Steeplechase (horse racing)
A steeplechase is a distance horse race in which competitors are required to jump diverse fence and ditch obstacles. Steeplechasing is conducted in Ireland, the United Kingdom, United States and France; the name is derived from early races in which orientation of the course was by reference to a church steeple, jumping fences and ditches and traversing the many intervening obstacles in the countryside. Modern usage of the term "steeplechase" differs between countries. In Ireland and the United Kingdom, it refers only to races run over large, fixed obstacles, in contrast to "hurdle" races where the obstacles are much smaller; the collective term "jump racing" or "National Hunt racing" is used when referring to steeplechases and hurdle races collectively. Elsewhere in the world, "steeplechase" is used to refer to any race; the most famous steeplechase in the world is the Grand National run annually at Aintree Racecourse, in Liverpool, since its inception in 1836, which in 2014 offered a prize fund of £1 million.
The steeplechase originated in Ireland in the 18th century as an analogue to cross-country thoroughbred horse races which went from church steeple to church steeple, hence "steeplechase". The first steeplechase is said to have been the result of a wager in 1752 between Cornelius O'Callaghan and Edmund Blake, racing four miles cross-country from St John's Church in Buttevant to St Mary's Church in Doneraile, in Cork, Ireland. An account of the race was believed to have been in the library of the O'Briens of Dromoland Castle. Most of the earlier steeplechases were contested cross-country rather than on a track, resembled English cross country as it exists today; the first recorded steeplechase over a prepared track with fences was run at Bedford in 1810, although a race had been run at Newmarket in 1794 over a mile with five-foot bars every quarter mile. and the first recorded steeplechase of any kind in England took place in Leicestershire in 1792, when three horses raced the eight miles from Barkby Holt to Billesdon Coplow and back.
The first recorded hurdle race took place at Durdham Down near Bristol in 1821. There were 5 hurdles on the mile long course, the race was run in three heats; the first recognised English National Steeplechase took place on Monday 8 March 1830. The 4-mile race, organised by Thomas Coleman of St Albans, was run from Bury Orchard, Harlington in Bedfordshire to the Obelisk in Wrest Park, Bedfordshire; the winner was Captain Macdowall on "The Wonder", owned by Lord Ranelagh, who won in a time of 16 minutes 25 seconds. Report of the event appeared in the May and July editions of Sporting Magazine in 1830. In Great Britain and Ireland, "steeplechase" only refers to one branch of jump racing. Collectively, Great Britain and Ireland account for over 50% of all jump races worldwide, carding 4,800 races over fences in 2008. Jump racing in Great Britain and Ireland is known as National Hunt racing. French jump racing is similar to British and Irish National Hunt races, with a few notable differences. Hurdles are not collapsible.
Chases have large fences called bullfinches, a large hedge up to 8 ft tall that horses have to jump through rather than over. There are a larger number of cross-country chases where horses have to jump up and down banks, gallop through water, jump over stone walls as well as jump normal chasing fences. Unlike in most countries where the thoroughbred is exclusively used for jump racing, many of the horses in French jump racing are AQPS, a breed of horse developed in France crossing thoroughbreds with saddle horses and other local breeds. Auteuil in Paris is the best known racecourse in France for French jump racing; the Velká pardubická Steeplechase in Pardubice in the Czech Republic is the location of one of the longest steeplechase races in Europe. The first Velka Pardubice Steeplechase was held on 5 November 1874 and it has been hosted annually since. In the United States, there are two forms of steeplechasing: timber. Hurdle races occur always over the National fences, standardized plastic and steel fences that are 52 inches tall, with traditional natural fences of packed pine and live hedges in use on a few courses.
National fences stand 52 inches tall at the highest point, but are made of synthetic "brush" that can be brushed through. The hurdle horse is trained to jump in as much of a regular stride as possible; this allows the horse to maintain its speed upon landing. Since it is not always possible to meet a fence in stride, the horses are schooled in how to jump out of stride. An out of stride jump can decrease a horse's speed drastically. Hurdle races are run at distances of 2–3 miles. Hurdle races occur at steeplechase meets in the Mid-Atlantic and Southeast and on the turf courses of several racetracks – Saratoga, Colonial Downs, Penn National, Monmouth Park and others. Timber racing is conducted over solid and immovable wooden rail fences that, in the most extreme case, may reach five feet high; the distances are longer, ranging from three to four miles, the jumping effort required of the horse is much different. Because of the size of the fences and their solid and unyielding construction, a timber horse is trained to jump with an arc, unlike a hurdle racer.
An important factor in success at timber racing is for th
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
Nathanael Greene was a major general of the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War. He emerged from the war with a reputation as General George Washington's most gifted and dependable officer, is known for his successful command in the southern theater of the war. Born into a prosperous Quaker family in Warwick, Rhode Island, Greene became active in the resistance to British revenue policies in the early 1770s and helped establish the Kentish Guards, a state militia. After the April 1775 Battles of Lexington and Concord, the legislature of Rhode Island established an army and appointed Greene to command it. In the year, Greene became a general in the newly-established Continental Army. Greene served under Washington in the Boston campaign, the New York and New Jersey campaign, the Philadelphia campaign before being appointed quartermaster general of the Continental Army in 1778. In October 1780, General Washington appointed Greene as the commander of the Continental Army in the southern theater.
After taking command, Greene engaged in a successful campaign of guerrilla warfare against the numerically superior force of General Charles Cornwallis. He inflicted heavy losses on British forces at Battle of Guilford Court House, the Battle of Hobkirk's Hill, the Battle of Eutaw Springs, eroding British control of the Southern United States. Major fighting on land came to an end following the surrender of Cornwallis at the Battle of Yorktown in October 1781, but Greene continued to serve in the Continental Army until late 1783. After the war, he sought to become a successful planter in the South, but died in 1786 at his Mulberry Grove Plantation in Chatham County, Georgia. Many places in the United States are named after Greene. Greene was born on August 7, 1742, on Forge Farm at Potowomut in the township of Warwick, Rhode Island, part of British North America, he was Nathanael Greene Sr. a prosperous Quaker merchant and farmer. Greene was descended from John Greene and Samuel Gorton, both of whom were founding settlers of Warwick.
Greene had two older half-brothers from his father's first marriage, was one of six children born to Nathanael and Mary. Due to religious beliefs, Greene's father discouraged book learning, as well as dancing and other activities. Nonetheless, Greene convinced his father to hire a tutor, he studied mathematics, the classics and various works of the Age of Enlightenment. At some point during his childhood, Greene gained a slight limp that would remain with him for the rest of his life. In 1770, Greene moved to Coventry, Rhode Island to take charge of the family-owned foundry, he built a house in Coventry called Spell Hall. In the year and his brothers inherited the family business after their father's death. Greene began to assemble a large library that included military histories by authors like Caesar, Frederick the Great, Maurice de Saxe. In July 1774, Greene married the nineteen-year-old Catharine Littlefield, a niece-by-marriage of his distant cousin, William Greene, an influential political leader in Rhode Island.
That same year, one of Greene's younger brothers married a daughter of Samuel Ward, a prominent Rhode Island politician who became an important political ally until his death in 1776. Greene and Catherine's first child was born in 1776, they had six more children between 1777 and 1786. After the French and Indian War, the British Parliament began imposing new policies designed to raise revenue from British North America. After British official William Dudington seized a vessel owned by Greene and his brothers, Greene filed an successful lawsuit against Dudington for damages. While the lawsuit was pending, Dudington's vessel was torched by a Rhode Island mob in what became known as the Gaspee Affair. In the aftermath of the Gaspee Affair, Greene became alienated from the British government. At the same time, Greene drifted away from his father's Quaker faith, he was suspended from Quaker meetings in July 1773. In 1774, after the passage of revenue-raising measures that colonials derided as the "Intolerable Acts," Greene helped organize a local militia known as the Kentish Guards.
Because of his limp, Greene was not selected as an officer in the militia. The American Revolutionary War broke out with the April 1775 Battles of Concord. In early May, the legislature of Rhode Island established the Rhode Island Army of Observation and appointed Greene to command it. Greene's army marched to Boston, where other colonial forces were laying siege to a British garrison, he missed the June 1775 Battle of Bunker Hill because he was visiting Rhode Island at the time, but he returned immediately after the battle and was impressed by the performance of colonial forces. That same month, the Second Continental Congress established the Continental Army and appointed George Washington to command all colonial forces. In addition to Washington, Congress appointed sixteen generals, Greene was appointed as a brigadier general in the Continental Army. Washington took command of the Siege of Boston in July 1775, bringing with him generals such as Charles Lee, Horatio Gates, Thomas Mifflin. Washington organized the Continental Army into three divisions, each consisting of regiments from different colonies, Greene was given command of a brigade consisting of seven regiments.
The Siege of Boston continued until March 1776. After the end of the siege, Greene served as the commander of military forces in Boston, but he rejoined Washington's army in April 1776. Washington established his headquarters in Manhattan, Greene was tasked with preparing for the i
Charlotte, North Carolina
Charlotte is the most populous city in the U. S. state of North Carolina. Located in the Piedmont, it is the county seat of Mecklenburg County. In 2017, the U. S. Census Bureau estimated the population was 859,035, making it the 17th-most populous city in the United States; the Charlotte metropolitan area's population ranks 22nd in the U. S. and had a 2016 population of 2,474,314. The Charlotte metropolitan area is part of a sixteen-county market region or combined statistical area with a 2016 census-estimated population of 2,632,249. Between 2004 and 2014, Charlotte was ranked as the country's fastest-growing metro area, with 888,000 new residents. Based on U. S. Census data from 2005 to 2015, it tops the 50 largest U. S. cities as the millennial hub. It is the second-largest city in the southeastern United States, just behind Florida, it is the third-fastest-growing major city in the United States. It is listed as a "gamma" global city by World Cities Research Network. Residents are referred to as "Charlotteans".
Charlotte is home to the corporate headquarters of Bank of America and the east coast operations of Wells Fargo, which along with other financial institutions has made it the second-largest banking center in the United States since 1995. Among Charlotte's many notable attractions, some of the most popular include the Carolina Panthers of the NFL, the Charlotte Hornets of the NBA, the Charlotte Checkers of the AHL, the Charlotte Independence of the USL, the Charlotte Hounds of Major League Lacrosse, two NASCAR Cup Series races and the NASCAR All-Star Race, the Wells Fargo Championship, the NASCAR Hall of Fame, the Charlotte Ballet, Children's Theatre of Charlotte, Carowinds amusement park, the U. S. National Whitewater Center. Charlotte has a humid subtropical climate, it is located several miles east of the Catawba River and southeast of Lake Norman, the largest man-made lake in North Carolina. Lake Wylie and Mountain Island Lake are two smaller man-made lakes located near the city; the Catawba Native Americans were the first known historic tribe to settle Mecklenburg County and were first recorded around 1567 in Spanish records.
By 1759 half the Catawba tribe had died from smallpox, endemic among Europeans, because the Catawba had no acquired immunity to the new disease. At the time of their largest population, Catawba people numbered 10,000, but by 1826 their total population had dropped to 110; the European-American city of Charlotte was developed first by a wave of migration of Scots-Irish Presbyterians, or Ulster-Scot settlers from Northern Ireland, who dominated the culture of the Southern Piedmont Region. They made up the principal founding European population in the backcountry. German immigrants settled the area before the American Revolutionary War, but in much smaller numbers, they still contributed to the early foundations of the region. Mecklenburg County was part of Bath County of New Hanover Precinct, which became New Hanover County in 1729; the western portion of New Hanover split into Bladen County in 1734, its western portion splitting into Anson County in 1750. Mecklenburg County formed from Anson County in 1762.
Further apportionment was made in 1792, after the American Revolutionary War, with Cabarrus County formed from Mecklenburg. In 1842, Union County formed from Mecklenburg's southeastern portion and a western portion of Anson County; these areas were all part of one of the original six judicial/military districts of North Carolina known as the Salisbury District. The area, now Charlotte was settled by people of European descent around 1755, when Thomas Spratt and his family settled near what is now the Elizabeth neighborhood. Thomas Polk, who married Thomas Spratt's daughter, built his house by the intersection of two Native American trading paths between the Yadkin and Catawba rivers. One path was part of the Great Wagon Road. Nicknamed the "Queen City", like its county a few years earlier, Charlotte was named in honor of German princess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, who had become the Queen Consort of Great Britain and Ireland in 1761, seven years before the town's incorporation. A second nickname derives from the American Revolutionary War, when British commander General Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis occupied the city but was driven out by hostile residents.
He wrote that Charlotte was "a hornet's nest of rebellion", leading to the nickname "The Hornet's Nest". Within decades of Polk's settling, the area grew to become "Charlotte Town", incorporating in 1768; the crossroads in the Piedmont became the heart of Uptown Charlotte. In 1770, surveyors marked the streets in a grid pattern for future development; the east–west trading path became Trade Street, the Great Wagon Road became Tryon Street, in honor of William Tryon, a royal governor of colonial North Carolina. The intersection of Trade and Tryon—commonly known today as "Trade & Tryon," or "The Square"—is more properly called "Independence Square". While surveying the boundary between the Carolinas in 1772, William Moultrie stopped in Charlotte Town, whose five or six houses were "very ordinary built of logs". Local leaders came together in 1775 and signed the Mecklenburg Resolves, more popularly known as the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence. While not a true declaration of independence from British rule, it is among the first such declarations that led to the American Revolution.
May 20, the traditional date of the signing of the declaration, is celebrated annually in Charlotte as "MecDec", with musket and cannon fire by reenactors in Independence Square. North Carolina's state flag and state seal bea
U.S. Route 1
U. S. Route 1 is a major north–south U. S. Highway that serves the East Coast of the United States, it runs 2,369 miles, from Key West, Florida north to Fort Kent, Maine, at the Canada–US border, making it the longest north–south road in the United States. US 1 is paralleled by I-95, though the former is farther west between Jacksonville and Petersburg, Virginia; the highway connects most of the major cities of the East Coast—including Miami, Richmond, Washington, D. C. Baltimore, New York City and Portland, passing from the Southeastern United States to New England. While US 1 is the easternmost of the main north–south U. S. Highways, parts of several others occupy corridors closer to the ocean; when the road system was laid out in the 1920s, US 1 was assigned to the existing Atlantic Highway, which followed the Fall Line between the Piedmont and the Atlantic Coastal Plain north of Augusta, Georgia. At the time, the highways farther east were of lower quality and did not serve the major population centers.
Construction of the Interstate Highway system changed the use and character of US 1, I-95 became the major north–south East Coast highway by the late 1960s. US 1 travels along the east coast of Florida, beginning at 490 Whitehead St. in Key West and passing through Miami, Fort Lauderdale, Boca Raton, West Palm Beach, Fort Pierce, Cocoa, Daytona Beach, Palm Coast, St. Augustine, Jacksonville; the southernmost piece through the chain islands of the Florida Keys, about 100 miles long, is the two-lane Overseas Highway built in the late 1930s after railroad tycoon Henry Flagler's Florida East Coast Railway's Overseas Railroad, built 1905-1912 on stone pillars was ruined by the Labor Day Hurricane of 1935. The rest of US 1 in Florida is a four-lane divided highway, despite the existence of the newer I-95 not far away. Famous vacation scenic route Florida State Road A1A is a continuous oceanfront alternate to US 1 that runs along the beaches of the Atlantic Ocean, cut only by assorted unbridged inlets and the Kennedy Space Center at Cape Canaveral.
North of Jacksonville, US 1 turns northwest towards Georgia. In Florida until the 1990s, US 1 used high-contrast markers; the part of US 1 in Georgia, as it shifts from the coastal alignment in Florida to the Fall Line alignment in South Carolina, is very rural, passing through marshes and former plantations between the towns and cities of Folkston, Alma, Lyons and Augusta. The Georgia Department of Transportation has an ongoing plan to widen all of US 1 to four lanes with bypasses, more than 50 percent complete. In South Carolina, US 1 serves rural areas as it falls west of I-95 while the coastal areas are served by routes east of it. Starting in South Carolina, US 1 is paralleled by Interstate 20 along the Fall Line through Aiken and Columbia to Camden and Lugoff. US 1 functions as a local two-lane road with occasional boulevard stretches. After Camden, US 1 continues northeast away from any Interstate towards Bethune, Patrick, McBee and Cheraw with no bypasses or four-lane sections except around Cheraw through the US 52 and SC 9 multiplexes.
After SC 9, it continues northward into North Carolina as a two-lane highway. SCDOT has no plans to widen or bypass any US 1 alignments northeast of Camden to the North Carolina line. Between the South Carolina line and the US 74 bypass, US 1 is a two-lane road but sees a considerable amount of truck and tourist traffic of people cutting through from the US 74/US 220 and I-73/I-74 corridor attempting to reach points south and east. US 1 goes with a bypass in the future plans. North of the NC 177 junction, it becomes four lanes or greater, becoming a super-street with limited access and becoming a limited access freeway. US 1 becomes a major artery for the state. After Richmond County, it goes into Moore County with two expressway bypasses in Southern Pines and Cameron. US 1 continues with the Jefferson Davis Highway label through Lee County and Sanford, on to Cary and Raleigh. US 1 runs concurrently with US 64 through most of Cary, where the freeway underwent a major renovation and improvements that added lanes in both directions.
North of Raleigh, US 1 crosses Interstate 540 and again becomes a four-lane divided arterial to Interstate 85 near Henderson. The North Carolina Department of Transportation has begun a corridor study for this section of US 1. Moreover, NCDOT is planning to finish four-laning US 1 in Richmond County past NC 177 with a Rockingham bypass to the east. There are no plans from SCDOT to widen US 1 from the state line. From Henderson into Virginia, US 1 runs parallel with I-85 as a two-lane local road until the state line, where Virginia hosts a continuous third center lane for alternate passing towards US Highway 58 before South Hill. Main articles: U. S. Route 1 in Virginia, District of Columbia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New YorkIn the Mid-Atlantic region, US 1 serves some of the most populated areas of the east coast. Through Virginia, US 1 is paralleled by Interstates: the remainder of Interstate 85 to Petersburg, Interstate 95 through Richmond and Fredericksburg to Alexandria, Interstate 395 into Arlington.
In most of Virginia, US 1 is called Jefferson Davis Highway by state law, although most of the Fairfax County portion is better known as Richmond Highway.
Cheraw, South Carolina
Cheraw is a town on the Pee Dee River in Chesterfield County South Carolina, United States. The population was 5,851 at the 2010 census and has the lowest per capita income level of any municipality of 5,000 or more residents in the Pee Dee region, it has been nicknamed "The Prettiest Town in Dixie". The harbor tug; when the first Europeans arrived in the area it was inhabited by the Cheraw and Pee Dee American Indian tribes. The Cheraw lived near the waterfall hill, near present-day Cheraw, but by the 1730s they had been devastated by new infectious disease inadvertently carried by the European traders. Survivors left their name in history. Only a few scattered Cheraw families remained by the time of the American Revolution. A few European settlers entered their territory in the 1730s, forced upriver when the Welsh came to claim the Welsh Baptist lands granted by the English government in the area around Society Hill. Many of the early settlers of the 1740s in Cheraw were ethnic English, French Huguenots, or Scots-Irish.
By 1750, Cheraw had become an established Anglo-American village with a growing river trade, one of the first inland villages. It was one of only six places in South Carolina. In the 1760s, Joseph and Eli Kershaw were granted the part of Cheraw, now the downtown historic district; the Kershaws laid out a formal street system. By 1830 settlers lined all the streets with rows of elms; the Kershaws called the town "Chatham", but people never accepted this name, continuing to call it "Cheraw" or "Cheraw Hill". There was a lack of organization and rule during the beginning of the 1740s in the backcountry of South Carolina; this lack of organization and unrest was an underlying cause of the resentment people of these areas felt toward the British Crown. In the Pee Dee area, planters organized a group called the Regulators to help bring order to the area. In 1768 St. David's Parish, the last Anglican Church built in South Carolina under King George III, was established to help serve the civic and religious needs of the Cheraw area.
A judicial district and courthouse were established to help deal with the problem of order. However, there was still much discontent with the ruling authority, in May 1776 the grand jury of the Cheraws District Two declared its independence from Great Britain. Many area men played prominent roles in the American Revolution, they included Claudius Pegues, General Henry W. Harrington, the Ellerbe brothers, Philip Pledger, Eli Kershaw. There was much unrest in the area during this time because Cheraw fell into part of the British strategic line of defense, where garrisons were built to control revolutionaries and to encourage loyalists. Other towns in this line of defense included Camden, South Carolina, Augusta, Georgia. Cheraw became a strategic point for the Americans. Military activity was heavy in Cheraw and surrounding counties from 1780-1781. During the Revolutionary War, St. David's Church was used as a hospital for British troops that operated under Lord Cornwallis's command and as quarters for the South Carolina militia.
In December 1780, just across from Cheraw, American commander General Nathanael Greene set up a "camp of repose" to rest and train his men. In 1819, the first steamboat came up river, along with it a burst of prosperity because of expanded trade. Cheraw was incorporated as a town in 1820; the main crops from the Cheraw area were corn, tobacco and indigo. Cheraw had the largest cotton market between Georgetown, South Carolina, Wilmington, North Carolina; because of the cotton trade, the town boasted the largest bank in South Carolina outside of Charleston before the Civil War. Despite a serious fire in 1835, by 1850 the town was a prosperous center of trade. Leading up to the Civil War, Cheraw citizens played a key role in South Carolina's secession from the Union. On November 19, 1860, the first call for secession in a public meeting was made at the Chesterfield County Courthouse. John A. Inglis of Cheraw was in attendance, he introduced the resolution for South Carolina to secede. Inglis was named the chairman of the committee that wrote the document for South Carolina's secession.
From the beginning of the war, Cheraw was known as a storehouse for valuables. In March 1865, General William T. Sherman brought his Union troops to Cheraw for several days. One Union soldier said that they found Cheraw to be "a pleasant town and an old one with the Southern aristocratic bearing." Sherman used this as a time to gain more control over his men. No private dwellings or public buildings in Cheraw were destroyed by his troops. However, an accidental explosion of captured gunpowder at the river hill burned the Cheraw business district; the county courthouse in Chesterfield was burned in this event, resulting in the loss of many records. Thus, it is difficult to date many of the historic properties. During the Civil War, St. David's Church was used as a hospital by both the Confederate and Union armies; some troops from both armies were buried there. The first Confederate monument was erected there in 1867, a claim disputed by West Virginia; the monument did not mention the Confederate soldiers because the area was still occupied by Federal troops.
The Civil War caused great economic hardship in Cheraw. However, by the early 1900s, prosperity began to return to Cheraw; the Great Depression again brought change. Cheraw State Park and Sandhills State Forest were both founded in the 1930s. By the 1950s and 1960s the groundwork was laid for industrial growth. By the end of the 20th century, Cheraw had a balanced
Kershaw County, South Carolina
Kershaw County is a county located in the U. S. state of South Carolina. As of the 2016 census, its population was 64,097; the county seat and largest city is Camden. The county was created in 1791 from parts of Claremont, Lancaster and Richland counties, it is named for an early settler and American Revolutionary War patriot. Kershaw County is part of South Carolina Metropolitan Statistical Area. Kershaw County was named for Col. Joseph Kershaw, an early settler considered as "the father of Camden". Part of Camden District, Kershaw County was formed in 1791 from parts of Claremont, Lancaster and Richland counties; the county seat is the oldest inland city in South Carolina. This site was settled around 1732 by English farmers who moved inland from Charleston. During the American Revolutionary War, the British occupied Camden from June 1780 to May 1781. Fourteen battles took place in the area, including the Battle of Camden and the Battle of Hobkirk's Hill. Kershaw County has a rich military history, producing several notable soldiers.
The county produced six men who served in the American Civil War as Confederate generals: Joseph Brevard Kershaw, James Chesnut, James Cantey, Zachariah C. Deas, John Bordenave Villepigue, John Doby Kennedy. Confederate soldier, hero at the Battle of Fredericksburg, Richard Rowland Kirkland was from Kershaw County, served under General Kershaw. Union troops under Gen. William T. Sherman burned parts of Camden in February 1865. During World War I, two Kershaw County men were awarded the Medal of Honor in two separate actions while fighting in France in October 1918; the first was Richmond Hobson Hilton, awarded his medal for actions taking place on October 11, 1918, during which he lost an arm. The second was John Canty Villepigue on October 15, 1918, in an action that resulted in his death months from injuries received. Villepigue was a descendant of General John Bordenave Villepigue mentioned above. Statesman and financier Bernard M. Baruch and labor leader Lane Kirkland were born in Kershaw County, as was Larry Doby, the first African-American baseball player in the American League.
Former South Carolina Governor John C. West was from Kershaw County. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 740 square miles, of which 727 square miles is land and 14 square miles is water. Kershaw County is one of three counties that compromises Lake Wateree, in which the lake is compromised with the Wateree River, which flows through Kershaw County. Richland County - southwest Lee County - southeast Fairfield County - west Lancaster County - north Chesterfield County - northeast Sumter County - southeast Darlington County - east Goodale State Park Lake Wateree Shaw AFB Recreational Area Historic Camden Revolutionary War Site Camden Battlefield, site of the Battle of Camden Boykin Mill Complex Kendall Mill Historic District Interstate 20 US 1 US 521 US 601 SC 34 SC 97 SC 261 SC 12 SC 903 SC 522 As of the census of 2000, there were 52,647 people, 20,188 households, 14,918 families residing in the county; the population density was 72 people per square mile. There were 22,683 housing units at an average density of 31 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 71.61% White, 26.29% Black or African American, 0.29% Native American, 0.31% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.62% from other races, 0.84% from two or more races. 1.68% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 20,188 households out of which 33.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.80% were married couples living together, 13.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.10% were non-families. 22.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.02. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.10% under the age of 18, 7.60% from 18 to 24, 28.80% from 25 to 44, 24.50% from 45 to 64, 12.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $38,804, the median income for a family was $44,836.
Males had a median income of $32,246 versus $22,714 for females. The per capita income for the county was $18,360. About 9.70% of families and 12.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.90% of those under age 18 and 14.10% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 61,697 people, 23,928 households, 17,114 families residing in the county; the population density was 84.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 27,478 housing units at an average density of 37.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 71.3% white, 24.6% black or African American, 0.5% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 1.7% from other races, 1.6% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 3.7% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 28.1% were American, 7.8% were English, 7.7% were Irish, 6.3% were German. Of the 23,928 households, 34.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.6% were married couples living together, 15.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.5% were non-families, 24.5% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.02. The median age was 40.2 years. The median income for a household in the coun