Lucy Cavendish College, Cambridge
Lucy Cavendish College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge which admits only postgraduates and undergraduates aged 21 or over. It only accepts female students and fellows, making the college one of only three women-only university colleges in England; the college is named in honour of Lucy Cavendish, who campaigned for the reform of women's education. The College has announced its intention to reform its admissions policy to include women and men from the standard university age, effective from October 2021; the college was founded in 1965 by female academics of the University of Cambridge who believed that the university offered too few and too restricted opportunities for women as either students or academics. Its origins are traceable to the Society of Women Members of the Regent House who are not Fellows of Colleges which in the 1950s sought to provide the benefits of collegiality to its members who, being female, were not college fellows. At the time there were only two women's colleges in Cambridge and Newnham, insufficient for the large and growing numbers of female academic staff in the university.
The college was named in honour of Lucy Caroline Cavendish, a pioneer of women's education and the great aunt of one of its founders, Margaret Braithwaite. First formally recognised as the Lucy Cavendish Collegiate Society, it moved to its current site in 1970, received consent to be called Lucy Cavendish College in 1986, gained the status of a full college of the university by Royal Charter in 1997; the first president of the college, from 1965 to 1970, was Anna McClean Bidder, one of the founding members of the Dining Group and a zoologist specialising in cephalopod digestion. She was succeeded by Kate Bertram until 1979, Phyllis Hetzel, Dame Anne Warburton, Baroness Perry of Southwark, Dame Veronica Sutherland, Janet Todd and Jackie Ashley; the current and 9th President of Lucy Cavendish is Madeleine Atkins, who took up the post in 2018. In March 2019 Lucy Cavendish announced its intention to begin admitting both women and men from the standard university age; this change followed a consultation of the College's community, leading to an "in principle vote" of the Lucy Cavendish Governing Body.
The College gave as its primary reason for the change "to grow graduate and undergraduate numbers to support the University and the other colleges in making more places available for excellent students from under-represented backgrounds." Lucy Cavendish has over 350 students 40% of whom are undergraduates and 60% graduates. Students originate from over 60 different countries; the majority of its undergraduates have applied directly, but in comparison to the university-wide averages the college makes proportionately more offers to the university's'pool' applicants. The college website states that "Students from every corner of the UK mix with students from around the world. Students with'Access' qualifications interact with students who have studied for A-levels and the International Baccalaureate. Former bankers, singers and police officers mix with recent graduates of universities from around the world. Women come at any age to study any subject offered by the University." The average age of students in the college is 22.
Lucy Cavendish students are called "Lucians". The overall examination results of the college tend to be lower than at most other Cambridge colleges, with Lucy Cavendish featuring towards the bottom of the Tompkins table together with the other colleges that only admit mature students. For the first few years of the college's existence it occupied rooms first in Silver Street and in Northampton Street. In 1970 it moved to its current site on the corner of Madingley Road and Lady Margaret Road, near Westminster College and St John's College, which had provided some of the land. In 1991 the college bought Balliol Croft, a neighbouring house to its grounds and former home of the economist Alfred Marshall and his wife Mary Paley Marshall, with whom he wrote his first economics textbook; the building was renamed Marshall House in his honour and used for student accommodation until 2001 when it was converted back to its original layout and used as the President's Lodge. Meanwhile, the majority of the college's buildings, including Warburton Hall and the library, were completed in the 1990s.
Anna McClean Bidder. Rt. Hon. Baroness Chakrabarti of Kennington CBE PC Dame Judi Dench Anna Ford Cynthia Glassman Lady Grantchester P. D. James Queen Margrethe of Denmark Dame Anne Owers Pauline Perry, Baroness Perry of Southwark Professor Alison Richard Dame Stella Rimington Dame Cath Tizard Sandi Toksvig Claire Tomalin Jean Barker, Baroness Trumpington Martina Navratilova Ali Smith Professor Jane Clarke FRS Official college website Lucy Cavendish College Students' Union website History of Lucy Cavendish College
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
St Catharine's College, Cambridge
St Catharine's College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge. Founded in 1473 as Katharine Hall, it adopted its current name in 1860; the college is nicknamed "Catz". The college is located in the historic city-centre of Cambridge, lies just south of King's College and across the street from Corpus Christi College; the college is notable for its open court. St Catharine's is unique in being the only Oxbridge college founded by the serving head of another college; the college community is moderately sized, consisting of 70 fellows, 150 graduate students, 410 undergraduates. Robert Woodlark, Provost of King’s College, had begun preparations for the founding of a new college as early as 1459 when he bought tenements on which the new college could be built; the preparation cost him a great deal of his private fortune, he was forced to scale down the foundation to only three fellows. He stipulated that they must study philosophy only; the college was established as "Lady Katharine Hall" in 1473.
The college received its royal charter of incorporation in 1475 from King Edward IV. Woodlark may have chosen the name in homage to the mother of King Henry VI, called Catharine, although it is more that it was named as part of the Renaissance cult of St Catharine, a patron saint of learning. At any rate, the college was ready for habitation and formally founded on St Catharine’s day 1473. There are six Saints Catharine; the initial foundation was not well-provided for. Woodlark was principally interested in the welfare of fellows and the college had no undergraduates at all for many years. By 1550, there was an increasing number of junior students and the focus of the college changed to that of teaching undergraduates. In 1861, the master, Henry Philpott became Bishop of Worcester, in the ensuing election Charles Kirkby Robinson and Francis Jameson stood. Jameson voted for Robinson, however Robinson voted for himself, Robinson won; the episode brought the college into some disrepute for a while.
As the college entered the 17th century, it was still one of the smallest colleges in Cambridge. However, a series of prudent Masters and generous benefactors were to change the fortunes of the college and expand its size. Rapid growth in the fellowship and undergraduate population made it necessary to expand the college, short-lived additions were made in 1622. By 1630 the college began to demolish its existing buildings which were decaying, started work on a new court. In 1637 the college came into possession of the George Inn on Trumpington Street. Behind this Inn was a stables, famous for the practice of its manager, Thomas Hobson, not to allow a hirer to take any horse other than the one longest in the stable, leading to the expression “Hobson's choice”, meaning "take it or leave it"; the period of 1675 to 1757 saw the redevelopment of the college's site into a large three-sided court, one of only four at Oxbridge colleges. Proposals for a range of buildings to complete the fourth side of the court have been made on many occasions.
The college adopted its current name. In 1880, a movement to merge the college with King’s College began; the two colleges were adjacent and it seemed a solution to King’s need for more rooms and St Catharine’s need for a more substantial financial basis. However, the Master was opposed and St Catharine’s refused. In 1966 a major rebuilding project took place under the Mastership of Professor E. E. Rich; this saw the creation of a new larger hall, new kitchens and an accommodation block shared between St Catharine's and King's College. Pressure on accommodation continued to grow, in 1981 further accommodation was built at St. Chad's on Grange Road, with further rooms added there in 1998. In 2013 the College completed the building of a new lecture theatre, college bar and JCR. In 1979, the membership of the college was broadened to welcome female students, in 2006 the first woman was appointed as Master of the college, Dame Jean Thomas. A history of the college was written by W. H. S. Jones in 1936.
In 2015, St Catharine's became the first college in Cambridge to implement a gender-neutral dress code for formal hall. St Catharine's provides a unique academic environment, focused on research and arts, educating students with a diverse range of talents. In addition to its academic standards, the college encourages students to pursue theatre and music, with many former students going on to become professional actors and musicians. St Catharine's has placed in the top third of the Tompkins Table, though its position tends to vary year on year. In 2014, its position slipped to 21st, but rose to 13th in 2015 with more than 25% of students gaining a First; the first time the college had been placed at the top of the Tompkins Table was in 2005. Between 1997 and 2010, the college averaged 9th of 29 colleges; the college maintains a friendly rivalry with Queens’ College after the construction of the main court of St Catharine's College on Cambridge’s former High Street relegated one side of Queens' College into a back alley.
A more modern rivalry with Robinson College resulted from the construction in the 1970s of a modern block of flats named St Chad’s by the University Library. The college has a s
Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge
Gonville & Caius College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in Cambridge, England. The college is the fourth-oldest college at one of the wealthiest; the college has been attended by many students who have gone on to significant accomplishment, including fourteen Nobel Prize winners, the second-most of any Oxbridge college. The college has long historical associations with medical teaching due to its alumni physicians: John Caius and William Harvey. Other famous alumni in the sciences include James Chadwick and Howard Florey. Stephen Hawking Cambridge's Lucasian Chair of Mathematics Emeritus, was a fellow of the college until his death in 2018; the college maintains reputable academic programmes in many other disciplines, including law, English literature and history. Gonville & Caius is said to have rights to much of the land in Cambridge. Several streets in the city, such as Harvey Road, Glisson Road and Gresham Road, are named after alumni of the College; the college and its masters have been influential in the development of the university, founding other colleges like Trinity Hall and Darwin College and providing land on the Sidgwick Site, e.g. for the Squire Law Library.
The college was first founded, as Gonville Hall, by Edmund Gonville, Rector of Terrington St Clement in Norfolk in 1348, making it the fourth-oldest surviving college. When Gonville died three years he left a struggling institution with no money; the executor of his will, William Bateman, Bishop of Norwich, stepped in, transferring the college to its current location. He leased himself the land close to the river to set up his own college, Trinity Hall, renamed Gonville Hall The Hall of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Bateman appointed as the first Master of the new college his former chaplain John Colton Archbishop of Armagh. By the sixteenth century, the college had fallen into disrepair, in 1557 it was refounded by Royal Charter as Gonville & Caius College by the physician John Caius. John Caius was master of the college from 1559 until shortly before his death in 1573, he provided the college with significant funds and extended the buildings. During his time as Master, Caius insisted on several unusual rules.
He insisted that the college admit no scholar who “is deformed, blind, maimed, mutilated, a Welshman, or suffering from any grave or contagious illness, or an invalid, sick in a serious measure”. Caius built a three-sided court, Caius Court, “lest the air from being confined within a narrow space should become foul”. Caius did, found the college as a strong centre for the study of medicine, a tradition that it aims to keep to this day. By 1630, the college had expanded having around 25 fellows and 150 students, but numbers fell over the next century, only returning to the 1630 level in the early nineteenth century. Since the college has grown and now has one of the largest undergraduate populations in the university; the college first admitted women as fellows and students in 1979. It now has over 110 Fellows, over about 200 staff. Gonville & Caius is one of the wealthiest of all Cambridge colleges with net assets of £180 million in 2014; the college’s present Master, the 43rd, is Pippa Rogerson.
The first buildings to be erected on the college’s current site date from 1353 when Bateman built Gonville Court. The college chapel was added in 1393 with the Old Hall and Master’s Lodge following in the next half century. Most of the stone used to build the college came from Ramsey Abbey near Cambridgeshire. Gonville and Caius has the oldest purpose-built college chapel in either Oxford or Cambridge, in continuous use as such; the chapel is situated centrally within the college, reflecting the college's religious foundation. On the re-foundation by Caius, the college was updated. In 1565 the building of Caius Court began, Caius planted an avenue of trees in what is now known as Tree Court, he was responsible for the building of the college's three gates, symbolising the path of academic life. On matriculation, one arrives at the Gate of Humility. In the centre of the college one passes through the Gate of Virtue regularly, and graduating students pass through the Gate of Honour on their way to the neighbouring Senate House to receive their degrees.
The Gate of Honour, at the south side of Caius Court, though the most direct way from the Old Courts to the College Library, is only used for special occasions such as graduation. The students of Gonville and Caius refer to the fourth gate in the college, between Tree Court and Gonville Court, which gives access to some lavatories, as the Gate of Necessity; the buildings of Gonville Court were given classical facades in the 1750s, the Old Library and the Hall were designed by Anthony Salvin in 1854. On the wall of the Hall hangs a college flag which in 1912 was flown at the South Pole by Cambridge's Edward Adrian Wilson during the famous Terra Nova Expedition of 1910–1913. Gonville Court, though remodelled in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, is the oldest part of the college. New lecture rooms were designed by Alfred Waterhouse and completed by Rattee and Kett in 1884. Tree Court is the largest of the Old Courts, it is so named. Although none of the
Darwin College, Cambridge
Darwin College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge. Founded on 28 July 1964, Darwin was Cambridge University's first graduate-only college, the first to admit both men and women; the college is named after one of that of Charles Darwin. The Darwin family owned some of the land, Newnham Grange, on which the college now stands; the college has between 600 and 700 students studying for PhD or MPhil degrees. About half the students come from outside the United Kingdom, representing 80 nationalities as of 2016. Darwin is the largest graduate college of Cambridge. A significant increase in the number of postgraduate students at Cambridge University in the post-war period led to a growing realisation that a graduate college was becoming a necessity. In 1963, three of the university's older colleges – Trinity College, St John's College, Gonville and Caius College – announced their intention to jointly form a new, wholly graduate college; the college was established in located on the bank of the River Cam, opposite Queens' College.
On 29 January 1965, the Privy Council gave formal approval to the college as an Approved Foundation. It received its Royal Charter as an independent college within the university in 1976; the college is named after the Darwin family, Charles Darwin's second son, George Darwin, having owned some of the property which the college now occupies. He bought Newnham Grange, the oldest part of the college, in 1885, together with the adjacent building known as The Old Granary, Small Island. Following the death of George's son, Sir Charles Galton Darwin, in 1962, those concerned with the foundation of the new college learned that the property was to become available. Katherine, Lady Darwin, her family were receptive to the idea of their home becoming the nucleus of a new college, to the suggestion that it should bear the family's name. Family portraits of the Darwin family are on loan to the college from the Darwin Heirloom Trust and can be found on the walls of several of the college's main rooms. In the book Period Piece: A Cambridge Childhood, the granddaughter of Charles Darwin, Gwen Raverat describes how she grew up at Newnham Grange.
In 1966 the college acquired the Hermitage from St John's College. Work to convert and extend the college's buildings was funded by the founding colleges and through substantial donations from the Rayne Foundation. In 1994 Darwin College completed construction of a new library and study centre along the side of The Old Granary; the centre is built on a narrow strip of land alongside the millpond in Cambridge, uses a structure of green oak and lime mortar brickwork. The building uses high-level automatically opening windows and a chimney to control natural ventilation. In 2010 the College acquired No 4 Newnham Terrace, the former Rectory for the Church of St Mary the Less, Cambridge thereby establishing an entire boundary for the College from Queen's Bridge to Newnham Road and to the River Granta; the long boundary returns to Queen's Bridge and is formed by the two islands in the middle of the river. The college organises the annual Darwin Lecture Series, eight talks over eight weeks structured around a single theme examined from different perspectives, given by eminent speakers who are leading international authorities in their fields.
The lectures have been hosted for over twenty-five years and form one of the key events in the Cambridge calendar. Most of the series of lectures have been published as books. In sports, Darwin College Boat Club is a popular student society at Darwin College, as well as Darwin College Football Club who play in the long established Cambridge University Association Football League, representing the only graduate college within CUAFL; the club plays throughout the year out of term. Every Darwinian is automatically a member of the Darwin College Student Association; the DCSA committee comprises 20 students, organising events and parties, supporting societies, helping students make the most of their time in Cambridge. Elizabeth Blackburn, the 2009 Nobel laureate in medicine, studied for her PhD at Darwin. Jane Goodall, the primatologist and anthropologist, graduated from Darwin with a PhD in ethology in 1964. Eric Maskin, the 2007 Nobel laureate in economics, was a visiting student in 1975–76. Dian Fossey, Brian Gibson, Seamus O'Regan and Sir Ian Wilmut are alumni/ae.
Paul Clement, the former United States Solicitor General, read for an MPhil in Politics and Economics at Darwin in 1988–89. Paul Kalanithi, the Pulitzer Prize nominated Stanford neurosurgeon and author of the New York Times Best Seller'When Breath Becomes Air', was an MPhil student at Darwin; the philosopher Huw Price, current Bertrand Russell Professor of Philosophy at Cambridge, studied for his PhD in philosophy at Darwin under the philosopher Hugh Mellor, an erstwhile fellow of the college. The philosopher Nigel Warburton studied for his PhD at Darwin. Three current masters of Cambridge colleges are Darwin alumnae: Professor Mary Fowler, Nicola Padfield, Professor Dame Jean Thomas. César Milstein, who received the 1984 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, was a Fellow of Darwin College from 1980 to 2002. Richard Henderson, winner of the 2017 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, has been a Fellow since 1981. Sir Karl Popper and the Nobel Prize winner Max Perutz were Honorary Fellows, as are Amartya Sen and Martin Rees.
Oliver Letwin was a research Fellow fr
Pembroke College, Cambridge
Pembroke College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge, England. The college is the third-oldest college of the university and has over seven hundred students and fellows. Physically, it is one of the university's larger colleges, with buildings from every century since its founding, as well as extensive gardens, its members are termed "Valencians". Pembroke has selective admissions rate and a level of academic performance among the highest of all the Cambridge colleges. Pembroke is home to the first chapel designed by Sir Christopher Wren and is one of the six Cambridge colleges to have educated a British prime minister, in Pembroke's case William Pitt the Younger; the college library, with a Victorian neo-gothic clock tower, is endowed with an original copy of the first encyclopaedia to contain printed diagrams. The college's current master is Baron Smith of Finsbury. Marie de St Pol, Countess of Pembroke founded Cambridge. On Christmas Eve 1347, Edward III granted Marie de St Pol, widow of the Earl of Pembroke, the licence for the foundation of a new educational establishment in the young university at Cambridge.
The Hall of Valence Mary, as it was known, was thus founded to house a body of students and fellows. The statutes were notable in that they both gave preference to students born in France who had studied elsewhere in England, that they required students to report fellow students if they indulged in excessive drinking or visited disreputable houses; the college was renamed Pembroke Hall, became Pembroke College in 1856. Marie was involved with College affairs in the thirty years up to her death in 1377, she seems to have been something of a disciplinarian: the original Foundation documents had strict penalties for drunkenness and lechery, required that all students’ debts were settled within two weeks of the end of term, gave strict limits on numbers at graduation parties. In 2015, the college received a bequest of £34 million from the estate of American inventor and Pembroke alumnus Ray Dolby, thought to be the largest single donation to a college in the history of Cambridge University; the first buildings comprised a single court containing all the component parts of a college – chapel, hall and buttery, master's lodgings, students' rooms – and the statutes provided for a manciple, a cook, a barber and a laundress.
Both the founding of the college and the building of the city's first college Chapel required the grant of a papal bull. The original court was the university's smallest at only 95 feet by 55 feet, but was enlarged to its current size in the nineteenth century by demolishing the south range; the college's gatehouse is the oldest in Cambridge. The original Chapel now forms the Old Library and has a striking seventeenth-century plaster ceiling, designed by Henry Doogood, showing birds flying overhead. Around the Civil War, one of Pembroke's fellows and Chaplain to the future Charles I, Matthew Wren, was imprisoned by Oliver Cromwell. On his release after eighteen years, he fulfilled a promise by hiring his nephew Christopher Wren to build a great Chapel in his former college; the resulting Chapel was consecrated on St Matthew's Day, 1665, the eastern end was extended by George Gilbert Scott in 1880, when it was consecrated on the Feast of the Annunciation. An increase in membership over the last 150 years saw a corresponding increase in building activity.
The Hall was rebuilt in 1875–6 to designs by Alfred Waterhouse after he had declared the medieval Hall unsafe. As well as the Hall, Waterhouse designed a new range of rooms, Red Buildings, in French Renaissance style, designed a new Master's Lodge on the site of Paschal Yard, pulled down the old Lodge and the south range of Old Court to open a vista to the Chapel, designed a new Library in the continental Gothic style; the construction of the new library was undertaken by Kett. Waterhouse was dismissed as architect in 1878 and succeeded by George Gilbert Scott, after extending the Chapel, provided additional accommodation with the construction of New Court in 1881, with letters on a series of shields along the string course above the first floor spelling out the text from Psalm 127:1, "Nisi Dominus aedificat domum…". Building work continued into the 20th century with W. D. Caröe as architect, he added Pitt Building between Ivy Court and Waterhouse's Lodge, extended New Court with the construction of O staircase on the other side of the Lodge.
He linked his two buildings with an arched stone screen, Caröe Bridge, along Pembroke Street in a late Baroque style, the principal function of, to act as a bridge by which undergraduates might cross the Master's forecourt at first-floor level from Pitt Building to New Court without leaving the College or trespassing in what was the Fellows' Garden. In 1926, as the Fellows had become disenchanted with Waterhouse's Hall, Maurice Webb was brought in to remove the open roof, put in a flat ceiling and add two storeys of sets above; the wall between the Hall and the Fellows' Parlour was taken down, the latter made into a High Table dais. A new Senior Parlour was created on the ground floor of Hitcham Building; the remodelling work was completed in 1949 when Murray Easton replaced the Gothic tracery of the windows with a simpler design in the style of the medieval Hall. In 1933 Maurice Webb built a new Master's Lodge in the south-east corner of the College gardens