A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. It is a regularly occurring and official count of a particular population, the term is used mostly in connection with national population and housing censuses, other common censuses include agriculture and traffic censuses. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions, the word is of Latin origin, during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the level of detail but raise concerns about privacy. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population, typically main population estimates are updated by such intercensal estimates. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, and planning. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling, stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations.
In some countries, the census provides the official used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions. In many cases, a carefully chosen random sample can provide accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is often construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a frame to count the population. This is the way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known, the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is already known. However, a census is used to collect data on the individuals in the nation. This process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, which was a house to house process or the product of a decree. The sampling frame used by census is almost always an address register, thus it is not known if there is anyone resident or how many people there are in each household.
Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, a particular problem is what are termed communal establishments which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc
In general, a rural area or countryside is a geographic area that is located outside towns and cities. Whatever is not urban is considered rural, typical rural areas have a low population density and small settlements. Agricultural areas are rural, though so are others such as forests. Different countries have varying definitions of rural for statistical and administrative purposes, in Canada, the census division has been used to represent regions and census consolidated sub-divisions have been used to represent communities. Intermediate regions have 15 to 49 percent of their living in a rural community. Predominantly urban regions have less than 15 percent of their living in a rural community. Predominantly rural regions are classified as rural metro-adjacent, rural non-metro-adjacent and rural northern, following Ehrensaft, as well, rural northern regions encompass all of the Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut. Statistics Canada defines rural for their population counts and this definition has changed over time.
Typically, it has referred to the population living outside settlements of 1,000 or less inhabitants, the current definition states that census rural is the population outside settlements with fewer than 1,000 inhabitants and a population density below 400 people per square kilometre. 84% of the United States inhabitants live in suburban and urban areas, Rural areas occupy the remaining 90 percent. The U. S. Census Bureau, the USDAs Economic Research Service, an urbanized area consists of a central surrounding areas whose population is greater than 50,000. USDA The USDAs Office of Rural Development may define rural by various population thresholds, for example, a metropolitan county is one that contains an urbanized area, or one that has a twenty-five percent commuter rate to an urbanized area regardless of population. In 2014, the USDA updated their rural / non-rural area definitions based on the 2010 Census counts, Rural health definitions can be different for establishing under-served areas or health care accessibility in rural areas of the United States.
This became the Goldsmith Modification definition of rural, health care delivery in rural areas of the United States can be challenging. From 2005-2011, the rate of potentially preventable hospitalizations for acute conditions was highest in rural areas, in Brazil, theres different notions of rural area and countryside. Rural areas are any place outside an urban development and its carried by informal usage. Otherwise, countryside are officially defined as all municipalities outside the capitals metropolitan region. Some states as Mato Grosso do Sul doesnt have any metropolitan region, thus all of the state, Rio de Janeiro is singular in Brazil and its de facto a metropolitan state, as circa 70% of its population are located in Greater Rio
Senate of Chile
The Senate of the Republic of Chile is the upper house of Chiles bicameral National Congress, as established in the current Constitution of Chile. According to the present Constitution of Chile, the Senate is composed of thirty-eight directly elected senators and these serve eight-year terms, with half of them being replaced every fourth year. They must be eligible to vote, have completed school, or its equivalent. The Senate sessions at the new National Congress located in the city of Valparaíso that replaced the old National Congress located in downtown Santiago. Previously, according to the Constitution of 1980, designated or institutional senators were appointed to the chamber, two former heads of state, Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle and Augusto Pinochet, were installed as senators for life. Pinochet resigned from position and Frei lost his seat in the 2005 reform. However, Frei remained in the Senate by winning an elective seat, the Senate of Chile was created in 1812 to support the formulations of policies of the Government Junta.
Since it has undergone several constitutional reorganizations that have altered the scope of its powers, its composition. Created by Article 7 of the Provisional Constitutional Manual of 1812 and it was composed of seven titular members and three alternate members and was supposed to serve as a counterbalance to the executive power of the Government Junta. The senators were nominated by the provinces in agreement with the central government. It functioned from November,1812 to January,1814, when it was reorganized to better respond to the problems caused by the military defeats at the hands of the advancing Spanish Army. Created by Article 13 of the Provisional Government Manual of 1814, as its predecessor, it was composed of seven titular members nominated by the provinces in lists of three from which they were selected by the Supreme Director. It functioned from March to July,1814, when the Spanish Army captured Santiago, created by Title III of the Constitution of 1818. It was composed of five members and five alternate members selected directly by the Supreme Director.
Key to Senate classes by regions, Class 1 consists of, Class 2 consists of, -the 20 current senators whose seats expire in March 2022
Arica is a commune and a port city with a population of 196,590 in the Arica Province of northern Chiles Arica y Parinacota Region. It is Chiles northernmost city, being located only 18 km south of the border with Peru, the city is the capital of both the Arica Province and the Arica and Parinacota Region. Arica is located at the bend of South Americas western coast known as the Arica Bend or Arica Elbow, at the location of the city two lush valleys that dissect the Atacama Desert converge and Lluta. These valleys provides fruit for export, Arica is an important port for a large inland region of South America. The city serves a free port for Bolivia and manages a part of that countrys trade. In addition it is the end station of the Bolivian oil pipeline beginning in Oruro and its mild weather has made Arica known as the city of the eternal spring in Chile while its beaches are frequented by Bolivians. The city was an important port already during Spanish colonial rule, Chile seized the city from Peru in 1880 following the War of the Pacific and was recognized as Chilean by Peru in 1929.
A substantial part of African Chileans live in or trace their origins to Arica, archaeological findings indicate that Arica was inhabited by different native groups dating back 10,000 years. Spaniards settled the land under captain Lucas Martinez de Begazo in 1541, and in 1570, by 1545, Arica was the main export entrepot for Bolivian silver coming down from Potosí, which possessed the worlds largest silver mine. Arica thus held the role as one of the leading ports of the Spanish Empire. Following the collapse of Spanish rule, in 1821, Arica was part of the recently independent Peruvian Republic, the Peruvian Constitution of 1823 regards it as a province of the Department of Arequipa. In 1855, Peru inaugurated the Arica-Tacna railroad, one of the first in Latin America, the rail line still functions today. The earthquake of August 13,1868 struck near the city with a magnitude of 8.0 to 9.0. Others estimate that the population of Arica was less than 3,000 people and it triggered a tsunami, measurable across the Pacific in Hawaii and New Zealand.
As Arica lies very close to the zone known as the Peru–Chile Trench where the Nazca Plate dives beneath the South American Plate. Chilean forces occupied the following the War of the Pacific. The Treaty of Ancón in 1883 formally acceded to Chilean control, the 1929 Tacna-Arica compromise in the Treaty of Lima subsequently restored Tacna to Peru but Arica remained part of Chile. Many car manufacturers opened plants in Arica, such as Citroën, Volvo and General Motors, in 1975, together with Chiles new open economy policies, the Junta de Adelanto de Arica was abolished
Provinces of Chile
A province is the second largest administrative division in Chile with 54 in total. The largest administrative division in Chile is that of a region with 15 in total, each provincial government is headed by a governor appointed by the president. The governor exercises their powers in accordance with instructions from the regional intendant, the governor is advised by the Provincial Economic and Social Council. The only exception is the Santiago Province, which makes no provision for provincial government in its regulations, the countrys provinces are further divided into 346 communes which are administered by an alcalde and municipal council. Communes of Chile Regions of Chile Decreto Ley 2.868 Provinces of Chile
Putre is a Chilean town and commune, capital of the Parinacota Province in the Arica-Parinacota Region. It is located 130 km east of Arica, at an altitude of 3,500 m, the town is backdropped by Taapaca volcanic complex. Putre is on the edge of the Lauca National Park, and is popular with visitors to the National Park wishing to acclimatise to the altitude, there is a historical church in Putre. The commune includes the localities of Socoroma, Belén, Chapiquiña, Ancuta, Parinacota and Caquena. On March 6,2011, a 6.2 magnitude earthquake centered 110 km beneath Putre shook northern Chile and southern Peru, causing no injuries, according to the 2002 census of the National Statistics Institute, Putre had 1,977 inhabitants. Of these,1,235 lived in areas and 742 in rural areas. The population fell by 29. 5% between the 1992 and 2002 censuses, as a commune, Putre is a third-level administrative division of Chile administered by a municipal council, headed by a mayor alcalde who is directly elected every four years
Chamber of Deputies of Chile
The Honourable Chamber of Deputies of the Republic of Chile is the lower house of Chiles bicameral Congress. Its organisation and its powers and duties are defined in articles 42 to 59 of Chiles current constitution and it comprises 120 members called honorable deputies, who are elected to four-year terms, by direct universal suffrage, from 60 two-member electoral districts. Chiles congressional elections are governed by a binomial system that rewards coalition slates. Each coalition can run two candidates for electoral districts two Chamber seats. Typically, the two largest coalitions in a district divide the seats, one each, among themselves, only if the leading coalition ticket out-polls the second-place coalition by a margin of more than two-to-one does the winning coalition gain both seats. The Chamber of Deputies meets in Chiles National Congress located in the city of Valparaíso, some 120 km west of the capital. The Congress building in Valparaíso replaced the old National Congress, located in downtown Santiago, ^ Elected as Nueva Mayoría independent.
^ Elected as RN, but quit the party in January 2014, List of Presidents of the Chamber of Deputies of Chile National Congress of Chile Senate of Chile List of legislatures by country Official website
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez and Easter Island in Oceania. Chile claims about 1,250,000 square kilometres of Antarctica, the arid Atacama Desert in northern Chile contains great mineral wealth, principally copper. Southern Chile is rich in forests and grazing lands, and features a string of volcanoes and lakes, the southern coast is a labyrinth of fjords, canals, twisting peninsulas, and islands. Spain conquered and colonized Chile in the century, replacing Inca rule in northern and central Chile. After declaring its independence from Spain in 1818, Chile emerged in the 1830s as a relatively stable authoritarian republic, in the 1960s and 1970s the country experienced severe left-right political polarization and turmoil.
The regime, headed by Augusto Pinochet, ended in 1990 after it lost a referendum in 1988 and was succeeded by a coalition which ruled through four presidencies until 2010. Chile is today one of South Americas most stable and prosperous nations and it leads Latin American nations in rankings of human development, income per capita, state of peace, economic freedom, and low perception of corruption. It ranks high regionally in sustainability of the state, Chile is a founding member of the United Nations, the Union of South American Nations and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States. There are various theories about the origin of the word Chile, another theory points to the similarity of the valley of the Aconcagua with that of the Casma Valley in Peru, where there was a town and valley named Chili. Another origin attributed to chilli is the onomatopoeic cheele-cheele—the Mapuche imitation of the warble of a locally known as trile. The Spanish conquistadors heard about this name from the Incas, Almagro is credited with the universalization of the name Chile, after naming the Mapocho valley as such.
The older spelling Chili was in use in English until at least 1900 before switching over to Chile, stone tool evidence indicates humans sporadically frequented the Monte Verde valley area as long as 18,500 years ago. About 10,000 years ago, migrating Native Americans settled in fertile valleys, settlement sites from very early human habitation include Monte Verde, Cueva del Milodon and the Pali Aike Craters lava tube. They fought against the Sapa Inca Tupac Yupanqui and his army, the result of the bloody three-day confrontation known as the Battle of the Maule was that the Inca conquest of the territories of Chile ended at the Maule river. The next Europeans to reach Chile were Diego de Almagro and his band of Spanish conquistadors, the Spanish encountered various cultures that supported themselves principally through slash-and-burn agriculture and hunting. The conquest of Chile began in earnest in 1540 and was carried out by Pedro de Valdivia, one of Francisco Pizarros lieutenants, who founded the city of Santiago on 12 February 1541.
Although the Spanish did not find the gold and silver they sought, they recognized the agricultural potential of Chiles central valley
Independent Democratic Union
The Independent Democratic Union is a Chilean centre-right to right-wing, conservative political party, founded in 1983. Its founder was the lawyer and law professor Jaime Guzmán, Guzmán was a senator from 1990 until his assassination on April 1,1991. It was the largest political party in Congress between 2010 and 2014, in the Chilean parliamentary election,2009, UDI held the largest majority in the election of deputies, electing 40 deputies with 23. 04%, and got 21. 21% in the election of senators. Its bench is the largest obtained by a party in Chile since 1990. UDI currently has 39 deputies and 8 senators, in the Chilean municipal election,2008, UDI got 347 councilmen by a vote of 15. 11%, and obtained 58 mayors by a vote of 20. 05%. That year, it was the largest party by elected councilmen, also, UDI is the second largest party by number of mayors in Chile. The movement quickly became one of the most important in the Catholic University, well into the government of Salvador Allende, some young members of the National Party and the Christian Democrats became part of the Gremialismo Movement of Jaime Guzmán.
Guzmán supported a coup against Allendes government, which happened shortly thereafter on September 11,1973. He was an advisor of General Augusto Pinochet. Guzmán was appointed a member of the Commission for the Study of the New Constitution, the emerging movement, a supporter of the military government, had a strong empathy with the lower classes, in order to seize from the Marxist left its traditional domain. Amid the growing crisis of the time, UDI engaged in empowering leaders in the countryside and peripheral neighbourhoods that would help extend its influence in the middle. One of them was Simon Yévenes, UDI member assassinated by left-wing resistance fighters on April 2,1986. However, UDI members maintained their own identity in the new party, allamand stayed in charge of National Renewal, while Jaime Guzman managed to register a new political party, Independent Democratic Union in 1989. UDI strongly supported Pinochets remaining in power in the Chilean national plebiscite,1988, after the Yes option was defeated and presidential elections were announced, the UDI joined National Renewal and formed the Democracy and Progress alliance.
Hernan Büchi, the former Minister of Finances under Pinochet, ran for president for this alliance, the alliance ran a common Parliament list. The UDIs option lost the 1989 presidential election, this time against the center-left Concertacións leader, in the 1989 parliamentary elections, the Independent Democratic Union obtained a 9. 82% of votes in deputies and 5. 11% in the Senate. Jaime Guzmán won a seat as Senator for Western Santiago constituency and he was replaced as senator by the National Renewal candidate for the same constituency, Miguel Otero. In 1998, when Pinochet was arrested in London, the UDI, in 1999, Joaquín Lavín, the mayor of Las Condes and member of UDI, was proclaimed as the Alliance for Chile candidate for the presidential election
Arica y Parinacota Region
The XV Arica and Parinacota Region is one of Chiles 15 first order administrative divisions. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the east and it is the countrys newest region, created under Law 20.175. It became operational on October 8,2007, in 2007, the region was subdivided to create the Arica y Parinacota region and the present day Tarapacá Region to the south. The region is subdivided into two provinces and Parinacota. According to data from the 2002 Census of INE, the region is populated by 189644 inhabitants and its density reaches 11.2 inhabitants per km ². This region holds the largest population of Aymara and a significant number of immigrants from neighboring Peru, included are those of Asian descent, such as Chinese and Japanese, and Arabs from Lebanon and Syria. Most of the countrys Afro-Chileans live in the Arica province, descended from slaves in the 17th and 18th centuries, there are a large number of Roma people or Gypsies in the Arica province as well, originated from Eastern Europe in the late 19th century.
At the level of cities, the most populated are, with 175,441 inhabitants and Putre, the region lies within the Norte Grande natural region. It combines deserts, green valleys, the steep and volcanic Andes mountains, a narrow coastal strip of low-lying land no more than 2 kilometres wide separates the Pacifics Nazca plate from the Andes. Its Parinacota volcano is the regions highest elevation at 6,348 metres and lies on the border with Bolivia in Lauca National Park. The regions two main rivers are the Lauca, which drains into Bolivias Coipasa salt flat, and the Lluta, lake Chungará at 4,517 metres above sea level ranks as one of the highest in the world. A desert climate dominates the region, near the coast, cloudiness can limit the temperature swing throughout the day, but in other drier areas, temperatures can vary greatly as is typical in deserts. A marginal desert region can be found over 3,000 m above sea level, on January 26,2007, Peru’s government issued a protest against Chile’s demarcation of the coastal frontier the two countries share.
Moreover, it is alleged that the proposed Chilean law included an assertion of sovereignty over 19,000 m2 of land in Perus Tacna Region, according to the Peruvian Foreign Ministry, Chile has defined a new region without respecting the Concordia demarcation. For its part, the Chilean government has asserted that the region in dispute is not a site named Concordia. 1, which is located to the northeast and 200 meters inland, a possible border dispute was averted when the Chilean Constitutional Court formally ruled on January 26,2007 against the legislation. The Peruvian government has stated that it turn to the international court at The Hague to solve the dispute. Atacama Desert Geography of Chile Climate of Chile List of volcanoes in Chile Azapa Valley Ancuta Constitutional Court sentence