The Cariboo Road was a project initiated in 1860 by the Governor of the Colony of British Columbia, James Douglas. It was a feat of engineering stretching from Fort Yale to Barkerville in the Canadian province of British Columbia through hazardous canyon territory in the Interior of B. C. Between the 1860s and the 1880s the Cariboo Road existed in three versions as a surveyed and constructed wagon road route; the first Cariboo Wagon Road surveyed in 1861 and built in 1862 followed the original Hudson's Bay Company's Harrison Trail route from Lillooet to Clinton, 70 Mile House, 100 Mile House, Lac La Hache, 150 Mile House to the contract end around Soda Creek and Alexandria at the doorstep of the Cariboo Gold Fields. The second Cariboo Wagon Road operated during the period of the fast stage coaches and freight wagon companies headquartered in Yale: 1865 to 1885. From the water landing at Yale, the road followed north via the spectacular Fraser Canyon route over Hell's Gate and Jackass Mountain and connecting to the earlier Cariboo Road at Clinton.
The third Cariboo Road was the revised route following the completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway in 1885. The railway station at Ashcroft became the southern end of the wagon road. Much of the Fraser Canyon wagon road was destroyed by the railway construction as well as by washouts and the Great Flood of 1894; the road was a reaction to the high concentration of gold in the Cariboo region and the dangerous "mule trail", a rough-hewn cliff-side trail wide enough only for one mule that ran along the approximate route of the Cariboo Road. In order to lower supply costs to the settlers in the Cariboo region, Douglas ordered the construction of a more viable and safe form of transportation to the gold mining settlements; the colonial government employed locals as well as a detachment of the Royal Engineers who undertook amazing engineering feats including construction of toll bridges including the Alexandra Suspension Bridge of 1863. Building the road cost nearly one and a quarter million dollars, left a standing debt of £112,780 after its completion, one of many infrastructure costs in servicing the Gold Colony that forced its amalgamation first with Vancouver Island, with Canada.
The Cariboo Road saw a half million dollars' worth of gold. Douglas wanted to stretch the road across the continental divide into Rupert's Land but this plan was abandoned when Douglas retired in 1864; the name Cariboo Road or Cariboo Trail is informally applied to a toll road built by contractor Gustavus Blin-Wright in 1861–1862 from Lillooet to Williams Lake, Van Winkle and on to Williams Creek. This route was known as the Old Cariboo Road, when the Lakes Route from Port Douglas to Lillooet had not yet been superseded by the Fraser Canyon route of the Cariboo Wagon Road proper; the mile-house names, in the Cariboo are derived from measurements taken from the Mile'0' of this road, in the bend in the Main Street of Lillooet and commemorated there by a cairn erected in the 1958 Centennial Year. It was along this route that an attempt was made to use Bactrian camels purchased from the U. S. Camel Corps for freight, a tractor-style Thomson Road Steamer known as a "road train", one of the earliest motorized vehicles.
Most foot traffic from Lillooet to the Cariboo however, went by the "River Trail", far below the wagon road, which departed the Fraser Canyon at Pavilion for the steep climb over Pavilion Mountain to Clinton, where it merged with the newer Cariboo Road via Yale and Ashcroft. The River Trail continued along the Fraser Canyon as far as Big Bar and various routes spread towards Quesnel and Barkerville from there; the Cariboo Road was featured on the television historical series Gold Trails and Ghost Towns, season 2, episode 4. Fraser Canyon Gold Rush Whatcom Trail Okanagan Trail Dewdney Trail Lillooet Cattle Trail Cariboo Highway Old Cariboo Highway British Columbia from the earliest times to the present. Vol. 2, E. O. S. Scholefield & F. W. Howay, S. J. Clarke Pub. Co. Vancouver, British Columbia Chapter 6: Roads and Trails to Cariboo Downs, Art. Wagon Road North. NW Dispatch, 1960. Harris, Lorraine. Fraser Canyon: From Cariboo Road to Super Highway. Hancock House, 1984. Paternaude, Branwen. Trails to Gold.
Horsdahl and Schubert. 1995. Wells, Martin. Steam to the Cariboo. Cordillera, 2009
The Bridge River is an 120 kilometres long river in southern British Columbia. It flows south-east from the Coast Mountains. Up until 1961, it was a major tributary of the Fraser River, entering that stream about six miles upstream from the town of Lillooet; the Bridge River hydroelectric complex, operated by BC Hydro, consists of three successive dams, providing water for four hydro power plants with the total rated power of total 492 megawatts. Its name in the Lillooet language is Xwisten, sometimes spelled Nxwisten or Nxo-isten). Dubbed Riviere du Font by Simon Fraser's exploring party in 1808, it was for a while known by the English version of that name, Fountain River, some old maps show it as Shaw's River, after the name of one of Fraser's men; the Bridge River Ocean, an ancient takes its name from the Bridge River. Upstream from Moha the now-dry riverbed runs through the immense gorge of the Bridge River Canyon, which lies downstream from Terzaghi Dam, the principal dam of the Bridge River Power Project.
Terzaghi Dam forms Carpenter Lake, the longest and largest of the power project's reservoirs at about 40 kilometres. Just upstream from Gold Bridge, at the upper end of Carpenter Lake, is Lajoie Dam, which forms Downton Lake, its confluence with the Fraser occurs at a double gorge formed by the two rivers, which are forced through narrow banks at this point and so reminiscent of a fountain (in another version of the name, the surname of one of Fraser's men was du Font, giving the location its name of the Lower Fountains (the Upper Fountains being another few miles upstream on the Fraser, today's community of Fountain The river came to be called the Bridge River due to the location of a bridge across the Fraser at this point a pole-structure built by the native St'at'imc people but replaced at the time of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush in 1858 by a white-run tollbridge. Because of the diversion of the river to Seton Lake by Terzaghi Dam and tunnels through Mission Mountain, in that area the south flank of the Bridge, what Bridge River water enters the Fraser now is the flow of one of the Bridge's tributaries, the Yalakom River.
The Yalakom, whose name means'the ewe of the mountain sheep' in the Chilcotin language, was in old times known as the North Fork of the Bridge. The South Fork of the Bridge River is many miles upstream, at the community of Gold Bridge, is today known as the Hurley River. Several other large feeder streams contribute to the diverted flow of the Bridge, including Gun Creek, Tyaughton Creek, Marshall Creek, Cadwallader Creek. Bridge River Power Project harnesses the power of the Bridge River, by diverting it through a mountainside to the separate drainage basin of Seton Lake, utilizing a system of three dams, four powerhouses and a canal; the powerhouses have a maximum generating capacity of 480 MW and an average annual production of 2670 GWh. Development of the system began in 1927 and was completed in 1960; the waters pass through the Lajoie Dam and powerhouse and are diverted through tunnels and penstocks from Carpenter Reservoir to the two powerhouses on Seton Lake Reservoir. Due to the force of the rivers at the Bridge's original confluence into the Fraser, the area has been for millennia the most important inland salmon-fishing site on the Fraser.
The flow of the Bridge River, was near-completely diverted into Seton Lake with the completion of the Bridge River Power Project in 1961, with the water now entering the Fraser River just south of Lillooet as a result. The salmon fishery of the Bridge River was near-entirely destroyed by this diversion, it is along Cadwallader Creek that the major mines of the Bridge River goldfields are located at Bralorne and Pioneer Mine. Other mining towns and camps built around mines in the Bridge River goldfields were Minto City, Congress, Lajoie and Brexton. Around Bralorne other localities such as Ogden grew up along road right-of-ways and slips of land between the mineral claims which dominate the northwestern flank of the Bendor Range in this area, providing services not approved of by company towns, including "sporting houses", some of which were in Gold Bridge until forced to move to Minto as Gold Bridge became larger. Other gold-mining activity is found throughout the river's basin. During the 19th Century, large hydraulic mining operations lined the banks of the river for the thirty kilometres between the community of Moha, at the confluence of the Yalakom and the Bridge.
Gun Creek and Tyaughton Creek jointly drain the south flank of the protected wilderness area known as the Spruce Lake Protected Area, popularly known as the South Chilcotin although the area is not in the Chilcotin, which lies north of it, but in the Chilcotin Ranges. The official designation for the area has changed since it was first proposed for a park in the 1930s, due to the efforts of the prospecting and mining community in the goldfield towns; the protectionist vs. resource extraction battle over that area has raged since that time, names used in debates for the area have included the Charlie Cunningham Wilderness, the Spruce Lake-Eldorado Study Area, the Spruce Lake-Eldorado Management Planning Unit, Southern Chilcotin Mountains Provincial Park, South Chilcotin Provincial Park. In 2007 the name was changed again to the Spruce Lake Protected Area, reflective of the government's downgrading
Provinces and territories of Canada
The provinces and territories of Canada are the sub-national governments within the geographical areas of Canada under the authority of the Canadian Constitution. In the 1867 Canadian Confederation, three provinces of British North America—New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the Province of Canada —were united to form a federated colony, becoming a sovereign nation in the next century. Over its history, Canada's international borders have changed several times, the country has grown from the original four provinces to the current ten provinces and three territories. Together, the provinces and territories make up the world's second-largest country by area. Several of the provinces were former British colonies, Quebec was a French colony, while others were added as Canada grew; the three territories govern the rest of the area of the former British North America. The major difference between a Canadian province and a territory is that provinces receive their power and authority from the Constitution Act, 1867, whereas territorial governments have powers delegated to them by the Parliament of Canada.
The powers flowing from the Constitution Act are divided between the Government of Canada and the provincial governments to exercise exclusively. A change to the division of powers between the federal government and the provinces requires a constitutional amendment, whereas a similar change affecting the territories can be performed unilaterally by the Parliament of Canada or government. In modern Canadian constitutional theory, the provinces are considered to be sovereign within certain areas based on the divisions of responsibility between the provincial and federal government within the Constitution Act 1867, each province thus has its own representative of the Canadian "Crown", the lieutenant governor; the territories are not sovereign, but instead their authorities and responsibilities come directly from the federal level, as a result, have a commissioner instead of a lieutenant governor. Notes: There are three territories in Canada. Unlike the provinces, the territories of Canada have no inherent sovereignty and have only those powers delegated to them by the federal government.
They include all of mainland Canada north of latitude 60° north and west of Hudson Bay, as well as most islands north of the Canadian mainland. The following table lists the territories in order of precedence. Ontario, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia were the original provinces, formed when several British North American colonies federated on July 1, 1867, into the Dominion of Canada and by stages began accruing the indicia of sovereignty from the United Kingdom. Prior to this and Quebec were united as the Province of Canada. Over the following years, British Columbia, Prince Edward Island were added as provinces; the British Crown had claimed two large areas north-west of the Canadian colony, known as Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory and assigned them to the Hudson's Bay Company. In 1870, the company relinquished its claims for £300,000, assigning the vast territory to the Government of Canada. Subsequently, the area was re-organized into the province of the Northwest Territories; the Northwest Territories were vast at first, encompassing all of current northern and western Canada, except for the British holdings in the Arctic islands and the Colony of British Columbia.
The British claims to the Arctic islands were transferred to Canada in 1880, adding to the size of the Northwest Territories. The year of 1898 saw the Yukon Territory renamed as Yukon, carved from the parts of the Northwest Territories surrounding the Klondike gold fields. On September 1, 1905, a portion of the Northwest Territories south of the 60th parallel north became the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. In 1912, the boundaries of Quebec and Manitoba were expanded northward: Manitoba's to the 60° parallel, Ontario's to Hudson Bay and Quebec's to encompass the District of Ungava. In 1869, the people of Newfoundland voted to remain a British colony over fears that taxes would increase with Confederation, that the economic policy of the Canadian government would favour mainland industries. In 1907, Newfoundland acquired dominion status. In the middle of the Great Depression in Canada with Newfoundland facing a prolonged period of economic crisis, the legislature turned over political control to the Newfoundland Commission of Government in 1933.
Following Canada's participation in World War II, in a 1948 referendum, a narrow majority of Newfoundland citizens voted to join the Confederation, on March 31, 1949, Newfoundland became Canada's tenth province. In 2001, it was renamed Newfoundland and Labrador. In 1903, the Alaska Panhandle Dispute fixed British Columbia's northwestern boundary; this was one of only two provinces in Canadian history to have its size reduced. The second reduction, in 1927, occurred when a boundary dispute between Canada and the Dominion of Newfoundland saw Labrador increased at Quebec's expense – this land returned to Canada, as part of the province of Newfoundland, in 1949. In 1999, Nunavut was created from the eastern portion of the Northwest Territories. Yukon lies in the western portion of Northern Canada. All t
The Interior Plateau comprises a large region of the Interior of British Columbia, lies between the Cariboo and Monashee Mountains on the east, the Hazelton Mountains, Coast Mountains and Cascade Range on the west. The continuation of the plateau into the United States is known there as the Columbia Plateau. Physiographically, the Interior Plateau is a section of the larger Northern Plateaus province, which in turn is part of the Intermontane Plateaus physiographic division.. It has several subdivisions, these being: The Fraser Plateau The Chilcotin Plateau The Cariboo Plateau The Bonaparte Plateau The Nechako Plateau The McGregor Plateau The Thompson PlateauThe Cariboo and Chilcotin Plateaus are separated by the Fraser River; the Nechako Plateau flanks the Fraser on both sides. Several mountain ranges and hill-systems are included in the definition of this region such as the following: the Pavilion Range includes: The Clear Range The Marble Range The Cornwall Hills The Trachyte Hills The Arrowstone Hills The Rainbow Range The Itcha Range The Ilgachuz Range The Quanchus Range The Telegraph Range The Fawnie Range The Pattullo Range Some classifications systems assign the Pattullo Range to the Hazelton Mountains, which are part of the larger Skeena Mountains complex, but theoretically is the Quanchus Range.
The Cariboo Mountains are sometimes included as part of the Interior Plateau. Three areas liminal to the plateau, i.e. sometimes considered part of it rather than the adjoining mountain ranges, are the Shuswap Highland, Okanagan Highland and Quesnel Highland. The location of the Interior Plateau in North America is between the Rocky Mountains and the Pacific Coast Ranges, it is cut by the basins and tributaries of two rivers: the Fraser. The northern region is wooded, except in lowland and more southerly areas which resemble the sagebrush grasslands which typify the southern part of the plateau in the Columbia drainage; the first documented human presence was in 8500 BC. Bison remains and other fluted points date back to this time frame. An important sites in the area is at Wenatchee site; the Windust phase is dated between 10600 BC and 7100 BC. At the Lind Coulee Archaeological Site in east-central Washington, leaf-shaped projectile points and knives date between 8500-5500 BC. Based on archaeological evidence, it is suggested that these people were hunters, subsisting from fishing and plant gathering.
The presence of sea shells gives. A small oval shaped dwelling was found at the Paulina Lake site in Oregon, dating to 7100 BC; the Cascade phase took place from 7100-4300 BC, was marked by a slight change in toolkit technology from the Windust peoples. A residential structure was found for this group, dating between 5500-4300 BC. Other pithouses followed between 4000-2000 BC. Most residential structures are located on rivers. During the historic era and salmon were the staple foods, which give us an indication that Cascade groups harvested salmon runs in the summer and fall; the Late Period, dated to about 2500 BC, the pithouse came into existence, such as those at the Keatley Creek Archaeological Site. Other markers of this period include the increasing number of settlements. Fishing continued to increase, technology advanced, introducing more specialized barb fish spears and composite toggling harpoons. Other technology was used as well, including weirs. Trade networks flourished during this time, using sea shells, fish grease and others.
Columbia River Plateau Chilcotin Group Fagan, Brian M. Ancient North America. London: Thames and Hudson, Ltd. 2005
Cariboo Gold Rush
The Cariboo Gold Rush was a gold rush in the Colony of British Columbia, which earlier joined the Canadian province of British Columbia. The first gold discovery was made at Hills Bar in 1858, followed by more strikes in 1859 on the Horsefly River, on Keithley Creek and Antler Creek in 1860; the actual rush didn’t begin until 1861, when these discoveries were publicized. By 1865, following the strikes along Williams Creek, the rush was in full swing. Towns grew up, the most famous of these being Barkerville, now preserved as a heritage site and tourist attraction. Other important towns of the Cariboo gold rush era were Keithley Creek, Quesnel Forks or "the Forks", Richfield, Horsefly and, around the site of the Hudson's Bay Company's fort of the same name, Alexandria. Richfield was the first strike on Williams Creek, became the seat of government in the region of the courts. Connected to Barkerville via the canyon of Williams Creek, Richfield became part of "Greater Barkerville" along with Cameron Town.
The Cariboo Gold Rush is the most famous of the gold rushes in British Columbia, so much so that it is sometimes erroneously cited as the reason for the creation of the Colony of British Columbia. The Colony's creation had been prompted by an influx of American prospectors to the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush three years earlier in 1858, which had its locus in the area from Lillooet to Yale. Unlike its southern counterpart, the population of the Cariboo Gold Rush was British and Canadian, among them 4000 were Chinese, although the first wave of the rush was American. By the time the Cariboo rush broke out there was more active interest in the Gold Colony in the United Kingdom and Canada and there had been time required for more British and Canadians to get there; the electorate of the Cariboo riding were among the most pro-Confederation in the colony, this was in no small part because of the strong Canadian element in the local populace. One reason the Cariboo rush attracted fewer Americans than the original Fraser rush may have been the American Civil War, with many, around after the Fraser Gold Rush going home to take sides, or to the Fort Colville Gold Rush, manned by men, on the Fraser or to other BC rushes such as those at Rock Creek and Big Bend.
While some of the population that came for the Cariboo rush stayed on as permanent settlers, taking up land in various parts of the Interior in the 1860s and after, that wasn't the general rule for those involved in the Fraser rush. Many veterans of the Cariboo would spread out to explore the rest of the province, in particular triggering the Omineca and Cassiar Gold Rushes, just as the Cariboo itself had been found by miners seeking out in search of new finds from the Fraser rush; the boom in the Cariboo goldfields was the impetus for the construction of the Cariboo Wagon Road by the Royal Engineers, which bypassed the older routes via the Fraser Canyon and the Lakes Route via Lillooet by using the canyon of the Thompson River to Ashcroft and from there via the valley of the Bonaparte River to join the older route from Lillooet at Clinton. Towns along the Cariboo Road include Clinton, 100 Mile House and Williams Lake, although most had their beginnings before the Cariboo rush began. During the rush, the largest and most important town lay at the road's end at Barkerville, which had grown up around the most profitable and famous of the many Cariboo mining camps.
The Cariboo Wagon Road was an immense infrastructure burden for the colony but needed to be built to enable access and bring governmental authority to the Cariboo goldfields, necessary in order to maintain and assert control of the wealth, which might more have passed through the Interior to the United States. The wagon road's most important freight was the Gold Escort, which brought government bullion to Yale for shipment to the colonial treasury. Despite the wealth of the Cariboo goldfields, the expense of colonizing the Cariboo contributed to the Mainland Colony's virtual bankruptcy and its forced union with the Island Colony, into Confederation. A 1976 young adult novel, Cariboo Runaway, by Sandy Frances Duncan, is set in the Cariboo area during the Cariboo Gold Rush. Cariboo camels Hudson's Bay Brigade Trail Old Cariboo Road Omineca Gold Rush River Trail Map of the Cariboo Gold Rush Gold In Cariboo chapter, A History of British Columbia, R. Gosnell & E. O. S. Scholefield, British Columbia Historical Association pp. 165-178
The Pacific Ranges are the southernmost subdivision of the Coast Mountains portion of the Pacific Cordillera. Located within British Columbia, they run northwest from the lower stretches of the Fraser River to Bella Coola and Burke Channel, north of which are the Kitimat Ranges; the Coast Mountains lie between the Coast of British Columbia. The Pacific Ranges include four of the five major coastal icecaps in the southern Coast Mountains; these are the largest temperate-latitude icecaps in the world and fuel a number of major rivers. One of these contains Mount Waddington, the highest summit within British Columbia. Within this region is Hunlen Falls, among the highest in Canada, located in Tweedsmuir South Provincial Park. Other than logging and various hydroelectric developments, a large ski resort at Whistler, most of the land in the range is undeveloped. In the southern part of the range, mining was important at various times in the Lillooet, Bridge River and Squamish areas, large pulp and paper mills at Powell River, Port Mellon and Woodfibre.
The largest hydroelectric development in the Pacific Ranges is the Bridge River Power Project, though smaller hydro plants are on the Stave River-Alouette Lake system in Mission and Maple Ridge, the Daisy Lake-Squamish River division of the Cheakamus Powerhouse, another power dam and power plant at Clowhom. Although the range was extensively surveyed for possible rail routes, only that of the Pacific Great Eastern was built; the Pacific Ranges are part of the southern portion of the Coast Plutonic Complex and has been characterized by rapid rates of uplift over the past 4 million years, which has led to high rates of erosion. The Garibaldi Volcanic Belt is within the Pacific Ranges, a volcanic belt formed by the subduction of the Juan de Fuca Plate under the North American Plate along the Cascadia subduction zone; the belt is the northern extension of the Cascade Volcanic Arc in the United States and contains the most explosive young volcanoes in Canada. The eruption styles in the belt range from effusive to explosive, with compositions from basalt to rhyolite.
Morphologically, centers include calderas, cinder cones and small isolated lava masses. Due to repeated continental and alpine glaciations, many of the volcanic deposits in the belt reflect complex interactions between magma composition and changing ice configurations; the most recent major catastrophic eruption in the Garibaldi Volcanic Belt was from the Mount Meager massif 2,350 BP, Canada's most recent major catastrophic eruption. The Garibaldi Volcanic Belt contains 2 extra volcanic fields, the Franklin Glacier Complex and the Silverthrone Caldera, which lie 140 and 190 km northwest of the main volcanic belt; the Cascadia subduction zone is a 680 mi long fault, running 50 mi off the west-coast of the Pacific Northwest from northern California to Vancouver Island. The plates move at a relative rate of over 0.4 inches per year at a somewhat oblique angle to the subduction zone. Unlike most subduction zones worldwide, there is no oceanic trench present along the continental margin in Cascadia.
Instead and the accretionary wedge have been uplifted to form a series of coast ranges and exotic mountains. A high rate of sedimentation from the outflow of the three major rivers which cross the Cascade Range contributes to further obscuring the presence of a trench. However, in common with most other subduction zones, the outer margin is being compressed, similar to a giant spring; when the stored energy is released by slippage across the fault at irregular intervals, the Cascadia subduction zone can create large earthquakes, such as the 8.7–9.2 Mw Cascadia earthquake of 1700. Niut Range Pantheon Range Waddington Range Whitemantle Range Chilcotin Ranges Shulaps Range Dickson Range Camelsfoot Range Bendor Range Lillooet Ranges Cayoosh Range Cantilever Range Douglas Ranges Garibaldi Ranges North Shore Mountains Tantalus Range Clendinning Range the Camelsfoot Range running north along the west bank of the Fraser from Lillooet is sometimes considered to be part of the Chilcotin Ranges, but in other definitions is part of the Interior PlateauMany smaller ranges and subranges are not listed at present..
Monarch Icefield Ha-Iltzuk Icefield Waddington Range Homathko Icefield Lillooet Icecap Pemberton Icecap Mount Waddington Monarch Mountain Mount Tiedemann Mount Munday Mount Queen Bess Mount Good Hope Mount Raleigh Monmouth Mountain Mount Tatlow Taseko Mountain Mount Silverthrone Mount Meager massif Mount Cayley massif Mount Garibaldi Wedge Mountain Garibaldi Provincial Park Golden Ears Provincial Park Cypress Provincial Park Mount Seymour Provincial Park Sasquatch Provincial Park Stein Valley Nlaka'pamux Heritage Park Birkenhead Lake Provincial Park Big Creek Provincial Park Spruce Lake Protected Area Ts'il?os Provincial Park Tweedsmuir North Provincial Park and Protected Area Tweedsmuir South Provincial ParkList is incomplete Some Protected areas, recreation areas and other non-park preservation areas are not listed. Fraser River Chilcotin River Bridge River Lillooet River Squamish River Homathko River Klinaklini River Bella Coola RiverMany unknown river
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List