Dunblane is a town in the council area of Stirling in central Scotland. It is a commuter town, with many residents making use of good transport links to much of the Central Belt, including Glasgow and Edinburgh. Dunblane is built on the banks of a tributary of the River Forth. Dunblane Cathedral is its most prominent landmark. Dunblane had a population of 8,114 at the 2001 census; the most popular theory for the derivation of the name "Dunblane" is that it means "fort of Blane", commemorating Saint Blane, an early Christian saint who lived in the late 6th century. His main seat was Kingarth on the Isle of Bute, he or his followers may have founded a church at Dunblane. The earliest spellings of the name Dunblane are of the form Dul Blaan, the first element being a Pictish word for'water meadow, haugh', borrowed into Scottish Gaelic. There are parallels to Dul Blaan in such Scottish place-names as Dalserf and Dalpatrick, all of which commemorate saints; the earliest evidence for Christianity on the site are two cross-slabs of the 10th to 11th centuries which are preserved in the cathedral.
Incorporated into the medieval building, but free-standing, is an 11th-century bell-tower, whose height was increased in the 15th century. The nave and aisleless choir are 13th century. Dunblane did not have a rich or extensive medieval diocese, the cathedral is modest in scale, but its refined architecture is much admired, as is its setting overlooking the valley of the Allan Water. After the Reformation, the nave of the cathedral was abandoned and soon became roofless and used for burials; the choir was retained as the parish church. The nave was re-roofed and the cathedral provided with new furnishings by Robert Rowand Anderson between 1889 and 1893. During the boom years of the Hydropathy movement in the 19th century, Dunblane was the location of a successful hydropathic establishment. Since the early 1970s the town has grown extensively and is now regarded as a sought-after commuter town due to its excellent road and rail links and good schools. Dunblane is close to the University of Stirling's campus at Bridge of Allan, is a popular location for academics.
Japanese Wagyu beef is now being raised in Dunblane. The town was a royal burgh and part of Perthshire until the 1975 abolition of Scottish counties, from which point it became part of Stirling District in Central Region. In 1994, the regions were themselves abolished and Dunblane's only local authority became Stirling Council. In addition, Dunblane has an active community council; until 1983, Dunblane was part of the Kinross and Western Perthshire constituency of the UK parliament, being represented by predominantly Unionist MPs. After 1983, it became part of the Stirling constituency, since has been represented by Conservative, Labour and SNP MPs. In the Scottish Parliament, Dunblane is part of the Clackmannanshire and Dunblane constituency and the Mid Scotland and Fife region, it shares a ward with Bridge of Allan in council elections. Dunblane is referred to as a city, due to the presence of Dunblane Cathedral. However, this status was never recognised. Dunblane has two supermarkets, a Tesco and a M&S Foodhall, as well as a local Co-op.
Among other shops, the High Street has two independent butchers and one remaining bank, the Bank of Scotland Over the course of 6 years, a small group of young local boys and their parents raised money to build a skatepark in the Laighills. The skatepark was completed on 23 February 2007 and has been visited by Death skateboard team and by the Vans UK Tour; the town is served by Dunblane railway station, which has regular services to Stirling, Perth and Edinburgh. It is a stop on the Caledonian Sleeper from Inverness, several other long distance trains to Aberdeen, Dundee and London. Dunblane station was the junction for services over the scenically attractive route to Doune and Crianlarich, where the line joined the still extant line from Glasgow to Oban; the route to Oban via the popular Callander line closed in 1965. Dunblane is the northernmost station of Network Rail's Edinburgh to Glasgow Improvement Programme, which includes electrification. Dunblane is the point at which the M9 motorway ends and joins the A9 dual carriageway north towards Perth.
The A9 went through the centre of Dunblane, but a bypass was completed in 1991 and the old road became the B8033. The rapid expansion of the town has led to a large increase in local car usage, resulting in considerable parking problems. Dunblane Cathedral - Church of Scotland St Blane's Church - Church of Scotland St Mary's Church - Scottish Episcopal Church Church of the Holy Family - Roman Catholic Church Free Church of Scotland Dunblane Christian Fellowship Community of St Nicholas - Eastern Orthodox ChurchDunblane Cathedral is remarkable in having retained more of its late-medieval choir stalls than any other Scottish church building, is noted for its organ. Further fragments of medieval woodwork from the cathedral are displayed in the town's museum the Cathedral Museum, situated nearby. Though still used as a parish church, the building is in the care of Historic Scotland. To the south of the cathedral are some stone vaults of medieval origin, which are the only remaining f
Doune is a burgh in the district of Stirling, Scotland. Doune's postal address places the town in Perthshire, its Registration County, although administratively Doune is under the control of Stirling Council. Doune is assigned Falkirk postcodes starting'FK'; the village lies within the parish of Kilmadock and within the area surrounded by the River Teith and Ardoch Burn. In the 2001 Scottish census, 2.75% residents of Doune could speak Scottish Gaelic. Doune has a small primary school with 183 pupils on the roll, drawn from a catchment area which extends outside the town to the north. Gaelic is taught in Primary 1–7 and Spanish is now taught from P5 upwards; the town is dominated by Doune Castle, built in the late 14th century. Architecturally it is a mixture of fortress and manor house. Bonnie Prince Charlie passed through Doune in 1745. Doune was famous for its manufacture of pistols, but this ceased due to the competition of manufacturers in, for example, Birmingham where production was cheaper.
Today, these pistols are collected and can be found in major museums, including the Museum of Scotland in Edinburgh. A Doune pistol fired the first shot of the American War of Independence. Throughout the parish the names most met with are Campbell, Ferguson, Morrison, McAlpine, McLaren, MacDonald and Cameron. Land east of Doune was owned by the Stirling of Keir family, the current owner of the Keir Estates is the politician Archie Stirling. One member of the family, SAS founder David Stirling, is memorialised at a monument on the Keir land near Doune known as the'Hill o' Rou'; the local amateur football team Doune Castle A. F. C. Play in the Caledonian Amateur Football League; the local cricket team play in Perthshire Cricket Union. Doune is well known for its pistols and Roman remains, but the Doune area has been inhabited a lot longer and many burial mounds and standing stones supporting this are evident and plentiful. To the rear of Doune where the Ponds and the Doune Riggs housing development now sits was known locally as Currachmore.
This area contained an area popular with walkers. This area was quarried and the sand coming from here was used in the construction of Longannet. Lost to the quarrying was a mound measuring 150 yards long, 100 yards wide and 30 feet high, known locally as the Round Wood. At the time of quarrying, a stone cist or coffin was uncovered and in it were remains of a small boy aged 6, with a small stone axe, he was identified as one of the Beaker people of the early Bronze Age 1800 BC. The remains of a Roman fort were excavated by Headland Archaeology. Three ditches and the base of a rampart were investigated comprising part of the defense works. Set into the back of the rampart five circular stone bread ovens were located. Running behind the ovens a gravel track was interpreted as the intervallum way; the foundations of a building that it is thought served as the fort’s hospital were uncovered. Fragments of samian ware and amphorae were recovered dating to the Flavian period and the first Roman incursion into Scotland.
The remains of the Roman fort are a scheduled monument. Like in other Celtic lands, Doune has tales of fairies. One such place is Ternishee, a small wood east of the Annat chapel, above Doune Lodge, 1½ miles from Doune, its name comes from the Gaelic "tir na sídhe" meaning land of the fairy. Fairy dancing parties are recounted on the Fairy Knowe, a hillock on the right bank of the Ardoch, half a mile east of Doune. Near the Bridge of Teith, on the low road to Callander, a burial mound called Tullochanknowe is said to be a favourite haunt of the fairies. Doune Speed Hillclimb is the most prestigious hillclimb course in Scotland, hosts a round of the British Hill Climb Championship each year; the town used to be served by Doune railway station. Doune has been used as a filming location, most famously for Monty Python and the Holy Grail, filmed at Doune Castle; the castle has been used for major TV series, most notably Ivanhoe, Game of Thrones and Outlander. Gazetteer for Doune Doune Roman fort RAILSCOT photos of Doune Station Accommodation in Doune
In geography and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a settlement can range from a small number of dwellings grouped together to the largest of cities with surrounding urbanized areas. Settlements may include hamlets, villages and cities. A settlement may have known historical properties such as the date or era in which it was first settled, or first settled by particular people. In the field of geospatial predictive modeling, settlements are "a city, village or other agglomeration of buildings where people live and work". A settlement conventionally includes its constructed facilities such as roads, field systems, boundary banks and ditches, ponds and woods, wind and water mills, manor houses and churches; the oldest remains that have been found of constructed dwellings are remains of huts that were made of mud and branches around 17,000 BC at the Ohalo site near the edge of the Sea of Galilee. The Natufians built houses in the Levant, around 10,000 BC.
Remains of settlements such as villages become much more common after the invention of agriculture. Landscape history studies the form of settlements – for example whether they are dispersed or nucleated. Urban morphology can thus be considered a special type of cultural-historical landscape studies. Settlements can be ordered by centrality or other factors to define a settlement hierarchy. A settlement hierarchy can be used for classifying settlement all over the world, although a settlement called a'town' in one country might be a'village' in other countries. Geoscience Australia defines a populated place as "a named settlement with a population of 200 or more persons"; the Committee for Geographical Names in Australasia used the term localities for rural areas, while the Australian Bureau of Statistics uses the term "urban centres/localities" for urban areas. The Agency for Statistics in Bosnia and Herzegovina uses the term "populated place" for rural, "municipality" and "town" for urban areas.
The Bulgarian Government publishes a National Register of Populated places. The Canadian government uses the term "populated place" in the Atlas of Canada, but does not define it. Statistics Canada uses the term localities for historical named locations; the Croatian Bureau of Statistics records population in units called settlements. The Census Commission of India has a special definition of census towns; the Central Statistics Office of the Republic of Ireland has a special definition of census towns. There are various types of inhabited localities in Russia. Statistics Sweden uses the term localities for various densely populated places; the common English-language translation is urban areas. The UK Department for Communities and Local Government uses the term "urban settlement" to denote an urban area when analysing census information; the Registrar General for Scotland defines settlements as groups of one or more contiguous localities, which are determined according to population density and postcode areas.
The Scottish settlements are used as one of several factors defining urban areas. The United States Geological Survey has a Geographic Names Information System that defines three classes of human settlement: Populated place − place or area with clustered or scattered buildings and a permanent human population. A populated place is not incorporated and by definition has no legal boundaries. However, a populated place may have a corresponding "civil" record, the legal boundaries of which may or may not coincide with the perceived populated place. Census − a statistical area delineated locally for the tabulation of Census Bureau data. Civil − a political division formed for administrative purposes."Populated places may be defined in the context of censuses and be different from general-purpose administrative entities, such as "place" as defined by the U. S. Census Bureau or census-designated places. In the field of geospatial predictive modeling, settlements are "a city, village, or other agglomeration of buildings where people live and work".
The Global Human Settlement Layer framework produces global spatial information about the human presence on the planet over time. This in the form of built up population density maps and settlement maps; this information is generated with evidence-based analytics and knowledge using new spatial data mining technologies. The framework uses heterogeneous data including global archives of fine-scale satellite imagery, census data, volunteered geographic information; the data is processed automatically and generates analytics and knowledge reporting objectively and systematically about the presence of population and built-up infrastructures. The GHSL operates in an free data and methods access policy; the term "Abandoned populated places" is a Feature Designation Name in databases sourced by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency and GeoNames. Populated places can be abandoned. Sometimes the structures are still accessible, such as in a ghost town, these may become tourist attractions; some places that have the appearance of a ghost town, may still be defined as populated places by government entities.
A town may become a ghost town because the economic activity that supported it has failed, because of a government action, such as the building of a dam that floods t
The River Forth is a major river, 47 km long, whose drainage basin covers much of Stirlingshire in Scotland's Central Belt. The Gaelic name is Abhainn Dubh, meaning "black river", in the upper reach above Stirling. Below the tidal reach, its name is Uisge For; the Forth rises in a mountainous area 30 km west of Stirling. Ben Lomond's eastern slopes drain into the Duchray Water which meets with Avondhu River coming from Loch Ard; the confluence of these two streams is the nominal start of the River Forth. From there it flows eastward, through Aberfoyle, joining with the Kelty Water, about 5 km further downstream; the flat expanse of the Carse of Stirling follows including Flanders Moss. It is joined by the River Teith just west of the M9, the next tributary being the Allan Water just east of that motorway. From there it meanders into the ancient port of Stirling. At Stirling the river widens, becomes tidal, it is here that the last ford of the river exists. From Stirling, the Forth flows east accepting the Bannock Burn from the south before passing the town of Fallin.
Two towns of Clackmannanshire are passed: firstly Cambus followed by Alloa. Upon reaching Airth on the south shore and Kincardine on the north, the river begins to widen and becomes the Firth of Forth; the banks have many settlements including Aberfoyle, Stirling, Cambus, Alloa, South Alloa, Dunmore and Kincardine. Beyond this the brackish water is considered the Firth of Forth. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries Stirling harbour was a busy port, with goods coming into Scotland and being exported to Europe. Links with the Hansa towns were strong, Stirling had a close relationship with Bruges in Belgium and Veere in the Netherlands. After 1707 much of the trade shifted to the port of Glasgow, as trade with America became the new focus. During the First and Second World Wars, Stirling harbour thrived again as a gateway for supplies of tea to Scotland. Trade returned after the wars but the few agricultural merchants based at Stirling found such shipping uncompetitive due to high shore dues levied by the harbour’s owners.
Today Stirling's harbour is not used but there are plans to redevelop it. Upstream of Stirling, the river is crossed in numerous places. After its confluence with the Teith and Allan, the river is sufficiently wide that a significant bridge is required. A bridge has existed at Stirling since at least the 13th century, until the opening of the road crossing at Kincardine in 1936, Stirling remained the easternmost road crossing; the Alloa Swing Bridge, a railway bridge between Alloa on the north shore and Throsk on the south opened in 1885 and was closed in 1970. Only the metal piers remain; the Clackmannanshire Bridge just upstream of the Kincardine Bridge opened on 19 November 2008. Much further downstream joining North Queensferry and South Queensferry is the famous Forth Bridge opened in 1890, the Forth Road Bridge which opened in 1964. In 2011 construction began on the Queensferry Crossing, to the west of the Forth Road Bridge, which opened on 4 September 2017. Two islands known as inches form part of the meandering estuarine waters downstream from Stirling.
Tullibody Inch near Cambus and Alloa Inch near Alloa are both small and uninhabited. River Forth, a silent black and white short film - includes scenes of animals being herded through the streets. Britain's Lost Routes with Griff Rhys Jones Episode 3 shows the difficulties cattle drovers might have encountered at Frew, shows aerial shots and taking cows across the Auld Brig. Sruth gu Sal - a look at the Forth river Episode 1 -25 mins 400 kV Forth Crossing List of rivers of Scotland Rivers and Fisheries Trusts of Scotland Forth, the name of one of the sea areas of the British Shipping Forecast. Scottish Parliament: Forth Crossing Bill Committee Report, March 2010 River Forth Crossing: House of Commons debates 18 May 2009 British Waterways: River Forth Gazetteer for Scotland: River Forth SCRAN image: Steam dredger, River forth, late 19th Century Stirling Council: River Forth Forth Ports PLC Scottish Environment Protection Agency: River level data for River Forth Forth Estuary Forum, a Scottish Charity Forth District Salmon Fishery Board River Forth Fisheries Trust Forth Bridges Visitor Centre Trust FYCA Alloa Swing Bridge RIVER FORTH FORTH - POWERHOUSE FOR INDUSTRY
Stirling is a city in central Scotland, 26 miles north-east of Glasgow and 37 miles north-west of the Scottish capital, Edinburgh. The market town, surrounded by rich farmland, grew up connecting the royal citadel, the medieval old town with its merchants and tradesmen, the bridge and the port. Located on the River Forth, Stirling is the administrative centre for the Stirling council area, is traditionally the county town of Stirlingshire. Proverbially it is the strategically important "Gateway to the Highlands", it has been said that "Stirling, like a huge brooch clasps Highlands and Lowlands together". "he who holds Stirling, holds Scotland" is quoted. Stirling's key position as the lowest bridging point of the River Forth before it broadens towards the Firth of Forth, made it a focal point for travel north or south; when Stirling was temporarily under Anglo-Saxon sway, according to a 9th-century legend, it was attacked by Danish invaders. The sound of a wolf roused a sentry, who alerted his garrison, which forced a Viking retreat.
This led to the wolf being adopted as a symbol of the town. The area is today known as Wolfcraig. Today the wolf appears with a goshawk on the council's coat of arms along with the chosen motto: "Steadfast as the Rock". Once the capital of Scotland, Stirling is visually dominated by Stirling Castle. Stirling has a medieval parish church, the Church of the Holy Rude, where, on 29 July 1567, the infant James VI was anointed King of Scots by the Bishop of Orkney with the service concluding after a sermon by John Knox; the poet King grew up in Stirling. He was also crowned King of England and Ireland on 25 July 1603, bringing closer the countries of the United Kingdom. Modern Stirling is a centre for local government, higher education, tourism and industry; the mid-2012 census estimate for the population of the city is 36,440. One of the principal royal strongholds of the Kingdom of Scotland, Stirling was created a royal burgh by King David I in 1130. In 2002, as part of Queen Elizabeth's Golden Jubilee, Stirling was granted city status.
The origin of the name Stirling is uncertain, but folk etymology suggests that it originates in either a Scots or Gaelic term meaning the place of battle, struggle or strife. Other sources suggest that it originates in a Brythonic name meaning "dwelling place of Melyn", with the first element being connected to Middle Welsh ystre-, "a dwelling"; the name may have been a hydronym, connected to Brittonic *lïnn, "lake, pool". It is supposed that Stirling is the fortress of Iuddeu or Urbs Giudi where Oswiu of Northumbria was besieged by Penda of Mercia in 655, as recorded in Bede and contemporary annals. A stone cist, found in Coneypark Nursery in 1879, is Stirling's oldest catalogued artefact. Bones from the cist were radiocarbon dated and found to be over four millennia old, originating within the date range 2152 to 2021 BC. Nicknamed Torbrex Tam, the man, whose bones were discovered by workmen, died while still in his twenties. Other Bronze Age finds near the city come from the area around Cambusbarron.
It had been thought that the Randolphfield standing stones were more than 3000 years old but recent radiocarbon dating suggests they may date from the time of Bruce. The earliest known structures on Gillies Hill were built by Iron Age people over 2000 years ago. Two structures are known: what is called Wallstale Dun on the southern end of Touchadam Craig, Gillies Hill fort on the northwest end of the craig. South of the city, the King's Park prehistoric carvings can still be found. Whether the ancient Maeatae or Manaw Gododdin tribes settled in Stirling is not clear; the castle rock has been strategically significant since at least the Roman occupation of Britain, due to its defensible crag and tail hill: the bedrock on which Stirling Castle was built. However, if the Romans were on the current castle site they didn't leave more than a coin or two. Stirling enjoys a unique position on the border between the Lowlands and Highlands, its other notable geographic feature is its proximity to the lowest site of subjugation of the River Forth.
Control of the bridge brought military advantage in times of unrest and. Unsurprisingly excise men were installed in a covered booth in the centre of the bridge to collect tax from any entering the royal burgh with goods. Stirling remained the river's lowest reliable crossing point until the construction of the Alloa Swing Bridge between Throsk and Alloa in 1885; the city has two Latin mottoes, which appeared on the earliest burgh seal of which an impression of 1296 is on record. The first alludes to the story as recorded by Boece who relates that in 855 Scotland was invaded by two Northumbrian princes and Ella, they united their forces with the Cumbrian Britons. Having secured Stirling castle, they built the first stone bridge over the ForthOn the top they raised a crucifix with the inscription: "Anglos, a Scotis separat, crux ista remotis. Bellenden translated this loosely as "I am free marche, as passengers may ken, To Scottis, to Britonis, to Inglismen." It may be the stone cross was a tripoint for the three kingdom's marches.
"Angles and Scots here demarked, By this cross kept apart. Brits and Sco
Aberfoyle is a village in the historic county and registration county of Perthshire and the council area of Stirling, Scotland. The settlement lies 27 miles northwest of Glasgow; the parish of Aberfoyle takes its name from this village, had a population of 1,065 at the 2011 Census. The town is situated on the River Forth at the foot of Craigmore. Since 1885, when the Duke of Montrose constructed a road over the eastern shoulder of Craigmore to join the older road at the entrance of the Trossachs pass, Aberfoyle has become the alternative route to the Trossachs and Loch Katrine. Loch Ard, about two miles west of Aberfoyle, lies 40 metres above the sea, it is one mile broad. Towards the west end is Eilean Gorm, near the north-western shore are the falls of Ledard; the loch's northern shores are dominated by the mountain ridge of Beinn an Fhogharaidh. Two miles northwest of Loch Ard is Loch Chon, at 90m above the sea, 1 1⁄4 miles long, about half a mile broad, it drains by the Avon Dhu to Loch Ard, drained in turn by the Forth.
Aberfoyle originates from the Brittonic Celtic, aber poll or aber phuill, meaning mouth of the Phuill Burn. Alternative spellings such as Abirfull, Aberfule and Aberfoil have been recorded before the current spelling became accepted by the 20th century; the slate quarries on Craigmore which operated from the 1820s to the 1950s are now defunct. Other industries included an ironworks, established in the 1720s, as well as wool spinning and a lint mill. From 1882 the village was served by Aberfoyle railway station, the terminus of the Strathendrick and Aberfoyle Railway which connected to Glasgow via Dumbarton or Kirkintilloch; the station closed to passenger traffic in 1951, the remaining freight services ceased in 1959. The above industries have since died out, Aberfoyle is supported by the forestry and tourism. Visitors were first attracted to Aberfoyle and the surrounding area after the publication of The Lady of the Lake by Sir Walter Scott in 1810; the poem described the beauty of Loch Katrine.
Aberfoyle describes itself as The Gateway to the Trossachs, is well situated for visitors to access attractions such as Loch Lomond and Inchmahome Priory at the Lake of Menteith. A tourist information office run by VisitScotland sits in the centre of town, offering free information, selling souvenirs and acting as a booking office for many of the local B&B's and hotels. Aberfoyle Golf Club is located just south of town near the Rob Roy restaurant. Aberfoyle is part of the Loch Lomond and The Trossachs National Park. Aberfoyle is home to the largest Go Ape adventure course in the UK, featuring the longest death slide, or'zip-line', in the UK. Aberfoyle has connections to many historical figures such as Mary, Queen of Scots. Robert Roy MacGregor was born at the head of nearby Loch Katrine, his well-known cattle stealing exploits took him all around the area surrounding Aberfoyle, it is recorded, for example, that in 1691, the MacGregors raided every barn in the village of Kippen and stole all the villagers' livestock!
There stands a tree in the village that MacGregor was reputed to have climbed and hid in to escape the clutches of the law. Mary, Queen of Scots, visited nearby Inchmahome Priory as a child, during her short reign, she used the priory during her short reign in 1547, where she felt safe from the English Army. However, the most local historical figure is the Reverend Robert Kirk, born in 1644, it was the Rev. Kirk who provided the first translation into Gaidhlig of the Book of Psalms, however, he is better remembered for the publication of his book "The Secret Commonwealth of Elves and Fairies" in 1691. Kirk had long been researching fairies, the book collected several personal accounts and stories of folk who claimed to have encountered them, it was after this, while Kirk was minister of Aberfoyle parish, that he died in unusual circumstances. Kirk had long believed that the local Doon Hill was the gateway to the "Secret Commonwealth", or the land of the Fairies, it was a place that Kirk visited taking daily walks there from his manse.
The story goes that the Fairies of Doon Hill were angry with the Rev. Kirk for going into the domain of the Unseelie court, where he had been warned not to go, decided to imprison him in Doon Hill — for one night in May 1692, the Rev. Kirk went out for a walk to the hill, in his nightshirt; some accounts claim that he vanished, however he collapsed. He was died soon afterwards, he was buried in his own kirkyard, although local legends claim that the fairies took his body away, the coffin contains only stones. The huge pine tree that still stands at the top of Doon Hill is said to contain Kirk's imprisoned spirit. Kirk's cousin, Graham of Duchray, was to claim that the spectre of Kirk had visited him in the night, told him that he had been carried off by the Fairies. Having left his widow expecting a child, the spectre of Kirk told Graham that he would appear at the baptism, whereupon Graham was to throw an iron knife at the apparition, thus freeing Kirk from the Fairies' clutches. However, when Kirk's spectre appeared, Graham was too shocked by the vision to throw the knife, Kirk's ghost faded away forever.
Fire services in the United Kingdom
The fire services in the United Kingdom operate under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland. Emergency cover is provided by over fifty agencies; these are known as a fire and rescue service, the term used in modern legislation and by government departments. The older terms of fire brigade and fire service survive in informal usage and in the names of a few organisations. England and Wales have local fire services which are each overseen by a fire authority, made up of representatives of local governments. Fire authorities have the power to raise a Council Tax levy for funding, with the remainder coming from the government. Scotland and Northern Ireland have centralised fire services, so their authorities are committees of the devolved parliaments; the total budget for fire services in 2014-15 was £2.9 billion. Central government maintains national standards and a body of independent advisers through the Chief Fire and Rescue Adviser, created in 2007, while Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services provides direct oversight.
The devolved government in Scotland has HMFSI Scotland. Firefighters in the United Kingdom are allowed to join unions, the main one being the Fire Brigades Union, while chief fire officers are members of the National Fire Chiefs Council, which has some role in national co-ordination; the fire services have undergone significant changes since the beginning of the 21st century, a process, propelled by a devolution of central government powers, new legislation and a change to operational procedures in the light of terrorism attacks and threats. See separate article History of fire safety legislation in the United Kingdom Comprehensive list of recent UK fire and rescue service legislation: Fire services are established and granted their powers under new legislation which has replaced a number of Acts of Parliament dating back more than 60 years, but is still undergoing change. 1938: Fire Brigades Act 1938. This Act provided for centralised co-ordination of fire brigades in Great Britain and made it mandatory for local authorities to arrange an effective fire service.
1947: Fire Services Act 1947 This Act transferred the functions of the National Fire Service to local authorities. Now repealed in England and Wales by Schedule 2 of the Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004. 1959: Fire Services Act 1959 This Act amended the 1947 Act. It was repealed in Wales along with the 1947 Act. 1999: Greater London Authority Act 1999 This act was necessary to allow for the formation of the Greater London Authority and in turn the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2002, there was a series of national fire strikes, with much of the discontent caused by the aforementioned report into the fire service conducted by Prof Sir George Bain. In December 2002, the Independent Review of the Fire Service was published with the industrial action still ongoing. Bain's report led to a change in the laws relating to firefighting. 2002: Independent Review of the Fire Service published 2004: Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004 only applying to England and Wales. 2006: The Regulatory Reform Order 2005 This piece of secondary legislation or statutory instrument replaces several other acts that dealt with fire precautions and fire safety in premises, including the now defunct process of issuing fire certificates.
It came into force on 1 October 2006. The DfCLG has published a set of guides for non-domestic premises: 2006: The Government of Wales Act 2006 gave the National Assembly for Wales powers to pass laws on "Fire and rescue services. Promotion of fire safety otherwise than by prohibition or regulation." But does not prevent future legislation being passed by the UK government which applies to two or more constituent countries. There are further plans to modernise the fire service according to the Local Government Association, its website outlines future changes, specific projects: "The aim of the Fire Modernisation Programme is to adopt modern work practices within the Fire & Rescue Service to become more efficient and effective, while strengthening the contingency and resilience of the Service to react to incidents. " The fire service in England and Wales is scrutinised by a House of Commons select committee. In June 2006, the fire and rescue service select committee, under the auspices of the Communities and Local Government Committee, published its latest report.
Committee report The committee's brief is described on its website: The Communities and Local Government Committee is appointed by the House of Commons to examine the expenditure and policy of the Department for Communities and Local Government and its associated bodies. Government response This document, the subsequent government response in September 2006, are important as they outlined progress on the FiReControl, efforts to address diversity and the planned closure of HMFSI in 2007 among many issues. Both documents are interesting as they refer back to Professor Bain's report and the many recommendations it made and continue to put forward the notion that there is an ongoing need to modernise FRSs. For example, where FRSs were inspected by HMFSI, much of this work is now carried out by the National Audit Office. Fire Control On 8 February 2010 the House of Commons Communities and Local Governm