Concise Oxford English Dictionary
The Concise Oxford English Dictionary is the best-known of the'smaller' Oxford dictionaries. The latest edition of the Concise Oxford English Dictionary contains over 240,000 entries and 1,728 pages, its 12th edition, published in 2011, is used by both the United Nations and NATO as the current authority for spellings in documents written in English for international use. It is available as an e-book for a variety of handheld device platforms. In addition to providing information for general use, it documents local variations such as United States and United Kingdom usage, it was started as a derivative of the Oxford English Dictionary, although section S–Z had to be written before the Oxford English Dictionary reached that stage. However, starting from the 10th edition, it is based on the Oxford Dictionary of English rather than the OED; the most recent edition is the 12th edition, published in 2011. Until 2000, it was the dictionary used on the UK game show Countdown. 1st Edition: The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English, adapted by H. W. Fowler and F. G. Fowler... from the Oxford Dictionary.
2nd Edition: The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English H. W. Fowler alone. 3rd Edition: was revised by H. W. Fowler and H. G. Le Mesurier. 4th and 5th Editions were revised by E. McIntosh, who introduced the space-saving swung dash that stands for the headword; the title page still read The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English. 6th and 7th Editions were still called The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English, but the subtitle now read based on the Oxford English dictionary and its supplements first edited by H. W. Fowler and F. G. Fowler, it was edited by J. B. Sykes. In the 7th Edition, symbols were introduced to mark uses considered offensive. 8th Edition: The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English, first edited by H. W. Fowler and F. G. Fowler was edited by Robert E. Allen. Being computer-based, this edition changed the original structure to a large extent. 9th Edition was edited by Della Thompson. 1st Edition 100th Anniversary Edition: The Concise Oxford Dictionary The 1911 First Edition includes the photocopied version of the 1st Edition dictionary, an introductory essay by renowned language expert David Crystal, a timeline of the chronology through 100 years of COED.
ISBN 978-0-19-969612-3 1st impression 10th Edition became The Concise Oxford English Dictionary. It was edited by Judy Pearsall. Rather than being a direct revision of the 9th edition, it was based on the larger New Oxford Dictionary of English, which Pearsall had edited, its compilation had involved a re-analysis of much of the core vocabulary using the British National Corpus. The 10th edition was issued as an electronic resource, as a computer optical disc; this edition was to be the last Concise Oxford Dictionary to be used on Countdown, as contestant Helen Wrigglesworth declared ROADSIDE and it was declared illegal. After further inspection from Mark Nyman, the dictionary was found to not have any compound words in it, was thus abandoned and the show reverted to the 9th edition; the show switched to New Oxford Dictionary of English in series 43. 11th Edition, the Concise Oxford English Dictionary was edited by Catherine Soanes and Angus Stevenson. It was based on the Oxford Dictionary of English.
The 11th Edition is available on CD-ROM as an e-book for a variety of platforms. 12h Edition, the Concise Oxford English Dictionary was edited by Maurice Waite. This edition included 400 new entries, including sexting, gastric band, jeggings and woot. Includes 240,000 words and definitions. CD-ROM includes 50,000 spoken audio pronunciations, supports Windows 2000 and above, Mac OS X 10.1 and above. ISBN 978-0-19-960108-0 or ISBN 978-0-19-960111-0 1st impression ISBN 978-0-19-960110-3?th impression Android version: published by MobiSystems, Inc. Supports Android 4.1. Supports 18 language since version 6.0. 5.1.020 6.0.009 iOS version: published by MobiSystems, Inc. Supports iOS 8.0. Includes English and Catalan languages. 8.2.5: Adds iOS 10 optimizations. Contents are derived from New Oxford American Dictionary. 1st edition: Dictionary includes over 180,000 entries and definitions, over 300 illustrations. ISBN 0-19-530484-5/ISBN 978-0-19-530484-8?th impression Android version. Published by MobiSystems.
4.3.136 5.1.020 6.0.009 iOS. Published by MobiSystems. 8.2.5 Windows version. Published by MobiSystems. 2.2?th edition: Includes over 12,000
Dictionary of American Regional English
The Dictionary of American Regional English is a record of American English as spoken in the United States, from its beginnings to the present. It differs from other dictionaries in that it does not document the standard language used throughout the country. Instead, it contains regional and folk speech, those words and pronunciations that vary from one part of the country to another, or that we learn from our families and friends rather than from our teachers and books. For DARE, a "region" may be as small as a city or part of a city, or as large as most of the country. Humanities magazine has described it as "a bold synthesis of linguistic atlas and historical dictionary", William Safire called it "the most exciting new linguistic project in the twentieth century"; the Dictionary is based both on face-to-face interviews with 2,777 people carried out in 1,002 communities across the country between 1965 and 1970, on a large collection of print and electronic materials, including diaries, novels, biographies, government documents, newspapers.
These sources are cited in individual entries to illustrate how the words have been used from the 17th century through the beginning of the 21st century. Entries may include pronunciations, variant forms and statements about regional and social distributions of words and forms. Five volumes of text were published by Harvard University Press between 1985 and 2012: Volume I, with Frederic G. Cassidy serving as Chief Editor, appeared in 1985. A sixth volume, subtitled "Contrastive Maps, Index to Entry Labels and Fieldwork Data," edited by Hall with Luanne von Schneidemesser serving as Senior Editor, was published early in 2013. Late that same year, the digital version was launched. DARE chronicles the language of the American people, it is used by teachers, researchers, forensic linguists, journalists and playwrights. In 1889, when Joseph Wright began editing the English Dialect Dictionary, a group of American philologists founded the American Dialect Society with the ultimate purpose of producing a similar work for the United States.
Members of the Society began to collect material, much of, published in the Society's journal Dialect Notes, but little was done toward compiling a dictionary recording nationwide usage until Frederic G. Cassidy was appointed Chief Editor in 1962. Cassidy had done fieldwork in Wisconsin for the Linguistic Atlas of the North Central States project and in Jamaica for his Dictionary of Jamaican English. With the assistance of Audrey Duckert, he had designed and administered an intensive mail-questionnaire survey of Wisconsin. Drawing on this experience, he and Duckert made plans for a nationwide, fieldworker-administered questionnaire that would provide a comprehensive foundation for the projected Dictionary; the fieldwork, supported by a grant from the Office of Education, was conducted during 1965–70. About eighty fieldworkers were trained in phonetic fieldwork techniques; each fieldworker was required to find "informants," people willing to provide information about words, who were natives of their communities and who had lived there all, or all, their lives.
The informants were asked to answer the questions in the DARE questionnaire. In many communities more than one person contributed answers, so the total number of informants, 2,777, is much larger than the number of communities. While the fieldworkers were interviewing people across the country and others in Madison organized an extensive volunteer reading program. Printed materials of all kinds were selected and sent to volunteers, who read them and identified regional words in context; these resources included historical and contemporary newspapers, letters, biographies and government documents. A number of important unpublished collections of dialect materials were donated to DARE for use in documenting the Dictionary entries; as the fieldworkers sent their questionnaires back to Madison, the 2.3 million answers were keypunched, software was written to create a question-by-question tabulation of responses as well as an index. In addition, programs were written that allowed the interactive creation of maps showing where the responses were found and the production of statistical tables itemizing the age, race, education level, community type for each person who gave a particular response.
These tools allow DARE editors to apply regional labels to entries based on where words were collected in the fieldwork project and to use social labels describing individuals who use those words. In 1974, Cassidy contracted with Harvard University Press to publish the Dictionary, editing began in earnest in 1975. By 1980 it was clear that the idea of publishing DARE as a single unit was impossible. Early estimates of the time it would take to write and revise entries had been overly optimistic. Following the tradition of other historical dictionaries such as the Oxford English Dictionary, DARE decided to publish each volume as it was ready; because Cassidy had contracted to supply the text of the Dictionary on magnetic tape ful
Oxford American Dictionary
The Oxford American Dictionary is a single-volume dictionary of American English. It was the first dictionary published by the Oxford University Press to be prepared by American lexicographers and editors; the work was based on the Oxford Paperback Dictionary, published in 1979. It has been superseded by the New Oxford American Dictionary. Other Oxford Dictionaries: New Oxford American Dictionary Oxford English Dictionary Shorter Oxford English Dictionary Oxford Dictionary of English Concise Oxford English Dictionary Australian Oxford Dictionary Canadian Oxford Dictionary Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary
Old English, or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages. It was brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the mid-5th century, the first Old English literary works date from the mid-7th century. After the Norman conquest of 1066, English was replaced, for a time, as the language of the upper classes by Anglo-Norman, a relative of French; this is regarded as marking the end of the Old English era, as during this period the English language was influenced by Anglo-Norman, developing into a phase known now as Middle English. Old English developed from a set of Anglo-Frisian or Ingvaeonic dialects spoken by Germanic tribes traditionally known as the Angles and Jutes; as the Anglo-Saxons became dominant in England, their language replaced the languages of Roman Britain: Common Brittonic, a Celtic language, Latin, brought to Britain by Roman invasion. Old English had four main dialects, associated with particular Anglo-Saxon kingdoms: Mercian, Northumbrian and West Saxon.
It was West Saxon that formed the basis for the literary standard of the Old English period, although the dominant forms of Middle and Modern English would develop from Mercian. The speech of eastern and northern parts of England was subject to strong Old Norse influence due to Scandinavian rule and settlement beginning in the 9th century. Old English is one of the West Germanic languages, its closest relatives are Old Frisian and Old Saxon. Like other old Germanic languages, it is different from Modern English and difficult for Modern English speakers to understand without study. Old English grammar is similar to that of modern German: nouns, adjectives and verbs have many inflectional endings and forms, word order is much freer; the oldest Old English inscriptions were written using a runic system, but from about the 9th century this was replaced by a version of the Latin alphabet. Englisc, which the term English is derived from, means'pertaining to the Angles'. In Old English, this word was derived from Angles.
During the 9th century, all invading Germanic tribes were referred to as Englisc. It has been hypothesised that the Angles acquired their name because their land on the coast of Jutland resembled a fishhook. Proto-Germanic *anguz had the meaning of'narrow', referring to the shallow waters near the coast; that word goes back to Proto-Indo-European *h₂enǵʰ- meaning'narrow'. Another theory is that the derivation of'narrow' is the more connection to angling, which itself stems from a Proto-Indo-European root meaning bend, angle; the semantic link is the fishing hook, curved or bent at an angle. In any case, the Angles may have been called such because they were a fishing people or were descended from such, therefore England would mean'land of the fishermen', English would be'the fishermen's language'. Old English was not static, its usage covered a period of 700 years, from the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain in the 5th century to the late 11th century, some time after the Norman invasion. While indicating that the establishment of dates is an arbitrary process, Albert Baugh dates Old English from 450 to 1150, a period of full inflections, a synthetic language.
Around 85 per cent of Old English words are no longer in use, but those that survived are basic elements of Modern English vocabulary. Old English is a West Germanic language, it came to be spoken over most of the territory of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms which became the Kingdom of England. This included most of present-day England, as well as part of what is now southeastern Scotland, which for several centuries belonged to the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria. Other parts of the island – Wales and most of Scotland – continued to use Celtic languages, except in the areas of Scandinavian settlements where Old Norse was spoken. Celtic speech remained established in certain parts of England: Medieval Cornish was spoken all over Cornwall and in adjacent parts of Devon, while Cumbric survived to the 12th century in parts of Cumbria, Welsh may have been spoken on the English side of the Anglo-Welsh border. Norse was widely spoken in the parts of England which fell under Danish law. Anglo-Saxon literacy developed after Christianisation in the late 7th century.
The oldest surviving text of Old English literature is Cædmon's Hymn, composed between 658 and 680. There is a limited corpus of runic inscriptions from the 5th to 7th centuries, but the oldest coherent runic texts date to the 8th century; the Old English Latin alphabet was introduced around the 9th century. With the unification of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms by Alfred the Great in the 9th century, the language of government and literature became standardised around the West Saxon dialect. Alfred advocated education in English alongside Latin, had many works translated into the English language. In Old English, typical of the development of literature, poetry arose before prose, but King Alfred the Great chiefly inspired the growth of prose. A literary standard, dating from the 10th century, arose under the influence of Bishop Æthelwold of Winchester, was followed by such writers as the prolific Ælfric of Eynsham. Th
Webster's Third New International Dictionary
Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged was published in September 1961. It was edited by Philip Babcock Gove and a team of lexicographers who spent 757 editor-years and $3.5 million. It contained more than 450,000 entries, including more than 100,000 new entries and as many new senses for entries carried over from previous editions; the final definition, was written on October 17, 1960. The final copy went to the typesetters, RR Donnelley, on December 2; the book was printed by the Riverside Press in Massachusetts. The first edition had 2,726 pages, weighed 13½ lb, sold for $47.50. The changes were the most radical in the history of the Unabridged. Although it was an unprecedented masterwork of scholarship, it was met with considerable criticism for its descriptive approach, it told. Prior to Webster's Third the Unabridged had been expanded with each new edition, with minimal deletion. To make room for 100,000 new words, Gove now made sweeping deletions, he eliminated the "nonlexical matter" that more properly belongs to an encyclopedia, including all names of people and places.
There were no more mythological and fictional names, nor the names of buildings, historical events, or art works. Thirty picture plates were dropped; the rationale was that, while useful, these are not about language. Gove justified the change by the company's publication of Webster's Biographical Dictionary in 1943 and Webster's Geographical Dictionary in 1949, the fact that the topics removed could be found in encyclopedias. Removed were words, out of use for more than two hundred years, rare variants, reformed spellings, self-explanatory combination words, other items considered of little value to the general reader; the number of small text illustrations was reduced, page size increased, print size reduced by one-twelfth, from six point to agate type. All this was considered necessary because of the large amount of new material, Webster's Second had reached the limits of mechanical bookbinding; the fact that the new book had about 700 fewer pages was justified by the need to allow room for future additions.
In style and method, the dictionary bore little resemblance to earlier editions. Headwords were not capitalized. Instead of capitalizing "American", for example, the dictionary had labels next to the entries reading cap and usu cap; this allowed informative distinctions to be drawn: "gallic" is usu cap while "gallicism" is cap and "gallicize" is sometimes cap. The reviews of the Third edition were favorable in Britain. Robert Chapman, a lexicographer, canvassed fellow lexicographers at Funk & Wagnalls, who had used the new edition daily for three years; the consensus held that the Third was a "marvelous achievement, a monument of scholarship and accuracy". They did come up including typographic unattractiveness. Chapman concluded that the "cranks and intransigents who advise us to hang on to the NID 2 are plain fools who deny themselves the riches of a great book"; this dictionary became preferred as a backup source by two influential style guides in the United States, although each one directs writers to go first to other, shorter dictionaries.
The Chicago Manual of Style, followed by many book publishers and magazines in the United States, recommends Webster's Third, along with Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary for "general matters of spelling", the style book "normally opts for" the first spelling listed. The Associated Press Stylebook, used by most newspapers in the United States, refers readers to W3 "if there is no listing in either this book or Webster's New World". In the early 1960s, Webster's Third came under attack for its "permissiveness" and its failure to tell people what proper English was, it was the opening shot in the culture wars, as conservatives detected yet another symbol of the permissiveness of society as a whole and the decline of authority, as represented by the Second Edition. As historian Herbert Morton explained, "Webster's Second was more than respected, it was accepted as the ultimate authority on meaning and usage and its preeminence was unchallenged in the United States. It did not provoke controversies, it settled them."
Critics charged that the dictionary was reluctant to defend standard English, for example eliminating the labels "colloquial", "correct", "incorrect", "proper", "improper", "erroneous", "humorous", "jocular", "poetic", "contemptuous", among others. Gove's stance was an exemplar of descriptivist linguistics: describing language as it is or has been used; as David M. Glixon put it in the Saturday Review: "Having descended from God's throne of supreme authority, the Merriam folks are now seated around the
Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by King Henry VIII in 1534, it is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world, it holds letters patent as the Queen's Printer. The press mission is "to further the University's mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education and research at the highest international levels of excellence". Cambridge University Press is a department of the University of Cambridge and is both an academic and educational publisher. With a global sales presence, publishing hubs, offices in more than 40 countries, it publishes over 50,000 titles by authors from over 100 countries, its publishing includes academic journals, reference works and English language teaching and learning publications. Cambridge University Press is a charitable enterprise that transfers part of its annual surplus back to the university. Cambridge University Press is both the oldest publishing house in the world and the oldest university press.
It originated from letters patent granted to the University of Cambridge by Henry VIII in 1534, has been producing books continuously since the first University Press book was printed. Cambridge is one of the two privileged presses. Authors published by Cambridge have included John Milton, William Harvey, Isaac Newton, Bertrand Russell, Stephen Hawking. University printing began in Cambridge when the first practising University Printer, Thomas Thomas, set up a printing house on the site of what became the Senate House lawn – a few yards from where the press's bookshop now stands. In those days, the Stationers' Company in London jealously guarded its monopoly of printing, which explains the delay between the date of the university's letters patent and the printing of the first book. In 1591, Thomas's successor, John Legate, printed the first Cambridge Bible, an octavo edition of the popular Geneva Bible; the London Stationers objected strenuously. The university's response was to point out the provision in its charter to print "all manner of books".
Thus began the press's tradition of publishing the Bible, a tradition that has endured for over four centuries, beginning with the Geneva Bible, continuing with the Authorized Version, the Revised Version, the New English Bible and the Revised English Bible. The restrictions and compromises forced upon Cambridge by the dispute with the London Stationers did not come to an end until the scholar Richard Bentley was given the power to set up a'new-style press' in 1696. In July 1697 the Duke of Somerset made a loan of £200 to the university "towards the printing house and presse" and James Halman, Registrary of the University, lent £100 for the same purpose, it was in Bentley's time, in 1698, that a body of senior scholars was appointed to be responsible to the university for the press's affairs. The Press Syndicate's publishing committee still meets and its role still includes the review and approval of the press's planned output. John Baskerville became University Printer in the mid-eighteenth century.
Baskerville's concern was the production of the finest possible books using his own type-design and printing techniques. Baskerville wrote, "The importance of the work demands all my attention. Caxton would have found nothing to surprise him if he had walked into the press's printing house in the eighteenth century: all the type was still being set by hand. A technological breakthrough was badly needed, it came when Lord Stanhope perfected the making of stereotype plates; this involved making a mould of the whole surface of a page of type and casting plates from that mould. The press was the first to use this technique, in 1805 produced the technically successful and much-reprinted Cambridge Stereotype Bible. By the 1850s the press was using steam-powered machine presses, employing two to three hundred people, occupying several buildings in the Silver Street and Mill Lane area, including the one that the press still occupies, the Pitt Building, built for the press and in honour of William Pitt the Younger.
Under the stewardship of C. J. Clay, University Printer from 1854 to 1882, the press increased the size and scale of its academic and educational publishing operation. An important factor in this increase was the inauguration of its list of schoolbooks. During Clay's administration, the press undertook a sizeable co-publishing venture with Oxford: the Revised Version of the Bible, begun in 1870 and completed in 1885, it was in this period as well that the Syndics of the press turned down what became the Oxford English Dictionary—a proposal for, brought to Cambridge by James Murray before he turned to Oxford. The appointment of R. T. Wright as Secretary of the Press Syndicate in 1892 marked the beginning of the press's development as a modern publishing business with a defined editorial policy and administrative structure, it was Wright who devised the plan for one of the most distinctive Cambridge contributions to publishing—the Cambridge Histories. The Cambridge Modern History was published
Oxford Dictionary of English
The Oxford Dictionary of English is a single-volume English dictionary published by Oxford University Press, first published in 1998 as The New Oxford Dictionary of English. The word "new" was dropped from the title with the Second Edition in 2003; this dictionary is not based on the Oxford English Dictionary and should not be mistaken for a new or updated version of the OED. It is a new dictionary which strives to represent as faithfully as possible the current usage of English words; the Revised Second Edition contains 355,000 words and definitions, including biographical references and thousands of encyclopaedic entries. The Third Edition was published in August 2010, with some new words, including "vuvuzela", it is the largest single-volume English-language dictionary published by Oxford University Press. The first editor, Judy Pearsall, wrote in the introduction that it is based on a modern understanding of language and is derived from a corpus of contemporary English usage. For example, the editors did not discourage split infinitives, but instead justified their use in some contexts.
The first edition was based on bodies of texts such as the British National Corpus and the citation database of the Oxford Reading Programme. The dictionary "views the language from the perspective that English is a world language". A network of consultants provide extensive coverage of English usage from the United States to the Caribbean and New Zealand. A more unusual decision was to omit pronunciations of common, everyday words, contrary to the practice of most large dictionaries; the International Phonetic Alphabet is used to present pronunciations, which are in turn based on the Received Pronunciation. The Second Edition added over 3,000 new words and phrases drawn from the Oxford English Corpus; the New Oxford American Dictionary is the American version of the Oxford Dictionary of English, with substantial editing and uses a diacritical respelling scheme rather than the IPA system. First edition: 350,000 entries. CD-ROM supports Windows 95/NT and above. CD-ROM produced by Versaware. CD-ROM includes links to Versaware.
Hardcover+CD edition: 1st? Impression Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press paperback edition 1st? Impression?th impression CD edition: 1st? Impression CD edition: Includes iFinger version 2.0. 1st? Impression New edition edition Hardcover edition: 1st? Impression Second Edition – 2003 Second Edition, Revised – 2005hardcover edition Kindle edition?th impression Third edition: The Third Edition is available online via Oxford Dictionaries Online, as well as in print. The online version is updated every three months. Oxford Dictionaries Online includes the New Oxford American Dictionary, Oxford Thesaurus of English, Oxford American Writer’s Thesaurus and grammar and usage resources; the online version added more than 80,000 words from the OED in August 2015. Includes nearly 100,000 headwords, with 11,000 proper names, over 350,000 words and phrases and definitions, 11,000 encyclopaedic entries, 68,000 explanations. Hardcover edition: Includes 12-month access to Oxford Dictionaries Online. 1st? Impression Android version: Published by MobiSystems, Inc.
Premium version includes offline mode, priority support, no ads. Version 7.0.177: Support split screen for Android 7. Version 7.1.195: Support Shortcut Items for Android 7.1 Version 7.1.208: Includes over 350,000 words and meanings. Premium version includes 75,000 audio pronunciations of both rare words. IOS free version: Published by MobiSystems, Inc. Version 8.2.9: Includes iOS 10 optimization. Version 8.5.6: Supports voice over, voice search in iOS 10. OS X paid version: Published by WordWeb Software. Version 3.3 Windows version: Published by MobiSystems, Inc. Version 2.2: Includes about 75,000 audio pronunciations of both common and rare words, doubled with both British and American voice versions. Browser version: Published by MobiSystems, Inc. Version 184.108.40.206: Includes 350,000 words and meanings, about 75,000 audio pronunciations of both common and rare words, doubled with both British and American voice versions. It is a compilation that includes Oxford Dictionaries of Concise Oxford Thesaurus.
3rd edition Android version: Published by Inc.. Premium version includes offline mode, priority support, no ads. Version 7.0.177: Support split screen for Android 7. Version 7.1.191: Support Shortcut Items for Android 7.1 It is a dictionary app based on contents from Oxford Dictionary of English and New Oxford American Dictionary. 3rd edition Android version: Published by Oxford University Press ELT. Version 1.2.0: Supports landscape mode. IOS version: Published by Oxford University Press ELT. Version 1.1.1: Third edition: Includes 600,000 synonyms and antonyms, 35,000 example sentences. Hardcover edition: Includes 12-month access to Oxford Dictionaries Online. 1st? Impression Concise Oxford English Dictionary