The Cavendish Laboratory is the Department of Physics at the University of Cambridge, is part of the School of Physical Sciences. The laboratory was opened in 1874 on the New Museums Site as a laboratory for experimental physics and is named after the British chemist and physicist Henry Cavendish; the laboratory has had a huge influence on research in the disciplines of biology. The laboratory moved to its present site in West Cambridge in 1974; as of 2011, 29 Cavendish researchers have won Nobel Prizes. Notable discoveries to have occurred at the Cavendish Laboratory include the discovery of the electron and structure of DNA; the Cavendish Laboratory was located on the New Museums Site, Free School Lane, in the centre of Cambridge. It is named after British chemist and physicist Henry Cavendish for contributions to science and his relative William Cavendish, 7th Duke of Devonshire, who served as chancellor of the university and donated funds for the construction of the laboratory. Professor James Clerk Maxwell, the developer of electromagnetic theory, was a founder of the laboratory and the first Cavendish Professor of Physics.
The Duke of Devonshire had given to Maxwell, as head of the laboratory, the manuscripts of Henry Cavendish's unpublished Electrical Works. The editing and publishing of these was Maxwell's main scientific work while he was at the laboratory. Cavendish's work aroused Maxwell's intense admiration and he decided to call the Laboratory the Cavendish Laboratory and thus to commemorate both the Duke and Henry Cavendish. Several important early physics discoveries were made here, including the discovery of the electron by J. J. Thomson the Townsend discharge by John Sealy Townsend, the development of the cloud chamber by C. T. R. Wilson. Ernest Rutherford became Director of the Cavendish Laboratory in 1919. Under his leadership the neutron was discovered by James Chadwick in 1932, in the same year the first experiment to split the nucleus in a controlled manner was performed by students working under his direction. Physical Chemistry had left the old Cavendish site, subsequently locating as the Department of Physical Chemistry in the new chemistry building with the Department of Chemistry in Lensfield Road: both chemistry departments merged in the 1980s.
In World War II the laboratory carried out research for the MAUD Committee, part of the British Tube Alloys project of research into the atomic bomb. Researchers included Nicholas Kemmer, Alan Nunn May, Anthony French, Samuel Curran and the French scientists including Lew Kowarski and Hans von Halban. Several transferred to Canada in 1943; the production of plutonium and neptunium by bombarding uranium-238 with neutrons was predicted in 1940 by two teams working independently: Egon Bretscher and Norman Feather at the Cavendish and Edwin M. McMillan and Philip Abelson at Berkeley Radiation Laboratory at the University of California, Berkeley; the Cavendish Laboratory has had an important influence on biology through the application of X-ray crystallography to the study of structures of biological molecules. Francis Crick worked in the Medical Research Council Unit, headed by Max Perutz and housed in the Cavendish Laboratory, when James Watson came from the United States and they made a breakthrough in discovering the structure of DNA.
For their work while in the Cavendish Laboratory, they were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1962, together with Maurice Wilkins of King's College London, himself a graduate of St. John's College, Cambridge; the discovery was made on 28 February 1953. Sir Lawrence Bragg, the director of the Cavendish Laboratory, where Watson and Crick worked, gave a talk at Guy's Hospital Medical School in London on Thursday 14 May 1953 which resulted in an article by Ritchie Calder in the News Chronicle of London, on Friday 15 May 1953, entitled "Why You Are You. Nearer Secret of Life." The news reached readers of The New York Times the next day. The article ran in an early edition and was pulled to make space for news deemed more important.. The Cambridge University undergraduate newspaper Varsity ran its own short article on the discovery on Saturday 30 May 1953. Bragg's original announcement of the discovery at a Solvay Conference on proteins in Belgium on 8 April 1953 went unreported by the British press.
Sydney Brenner, Jack Dunitz, Dorothy Hodgkin, Leslie Orgel, Beryl M. Oughton, were some of the first people in April 1953 to see the model of the structure of DNA, constructed by Crick and Watson. All were impressed by the new DNA model Brenner who subsequently worked with Crick at Cambridge in the Cavendish Laboratory and the new Laboratory of Molecular Biology. According to the late Dr. Beryl Oughton Rimmer, they all travelled together in two cars once Dorothy Hodgkin announced to them that they were off to Cambridge to see the model of the structure of DNA. Orgel later worked with Crick at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies. Due to overcrowding in the old buildings, it moved to its present site in West Cambridge in the early 1970s
Sir David Charles Baulcombe is a British plant scientist and geneticist. As of 2017 he is a Royal Society Research Professor and Regius Professor of Botany in the Department of Plant Sciences at the University of Cambridge. David Baulcombe was born in West Midlands, he received his Bachelor of Science degree in botany from the University of Leeds in 1973 at the age of 21. He continued his studies at the University of Edinburgh, where he received his Doctor of Philosophy degree in 1977 for research on Messenger RNA in vascular plants supervised by John Ingle. After his PhD, Baulcombe spent the following three years as a post-doctoral fellow in North America, first at McGill University from January 1977 to November 1978, at the University of Georgia until December 1980. Baulcombe returned to the United Kingdom where he joined the Plant Breeding Institute in Cambridge and started his career as an independent scientist. At the PBI, Baulcombe held the position of Higher Scientific Officer, was promoted to Principal Scientific Officer in April 1986.
In August 1988 Baulcombe left Cambridge for Norwich. He joined the Sainsbury Laboratory as a Senior Research Scientist, served as Head of Laboratory between 1990 and 1993 and 1999–2003. In 1998 he was appointed Honorary Professor at the University of East Anglia, given a full professorship there in 2002. In March 2007 it was announced that Baulcombe would become the next Professor of Botany at Cambridge University as a Royal Society Research Professor, taking up his post in September 2007, he serves on several committees and study sections, was elected Member of the European Molecular Biology Organisation in 1997 and was president of the International Society of Plant Molecular Biology 2003–2004. As of 2007, he is a senior advisor for The EMBO Journal. Baulcombe's research interests and contributions to science are in the fields of virus movement, genetic regulation, disease resistance, gene silencing. With Andrew Hamilton he discovered the small interfering RNA, the specificity determinant in RNA-mediated gene silencing.
Baulcombe's group demonstrated that while viruses can induce gene silencing, some viruses encode proteins that suppress gene silencing. After these initial observations in plants, many laboratories around the world searched for the occurrence of this phenomenon in other organisms. In 1998 Craig Mello and Andrew Fire reported a potent gene silencing effect after injecting double stranded RNA into Caenorhabditis elegans; this discovery was notable because it represented the first identification of the causative agent for the phenomenon. Fire and Mello were awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 2006 for their work. With other members of his research group at the Sainsbury Laboratory, Baulcombe helped unravel the importance of small interfering RNA in epigenetics and in defence against viruses. In June 2009, Baulcombe was awarded a knighthood by Queen Elizabeth II. Baulcombe resides in Norwich. Baulcombe has received the following honours and awards: 1997 elected to EMBO Membership 2001 elected Fellow of the Royal Society 2002 elected Member of the Academia Europaea 2002 recipient of the Ruth Allen Award, awarded by the American Phytopathological Society 2002 recipient of the Kumho Science International Award in Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, awarded by the Kumho Cultural Foundation, Korea 2003 co-recipient of the Wiley Prize in the Biomedical Sciences, awarded by Rockefeller University 2004 recipient of the M. W. Beijerinck Virology Prize, awarded by the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences 2005 elected Foreign Associate Member of the National Academy of Sciences 2005 co-recipient of the Massry Prize, awarded by the Massry Foundation and the University of Southern California 2006 recipient of the Royal Society's Royal Medal 2008 co-recipient of the Benjamin Franklin Medal in Life Science, awarded by the Franklin Institute 2008 co-recipient of the Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research 2008 appointed Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge 2009 knighted by Queen Elizabeth II in the 2009 Birthday Honours List for services to plant science.
2009 recipient of the Harvey Prize, granted by the Technion Israeli Institute for Technology. 2010 recipient of the Wolf Prize in Agriculture. 2012 Balzan Prize for Epigenetics 2014 Gruber Prize in Genetics 2015 elected Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society of EdinburghBaulcombe's nomination for the Royal Society reads Baulcombe is married and has four children. His interests include music and hill walking
Free School Lane
Free School Lane is a historic street in central Cambridge, England which includes important buildings of University of Cambridge. It is the location of the Whipple Museum of the History of Science, the Department of History and Philosophy of Science the University's faculty of Social and Political Sciences, is the original site of the Engineering Department, the Physics Department's Cavendish Laboratory. At the northern end is Bene't Street and at the southern end is Pembroke Street. To the east is the New Museums Site of the University. To the west is Corpus Christi College; the name of the street comes from the "Free School", established in the 17th century by Dr Stephen Perse who left money in his will to educate 100 boys from Cambridge, Barnwell and Trumpington. This school became the first site of the Perse School; the Whipple Museum is situated in the original school hall. While at Cambridge University, Clive James and Germaine Greer lived at Friar House, an early-17th-century Grade II listed building with a timber frame and pargeting at the corner of Bene't Street and Free School Lane
John Stevens Henslow
John Stevens Henslow was a British priest and geologist. He is best remembered as mentor to his pupil Charles Darwin. Henslow was born at Rochester, the son of a solicitor John Prentis Henslow, the son of John Henslow. Henslow was educated at St. John's College, Cambridge where he graduated as 16th wrangler in 1818, the year in which Adam Sedgwick became Woodwardian Professor of Geology. Henslow graduated in 1818, he had a passion for natural history from his childhood, which influenced his career, he accompanied Sedgwick in 1819 on a tour in the Isle of Wight where he learned his first lessons in geology. He studied chemistry under Professor James Cumming and mineralogy under Edward Daniel Clarke. In the autumn of 1819 he made valuable observations on the geology of the Isle of Man and in 1820 and 1821 he investigated the geology of parts of Anglesey, the results being printed in the first volume of the Transactions of the Cambridge Philosophical Society; the Philosophical Society was founded in November 1819 by a group at Cambridge with Professors Farish and Sedgwick and Henslow.
The idea and initial impetus for the society originated from Henslow. Meanwhile, Henslow had studied mineralogy with considerable zeal, so that on the death of Clarke he was in 1822 appointed professor of mineralogy in the University of Cambridge. Two years he took holy orders. Botany, had claimed much of his attention, to this science he became more and more attached, so that he gladly resigned the chair of mineralogy in 1827, two years after becoming professor of botany; as a teacher both in the classroom and in the field he was eminently successful. He was a correspondent of John James Audubon. From 1821 Henslow had begun organising a herbarium of British flora, supplementing his own collecting with a network which expanded over time to include his friends and family, the botanists William Jackson Hooker and John Hutton Balfour, as well as about 30 of his students; as a mineralogist he had used Haüy's laws of crystallography to analyse complex crystals as transformations of "the primitive form of the species" of crystal, when he moved to botany in 1825 he sought precise laws to group plant varieties into species including as varieties plants that respected taxonomists had ranked as separate species.
He followed the understanding of the time that species were fixed as created but could vary within limits, hoped to analyse these limits of variation. By a method he called "collation", Henslow prepared sheets with several plant specimens, each labelled with the collector and place of collection, comparing the specimens to show the variation within the species, his A Catalogue of British Plants was first published in October 1829, became a set book for his lecture course. Henslow is best remembered as friend and mentor to his pupil Charles Darwin, for inspiring him with a passion for natural history; the two met in 1828. Earlier that year, Darwin joined the course and along with other students helped to collect plants of Cambridgeshire. Henslow became his tutor, it was not long before he marked out Darwin as a promising student. In 1830 Henslow experimented on varying the conditions of garden grown wild plants to produce various forms of the plant. In 1835 Henslow published Principles of Descriptive and Physiological Botany as a textbook based on this lecture course.
In the summer of 1831 Henslow was offered a place as naturalist to sail aboard the survey ship HMS Beagle on a two-year voyage to survey South America, but his wife dissuaded him from accepting. Seeing a perfect opportunity for his protégé, Henslow wrote to the ship’s captain Robert Fitzroy telling him that Darwin was the ideal man to join the expedition team. During the voyage, Darwin corresponded with Henslow, collected plants with him in mind. In particular, when first arriving at the Galápagos Islands Darwin noted "I recognize S America in Ornithology, would a botanist?", went on to collect plant specimens labelled by island and date. He labelled the mockingbirds he caught, thought these were varieties but while arranging these bird specimens on the last lap of the voyage he began wondering if they could be species, a possibility which would "undermine the stability of Species". Henslow's teaching continued to influence Darwin's work on evolution. Besides Darwin, other famous students of Henslow included Berkeley, Leonard Jenyns and Miller.
Henslow founded the Cambridge University Botanic Garden in 1831. During his time at Cambridge he extended the Botanic Garden and remodelled the 40-acre site between Bateman Street and Brooklands Avenue, making it world-renowned. In 1833 Henslow was appointed vicar of Cholsey-cum-Moulsford in Berkshire, he continued only visiting the parish during vacations. However, his appointment in 1837 to the remunerative Crown living at Hitcham, Suffolk marked a turning-point in his life; this time, in 1839, he moved to the parish, as rector of Hitcham he lived at the rectory. He worked there, his energies were devoted to the improvement of his parishioners, but his influence was felt far and wide. Botany at Cambridge suffered, attendance at lectures fell, we have records of complaints made within the university. Henslow did not resign his chair, continued to give lectures and mark exams, take part in university affairs, his influence t
Plant morphology or phytomorphology is the study of the physical form and external structure of plants. This is considered distinct from plant anatomy, the study of the internal structure of plants at the microscopic level. Plant morphology is useful in the visual identification of plants. Plant morphology "represents a study of the development and structure of plants, and, by implication, an attempt to interpret these on the basis of similarity of plan and origin". There are four major areas of investigation in plant morphology, each overlaps with another field of the biological sciences. First of all, morphology is comparative, meaning that the morphologist examines structures in many different plants of the same or different species draws comparisons and formulates ideas about similarities; when structures in different species are believed to exist and develop as a result of common, inherited genetic pathways, those structures are termed homologous. For example, the leaves of pine and cabbage all look different, but share certain basic structures and arrangement of parts.
The homology of leaves is an easy conclusion to make. The plant morphologist goes further, discovers that the spines of cactus share the same basic structure and development as leaves in other plants, therefore cactus spines are homologous to leaves as well; this aspect of plant morphology overlaps with the study of plant paleobotany. Secondly, plant morphology observes both the vegetative structures of plants, as well as the reproductive structures; the vegetative structures of vascular plants includes the study of the shoot system, composed of stems and leaves, as well as the root system. The reproductive structures are more varied, are specific to a particular group of plants, such as flowers and seeds, fern sori, moss capsules; the detailed study of reproductive structures in plants led to the discovery of the alternation of generations found in all plants and most algae. This area of plant morphology overlaps with the study of plant systematics. Thirdly, plant morphology studies plant structure at a range of scales.
At the smallest scales are ultrastructure, the general structural features of cells visible only with the aid of an electron microscope, cytology, the study of cells using optical microscopy. At this scale, plant morphology overlaps with plant anatomy as a field of study. At the largest scale is the study of plant growth habit, the overall architecture of a plant; the pattern of branching in a tree will vary from species to species, as will the appearance of a plant as a tree, herb, or grass. Fourthly, plant morphology examines the pattern of development, the process by which structures originate and mature as a plant grows. While animals produce all the body parts they will have from early in their life, plants produce new tissues and structures throughout their life. A living plant always has embryonic tissues; the way in which new structures mature as they are produced may be affected by the point in the plant's life when they begin to develop, as well as by the environment to which the structures are exposed.
A morphologist studies this process, the causes, its result. This area of plant morphology overlaps with plant ecology. A plant morphologist makes comparisons between structures in many different plants of the same or different species. Making such comparisons between similar structures in different plants tackles the question of why the structures are similar, it is quite that similar underlying causes of genetics, physiology, or response to the environment have led to this similarity in appearance. The result of scientific investigation into these causes can lead to one of two insights into the underlying biology: Homology - the structure is similar between the two species because of shared ancestry and common genetics. Convergence - the structure is similar between the two species because of independent adaptation to common environmental pressures. Understanding which characteristics and structures belong to each type is an important part of understanding plant evolution; the evolutionary biologist relies on the plant morphologist to interpret structures, in turn provides phylogenies of plant relationships that may lead to new morphological insights.
When structures in different species are believed to exist and develop as a result of common, inherited genetic pathways, those structures are termed homologous. For example, the leaves of pine and cabbage all look different, but share certain basic structures and arrangement of parts; the homology of leaves is an easy conclusion to make. The plant morphologist goes further, discovers that the spines of cactus share the same basic structure and development as leaves in other plants, therefore cactus spines are homologous to leaves as well; when structures in different species are believed to exist and develop as a result of common adaptive responses to environmental pressure, those structures are termed convergent. For example, the fronds of Bryopsis plumosa and stems of Asparagus setaceus both have the same feathery branching appearance though one is an alga and one is a flowering plant; the similarity in overall structure occurs independently as a result of convergence. The growth form of many cacti and species of Euphorbia is similar though they belong to distant families.
The similarity results from common solutions to the problem of surviving in a dry environment. Plant morphology treats both the vegetative structures of plants, as well as the reproductive structures; the vegetative structures of vascular plants include two major organ systems: a shoot system, composed o
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
In biology, phylogenetics is the study of the evolutionary history and relationships among individuals or groups of organisms. These relationships are discovered through phylogenetic inference methods that evaluate observed heritable traits, such as DNA sequences or morphology under a model of evolution of these traits; the result of these analyses is a phylogeny – a diagrammatic hypothesis about the history of the evolutionary relationships of a group of organisms. The tips of a phylogenetic tree can be living organisms or fossils, represent the "end", or the present, in an evolutionary lineage. Phylogenetic analyses have become central to understanding biodiversity, evolution and genomes. Taxonomy is the identification and classification of organisms, it is richly informed by phylogenetics, but remains a methodologically and logically distinct discipline. The degree to which taxonomies depend on phylogenies differs depending on the school of taxonomy: phenetics ignores phylogeny altogether, trying to represent the similarity between organisms instead.
Usual methods of phylogenetic inference involve computational approaches implementing the optimality criteria and methods of parsimony, maximum likelihood, MCMC-based Bayesian inference. All these depend upon an implicit or explicit mathematical model describing the evolution of characters observed. Phenetics, popular in the mid-20th century but now obsolete, used distance matrix-based methods to construct trees based on overall similarity in morphology or other observable traits, assumed to approximate phylogenetic relationships. Prior to 1950, phylogenetic inferences were presented as narrative scenarios; such methods are ambiguous and lack explicit criteria for evaluating alternative hypotheses. The term "phylogeny" derives from the German Phylogenie, introduced by Haeckel in 1866, the Darwinian approach to classification became known as the "phyletic" approach. During the late 19th century, Ernst Haeckel's recapitulation theory, or "biogenetic fundamental law", was accepted, it was expressed as "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny", i.e. the development of a single organism during its lifetime, from germ to adult, successively mirrors the adult stages of successive ancestors of the species to which it belongs.
But this theory has long been rejected. Instead, ontogeny evolves – the phylogenetic history of a species cannot be read directly from its ontogeny, as Haeckel thought would be possible, but characters from ontogeny can be used as data for phylogenetic analyses. 14th century, lex parsimoniae, William of Ockam, English philosopher and Franciscan friar, but the idea goes back to Aristotle, precursor concept 1763, Bayesian probability, Rev. Thomas Bayes, precursor concept 18th century, Pierre Simon first to use ML, precursor concept 1809, evolutionary theory, Philosophie Zoologique, Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck, precursor concept, foreshadowed in the 17th century and 18th century by Voltaire and Leibniz, with Leibniz proposing evolutionary changes to account for observed gaps suggesting that many species had become extinct, others transformed, different species that share common traits may have at one time been a single race foreshadowed by some early Greek philosophers such as Anaximander in the 6th century BC and the atomists of the 5th century BC, who proposed rudimentary theories of evolution 1837, Darwin's notebooks show an evolutionary tree 1843, distinction between homology and analogy, Richard Owen, precursor concept 1858, Paleontologist Heinrich Georg Bronn published a hypothetical tree to illustrating the paleontological "arrival" of new, similar species following the extinction of an older species.
Bronn did not propose a mechanism responsible for precursor concept. 1858, elaboration of evolutionary theory and Wallace in Origin of Species by Darwin the following year, precursor concept 1866, Ernst Haeckel, first publishes his phylogeny-based evolutionary tree, precursor concept 1893, Dollo's Law of Character State Irreversibility, precursor concept 1912, ML recommended and popularized by Ronald Fisher, precursor concept 1921, Tillyard uses term "phylogenetic" and distinguishes between archaic and specialized characters in his classification system 1940, term "clade" coined by Lucien Cuénot 1949, Jackknife resampling, Maurice Quenouille, precursor concept 1950, Willi Hennig's classic formalization 1952, William Wagner's groundplan divergence method 1953, "cladogenesis" coined 1960, "cladistic" coined by Cain and Harrison 1963, first attempt to use ML for phylogenetics and Cavalli-Sforza 1965 Camin-Sokal parsimony, first parsimony criterion and first computer program/algorithm for cladistic analysis both by Camin and Sokal character compatibility method called clique analysis, introduced independently by Camin and Sokal and E. O. Wilson 1966 English translation of Hennig "cladistics" and "cladogram" coined 1969 dynamic and successive wei