city today.
Following a plague epidemic in 1914, the authorities forced most of the African population out of old neighborhoods, o
Caste is a form of social stratification characterized by endogamy, hereditary transmission of a lifestyle which includes an occupation, status in a hierarchy, customary social interaction, exclusion. It is an extreme evolution of a system of legally-entrenched social classes endogamous and hereditary, such as that of feudal Europe. Although caste systems exist in various regions, its paradigmatic ethnographic example is the division of Indian society into rigid social groups, with roots in India's ancient history and persisting until today. In biology, the term is applied to role stratification in eusocial animals like ants and termites, though the analogy is imperfect as these involve stratified reproduction; the origins of the term'caste' are attributed to the Spanish and Portuguese casta, according to the John Minsheu's Spanish dictionary, means "race, lineage, or breed". When the Spanish colonized the New World, they used the word to mean a "clan or lineage", it was, the Portuguese who first employed casta in the primary modern sense of the English word ‘caste’ when they applied it to the thousands of endogamous, hereditary Indian social groups they encountered upon their arrival in India in 1498, as a direct extension of the concept of ‘casta’ in contemporary Portugal.
The use of the spelling "caste", with this latter meaning, is first attested in English in 1613. Modern India's caste system is based on the artificial superimposition of a four-fold theoretical classification called the Varna on the natural social groupings called the Jāti. From 1901 onwards, for the purposes of the Decennial Census, the British classified all Jātis into one or the other of the Varna categories as described in ancient texts. Herbert Hope Risley, the Census Commissioner, noted that "The principle suggested as a basis was that of classification by social precedence as recognized by native public opinion at the present day, manifesting itself in the facts that particular castes are supposed to be the modern representatives of one or other of the castes of the theoretical Indian system." The system of Varnas propounded in ancient Hindu texts envisages the society divided into four classes: Brahmins, Kshatriyas and Shudras. The texts do not mention any untouchable category in Varna classification.
Scholars believe that the Varnas system was never operational in society and there is no evidence of it being a reality in Indian history. The practical division of the society had always been in terms of Jātis, which are not based on any specific principle, but could vary from ethnic origins to occupations to geographic areas; the Jātis have been endogamous groups without any fixed hierarchy but subject to vague notions of rank articulated over time based on lifestyle and social, political or economic status. Many of India's major empires and dynasties like the Mauryas, Shalivahanas,Chalukyas,Kakatiyas among many others, were founded by people who would have been classified as Shudras, under the Varnas system, it is well established that by the 9th century, kings from all the four castes, including Brahmins and Vaishyas, had occupied the highest seat in the monarchical system in Hindu India, contrary to the Varna theory. In many instances, as in Bengal the kings and rulers had been called upon, when required, to mediate on the ranks of Jātis, which might number in thousands all over the subcontinent and vary by region.
In practice, the jātis may or may not fit into the Varna classes and many prominent Jatis, for example the Jats and Yadavs, straddled two Varnas i.e. Kshatriyas and Vaishyas, the Varna status of Jātis itself was subject to articulation over time. Starting with the British colonial Census of 1901 led by Herbert Hope Risley, all the jātis were grouped under the theoretical varnas categories. According to political scientist Lloyd Rudolph, Risley believed that varna, however ancient, could be applied to all the modern castes found in India, " meant to identify and place several hundred million Indians within it." In an effort to arrange various castes in order of precedence functional grouping was based less on the occupation that prevailed in each case in the present day than on that, traditional with it, or which gave rise to its differentiation from the rest of the community. "This action removed Indians from the progress of history and condemned them to an unchanging position and place in time.
In one sense, it is rather ironic that the British, who continually accused the Indian people of having a static society, should impose a construct that denied progress" The terms varna and jāti are two distinct concepts: while varna is the idealised four-part division envisaged by the Twice-Borns, jāti refers to the thousands of actual endogamous groups prevalent across the subcontinent. The classical authors scarcely speak of anything other than the varnas, as it provided a convenient shorthand. Thus, starting with the 1901 Census, Caste became India's essential institution, with an imprimatur from the British administrators, augmenting a discourse that had dominated Indology. “Despite India's acquisition of formal political independence, it has still not regained the power to know its own past and present apart from that discourse”. Upon independence from Britain, the Indian Constitution listed 1,108 castes across the country as Scheduled Castes in 1950, for positive