Ahaxe-Alciette-Bascassan is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in southwestern France. The people of the commune are known as Ahastarr. Ahaxe-Alciette-Bascassan is part of Cize country, a historical province in Lower Navarre, it includes three former parishes, sometimes counted as four groups of houses in the Middle Ages and with five toponyms: Alciette, Garatehegi and Bascassan located at the confluence of the Laurhibar and Esteneko streams. Alciette is the parish farthest away to the northeast in the combination of the three parishes. Ahaxe-Alciette-Bascassan is located some 6 km south-east of Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port and can be accessed by Highway D18 running from close to there through the heart of the commune southeast to Lecumberry; the village is not on the highway and is left onto the country road Vierge-d'Ahaxe off the D18 heading southeast. There is a country road from Aincille in the west to the village of Bascassin in the commune and there are other country roads entering from the north and the southeast.
The commune is located in the Drainage basin of the Adour, the commune lands are watered by the Laurhibar, a tributary of the Nive, a tributary of that, the Esteneko stream. The Apatéko stream, a tributary of the Arzubiko stream crosses the territory of Ahaxe-Alciette-Bascassan; the commune's name in Basque is Ahatsa-Altzieta Bazkazane. AhaxeThe toponym Ahaxe appears in the forms: Jean-Baptiste Orpustan indicates that the toponym comes from the Basque oronymic base of aitz meaning "rock" or "height"; the people of the commune are called in Basque Ahatsarr. AlcietteThe toponym Alciette appears in the forms: The Basque name for the people of this area is Alzietarr. According to Jean-Baptiste Orpustan, Alciette is derived from the medieval Alzueta which itself comes from the Basque alzu meaning "place where there are abundant alder trees". BascassanThe name Bascassan appears in the forms: Bazquazen Bascaçen Bascacen ) Bazcacen ) Basquacen ) Bazcacen Vazquacen Vazcazen and Vazaçan Bascassan Its origin is uncertain.
The people of the area are called Bazkazandarr in basque. Ahaxachillo is mentioned in the 1863 dictionary.) Bastida is indicated by Raymond. Errékaldéa is mentioned with the spelling Errecaldia referring to the flowing stream of Bascassan flowing into the Laurhibar. CurutchetCurutchet was a former fief of a vassal of the Kingdom of Navarre. EtcheverriaPaul Raymond mentioned an Etcheberry, a fief located in the parish of Alciette and a vassal of the Kingdom of Navarre. GaratehegiThe name Garatehegi appears in the forms: Garateguia sent jullian et garateheguj la parropie de garatehegi Garatteguy Garatéhéguy Garateguy Garatehegi from Basque means "summit of the high country". GasteluaGastelua appears with the spelling Gastellu in 1863. LibiétaLibiéta is a toponym that appears in the forms: Libiet Libiette LigetaLigeta is mentioned in the forms: Lagueta Ligueta Liguete, 1366, 1413); the origin of this toponym could be the Latin Liger. The Lordship of Ahaxe called the Lordship of Cize, was allied with the Viscounts of Arbéroue in the 11th century as well as the lordships of Guiche and to the Counts of Biscay.
Ahaxe and Alciette-Bascassan were reunited on 11 June 1842. List of Successive Mayors of Ahaxe-Alciette-Bascassan The commune belongs to seven inter-communal structures: the community of communes of Garazi-Baigorri. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 Economic activity is agricultural; the commune is part of the zone designation of the Ossau-iraty. The 2006 classification by INSEE, indicating the median household incomes for each municipality with more than 50 households classed Ahaxe-Alciette-Bascassan at a rank of 27,645 with an average income of €13,257. According to the Map of the Seven Basque Provinces published in 1863 by Prince Louis-Lucien Bonaparte, the Basque dialect spoken in Ahaxe-Alciette-Bascassan is eastern low Navarrese. There is a gaztelu zahar at a place called Gaztalepo, located 550 metres above sea level. There is a lice or a fence surrounding a fortification running at 313 metres above sea level at a place called Gaztelua or Gastellia.
These artifacts represent the ancient past of the commune. There are several buildings and farms in the commune that are listed as historical monuments; these are: Houses and Farms Kapila House Idioinea farm Gohonetxea farm Château Saint-Julien A number of churches and sites in the commune have been classified as historical monuments. These are: Parish Church of Saint Julien of Antioch The cemetery contains a remarkable collection of Hilarri. Hilarri in the Saint Julien Church Cemetery Chapel of Saint-Saveur of Alciette; the chapel contains several historical objects: Pulpit 2 Benches Main Altar, Retable and 4 Candlestic
Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, five are overseas departments, which are classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, these were called general councils; each council has a president. Their main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of junior high school buildings and technical staff, local roads and school and rural buses, a contribution to municipal infrastructures. Local services of the state administration are traditionally organised at departmental level, where the prefect represents the government; the departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity.
All of them were named after physical geographical features, rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The division of France into departments was a project identified with the French revolutionary leader the Abbé Sieyès, although it had been discussed and written about by many politicians and thinkers; the earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of d'Argenson. They have inspired similar divisions in some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a two-digit number, the "Official Geographical Code", allocated by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. Overseas departments have a three-digit number; the number is used, for example, in the postal code, was until used for all vehicle registration plates. While residents use the numbers to refer to their own department or a neighbouring one, more distant departments are referred to by their names, as few people know the numbers of all the departments.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as "the 45". In 2014, President François Hollande proposed to abolish departmental councils by 2020, which would have maintained the departments as administrative divisions, to transfer their powers to other levels of governance; this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René d'Argenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration. Before the French Revolution, France gained territory through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces. During the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved in order to weaken old loyalties; the modern departments, as all-purpose units of the government, were created on 4 March 1790 by the National Constituent Assembly to replace the provinces with what the Assembly deemed a more rational structure.
Their boundaries served two purposes: Boundaries were chosen to break up France's historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences and build a more homogeneous nation. Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a day's ride of the capital of a department; this was a security measure, intended to keep the entire national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of many rural areas far from any centre of government; the old nomenclature was avoided in naming the new departments. Most were named after other physical features. Paris was in the department of Seine. Savoy became the department of Mont-Blanc; the number of departments 83, had been increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleon's defeats in 1814–1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size and the number of departments was reduced to 86.
In 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice and a portion of the Var department; the 89 departments were given numbers based on the alphabetical order of their names. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. A small part of Haut-Rhin became known as the Territoire de Belfort; when France regained the ceded departments after World War I, the Territoire de Belfort was not re-integrated into Haut-Rhin. In 1922, it became France's 90th department; the Lorraine departments were not changed back to their original boundaries, a new Moselle department was created in the regaine
Beyrie-sur-Joyeuse is a commune of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in southwestern France. It is located in the former province of Lower Navarre. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department INSEE BITHIRIÑA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa – Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Banca is a commune of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France in the former province of Lower Navarre. Banca is part of Pays Quint, an area of pasture area which belongs to Spain but is cultivated by French farmers; the inhabitants of the commune are known as Bankars. Banca is located in the Aldudes valley on the banks of the Nive des Aldudes some 15 km south-west of Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port; the western and eastern borders of the commune are the national frontier between Spain. Access to the commune is by the D948 road from Saint-Étienne-de-Baïgorry in the north which passes through the commune and the village and continues south-west to Aldudes. There are no crossing points in the commune to Spain; the commune is rugged alpine pastures. The Nive des Aldudes flows from Aldudes in the south-west, gathering tributaries such as the Antchignoko Erreka, the Ruisseau d'Hayra, the Latcharrako Erreka, the Belechiko Erreka on the northern border, continues north-east to join the Nive south of Saint-Martin-d'Arrossa.
The Ruisseau d'Hayra rises in the south of the commune and flows north gathering tributaries such as the Lehaltzarteko Erreka, the Caminarteko Erreka, the Legarzuko Erreka to join the Nive des Aldudes near the village. The commune name in Basque is Banka. For John-Baptiste Orpustan, the origin of the name Banca can have two interpretations: one lent from the Spanish banco designating the bench on which money was exchanged or two from bancs de pierre; the following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune. Sources: Orpustan: Jean-Baptiste Orpustan, New Basque Toponymy Cassini: Cassini Map from 1750 Ldh/EHESS/Cassini: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini database Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. Banca owes its origin to the revival in the 18th century of the copper mines which had operated in ancient times. Banca was known as Le Fonderie until the 19th century" and, under the Ancien Régime, it was a hamlet or district under the parish of Saint-Étienne-de-Baïgorry.
It was not made a commune until 1793 under the same name in 1874 it was renamed "Banca". The remains of a large forge, a steel foundry started in 1828 on the site of the former copper smelter, stands at the entrance of the village on the banks of the Nive des Aldudes; the most visible element is a blast furnace in good condition. The first armed action by Iparretarrak took place in Banca on 11 December 1973. List of Successive Mayors The commune is part of four inter-communal structures: the Community of communes of Garazi-Baigorri; the joint association for the drainage basin of the Nive. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger communes that have a sample survey every year. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 The copper/silver mines and the associated smelter reached their peak in the middle of the 18th century and the forge, with its blast furnace, was in operation from 1828 to 1861.
Economic activity is now agricultural. The town is part of the Appellation d'origine contrôlée zone of Ossau-iraty; the commune has a number of buildings and structures that are registered as historical monuments: The Banca Mine on D948. These remains are at the northern entrance of the village including a blast furnace; the supply canal is fed by the waters of the Nive captured upstream and turn a wheel of a blower machine which injected air at the base of the blast furnace through two nozzles. The adjacent building, still dominated by the canal, housed the forge fires and hammers to make cast iron and a splitting mill for splitting iron bars. Houses and Farms The Redoubt of Lindus; this redoubt was used during the Franco-Spanish War 1813-1814. The Gorria Farmhouse The Gixonaenea Farmhouse The Xangala Farmhouse The Parish Church of Saint Peter is registered as an historical monument; the Petechanea Gallery is one of the locations of the regional conservatory of natural areas of the Pyrenees. Mountain PeaksMount Harrigorry 806 m Munhogain 853 m Otsamunho 901 m Errola 908 m Abraku 1003 m Ichtauz 1024 m Antchola 1119 m Mehatzé 1209 m Lindus 1220 m Mendimotcha 1224 m Aurigna 1278 m The commune has a primary school.
There is a Fronton traversed by a road. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department Mines and Metallurgical Establishments of Banca, dir. P. Machot, J&D, Izpegi, Saint-Étienne-de-Baïgorry, 1995, 306 p. Pierre Machot and Gilles Parent, "Mines and Metallurgy in the Valley of Baïgorry", in The Valley of Baïgorry, Éditions Izpegi, reprinted in 2002 Gilles Parent, "The handiwork of the Copper Foundry of Banca in the 18th century" in Revue d'Histoire Industrielle des Pyrénées Occidentales, No. 2, 2007, p. 143–222, Éditions Izpegi BANKA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Anhaux is a French commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France in the former province of Lower Navarre. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Anhauztar. Anhaux is located some 10 km south of Ossès. Access to the commune is by country roads branching from the D15 road passing to the north of the commune; the commune consists of farmland in the north with the southern part more rugged and hilly. The commune is located in the drainage basin of the Adour; the Ontzeroneker erreka' - a tributary of the Nive d'Arnéguy - with many tributaries rising in the commune forms the southern border with Lasse commune. A right tributary of the Berroko erreka, the Aparraineko erreka flows down from the Artzaïnharria; the Napoleonic land registry divided the commune into 16 districts in 1840: Districts in Section A called The Village Districts in Section B called Honçaron Heguy was an old district, extending that of Choubitoa. Today, the following localities are listed: The commune name in basque is Anhauze.
Brigitte Jobbé-Duval proposed a basque origin of ona-oz, meaning "place of the hill". The following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune. Sources: Grosclaude: Toponymic Dictionary of communes, Béarn, 2006 Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. Origins: Mérimée: Presentation of the Commune Pamplona: Titles of Pamplona Biscay: Martin Biscay Collations: Collations of the Diocese of Bayonne Anhaux village is one of eleven hamlets or villages which were in the Baigorry Valley. In the Middle Ages, the eleven hamlets were: Ascarat, Moussourits, Irouleguy, Leispars, Oticoren and Anhauz, all in the north of the valley; the south was not populated until much later. Despite sounding Basque, the name of this village seems to defy all analysis; the oldest document known on which the name Anhaux appears is now the cartulary of the abbey of Saint-Jean of Sorde where it appears in the 10th century.
Father Haristoy in his book Research on the Basque Country noted that recorded in this cartulary were: "1068-1072 Oz Guilhem de Onotz and his wife received from Saint-Jean a piece of land located at Anhaux subject to they and their successors providing security and seven loaves, one pig, one pint of wine, two measures of provisions". The Benedictine Abbey in question was founded in the 9th century north-east of Navarre, it was, as with all the monasteries at the time, a vast agricultural area spread along the mountain streams in Orthe country and lower Navarre and, according to the two cited references, in the parish of Anhaux. It was around 1023 that King Sancho III of Navarre founded the fief of the Viscounty of Baigory in favour of Garcias Lop, related; the creation of the hamlet itself, on the viscounts' lands, therefore dates back to this period. Thus from the 11th century the status of houses at Anhaux was defined by the writer Jean-Baptiste Orpustan, he provided a list of houses existing in the Middle Ages in Anhaux.
This document was created from the archives from 1350, 1366, 1412. Of the twenty-eight houses found there, four were noble, the others were fivatiéres which means that they paid a fee in crops, work, or money and were built on the land of the "Lord" of the main house; the successive Viscounts of Baigorry of Echaux enjoyed the tithes of the village until their liquidation in 1792. The arms Anhaux are those of the Apesteguy family, they were adopted by the municipal council on 30 July 1993. Pierre Haristoy wrote that the Apesteguy were lords of Jaureguia and of Anhaux and nominated the priest for the area. In deeds before 1670 several of the Apesteguy appear as noble. Towards 1720 Jean-Pierre d'Apesteguy was received by the States of Navarre; the house of Apesteguia was, until the 18th century, the Lay Abbey for the area. Its members played an important role in the valley until the end of the 19th century; the Cassini map, made in the 18th century shows a parish consisting of: the village of Anhaux with a parish church.
List of Successive Mayors Anhaux commune participates in eight inter-communal structures: the Community of communes of Garazi-Baigorri. In 2009 the commune had 286 inhabitants; the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 The commune is part of the Appellation d'origine contrôlée of Irouléguy and the AOC of Ossau-iraty. Economic activity is princip
Arbouet-Sussaute is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine of south-western France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Arbotiar. Arbouet-Sussaute is located in the former province of Lower Navarre some 30 km south-east of Peyrehorade and 5 km north-east of Saint-Palais; the D933 road from Saint-Palais in the south-west passes north through the western part of the commune and continues to Osserain-Rivareyte. Access to the village is by the D134 road from the D29 in the north passing south through the village and the commune and continuing south to join the D11 just west of Domezain-Berraute; the intercity bus network of Pyrénées-Atlantiques has a stop on its route 865 which goes from Saint-Palais to Orthez. There is the hamlet of Sussaute to the south-east of the village. A disused line of railway passes from the north to the south-west through the commune. Located in the Drainage basin of the Adour, the commune is traversed 3 by tributaries of the Bidouze: the Ruisseau de Récalde and the Lauhirasse and its tributary the Berd.
The commune name in basque is Arboti-Zohota. According to Jean-Baptiste Orpustan Arboti is the spelling preserved in basque but the meaning is uncertain. If it is from the Latin, the name may signify a wooded place. For Zohota he suggests a basque origin of zozoeta meaning "Place of blackbirds"; the following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune. Sources: Orpustan: Jean-Baptiste Orpustan,New Basque Toponymy p. 66-67 Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. Cassini: Cassini Map from 1750 Ldh/EHESS/Cassini: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini database Origins: Notaries: Notaries of Labastide-Villefranche Biscay: Martin Biscay Navarrenx: Notaries of Navarrenx Pamplona: Titles of Pamplona Mixe: Titles of Mixe The village of Sussaute was joined with Arbouet on 14 June 1842. List of Successive Mayors The commune is part of six inter-communal structures: The Community of communes of Amikuze. In 1350 there were 11 fires in Sussaute.
The fiscal census of 1412-1413, made on the orders of Charles III of Navarre, compared with the census of men and weapons that are in this Kingdom of Navarre below the ports in 1551 reveals a demography with strong growth. The first indicated the presence in Arbouet of 12 fires, the second with 31. In Sussaute, the census of 1412-1413 had 7 fires while that of 1551 had 23; the census of the population of Lower Navarre in 1695 counted 52 fires in Arbouet and 50 in Sussaute. In 2009 the commune had 280 inhabitants; the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 The commune is part of the Appellation d'origine contrôlée zone of Ossau-iraty; the Parish Church of Saint John the Baptist is registered as an historical monument.
The town has a kindergarten. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department ARBOTI-ZOHOTA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Arbouet-Sussaute on Lion1906 Arboüet and Sußaute on the 1750 Cassini Map Arbouet-Sussaute on the INSEE website INSEE
Provinces of France
The Kingdom of France was organized into provinces until March 4, 1790, when the establishment of the department system superseded provinces. The provinces of France were equivalent to the historic counties of England, they came into their final form over the course of many hundreds of years, as many dozens of semi-independent fiefs and former independent countries came to be incorporated into the French royal domain. Because of the haphazard manner in which the provinces evolved, each had its own sets of feudal traditions, taxation systems, etc. and the system represented an impediment to effective administration of the entire country from Paris. During the early years of the French Revolution, in an attempt to centralize the administration of the whole country, to remove the influence of the French nobility over the country, the entirety of the province system was abolished and replaced by the system of departments in use today. In some cases, several modern regions or departments share names with the historic provinces, their borders may cover the same territory.
The list below shows the major provinces of France at the time of their dissolution during the French Revolution. Capital cities are shown in parentheses. Bold indicates a city, the seat of a judicial and quasi-legislative body called either a parlement or a conseil souverain. In some cases, this body met in a different city from the capital. Île-de-France Berry Orléanais Normandy Languedoc Lyonnais Dauphiné Champagne Aunis Saintonge Poitou Guyenne and Gascony Burgundy Picardy Anjou Provence Angoumois Bourbonnais Marche Brittany Maine Touraine Limousin Foix Auvergne Béarn Alsace Artois Roussillon Flanders and Hainaut Franche-Comté Lorraine.