Kenya–United States relations
Kenya–United States relations are bilateral relations between Kenya and the United States. Kenya and the United States have long been close allies and have enjoyed cordial relations since Kenya's independence. Relations became closer after Kenya's democratic transition of 2002 and subsequent improvements in human rights; this was preceded by sometimes frosty interludes during President Moi's regime when the two countries clashed over bad governance issues, resulting in aid suspension and many diplomatic rows. Following the election of the new government of Uhuru Kenyatta in 2013, relations somewhat took a dip when the new president forged a new foreign policy looking east away from traditional western allies. Kenya–United States relations have been cemented through cooperation against Islamist terrorism and a visit by President Obama to Kenya, the homeland of his father. Kenya's athletic mastery of some auspicious American events such as the Boston Marathon and New York Marathon have increased ordinary Americans' consciousness of Kenya paving the way for a warm mutual regard between the two peoples.
An attack on Kenya by Al-Qaeda in 1998 as well as subsequent more attacks by Al-Shabaab, has drawn the two countries politically closer due to the shared fate the U. S. has had of similar targeting in the horrific September 11 attacks by Al-Qaeda in Lower Manhattan and The Pentagon. Kenya is one of the most pro-American nations in Africa and the world more so than the U. S. itself. According to the Pew Research Global Attitudes Project, 87% of Kenyans view the U. S. favorably in 2007, decreasing down to 83% in 2011 and 81% viewing the U. S. favorably in 2013. and according to the 2012 U. S. Global Leadership Report, 68% of Kenyans approve of U. S. leadership, with 14% disapproving and 18% uncertain. In a 2013 BBC World Service poll, 69% of Kenyans view U. S. influence positively, with only 11% viewing U. S. influence negatively. After Kenya's independence on December 12, 1963, the United States recognized the new nation. However, it was not until March 2, 1964 that diplomatic relations were established with William Atwood establishing the U.
S. Embassy at Nairobi; the United States provided the fledgling nation with $21 million in funds and technical aid, with Kenya seeking more loans from the United States. The United States soon found itself invested in Kenyan politics due to the power struggle between Tom Mboya and Jaramogi Oginga Odinga; the United States had been impressed by Mboya since the 1950s, sought to empower him in the new administration instead of the more leftist Odinga. The United States was successful, Mboya began wooing Kenya's prime minister Jomo Kenyatta into becoming more favorable with the United States and the CIA. After Odinga's fall from power, Kenya found itself squarely in the Western bloc during the Cold War period; the fact that Soviet ideals never gained traction in post-independence Kenya meant that there was little to no jockeying between the United States and the U. S. S. R. in this region. This meant there was little need for Kenya and United States relations, since the United States took Kenyan support for granted.
However, the 1980s saw. After Jomo Kenyatta's death, the new president of Kenya Daniel arap Moi sought to further strengthen relations with the United States Moi joined the United States' Rapid Deployment Joint Task Force, allowing for the construction of United States military installations in Kenya; the most notable development of this military construction was allowing United States naval access to Mombasa, which resulted in the United States paying Kenya $26 million. Good relations, fell into jeopardy with the deteriorating civil rights picture in Kenya. In 1987, the chairman of the Congress subcommittee on Africa, Michigan congressman Howard Wolpe, accused Daniel arap Moi of bankrolling criminals and committing human rights abuses; the issue was placed on the agenda for Ronald Reagan's talks with Moi, but nothing came of it at this time. In 1991, the United States joined with a coalition of other nations who gave financial assistance to Kenya to pressure for reforms. In a 1991 meeting in Paris, Kenya's aid donors insisted on ending corruption and human rights abuses, threatening to pull their aid.
These concerns caused the United States to suspend its aid in 1992. When United States pressure forced multiparty elections in 1992, relations were tense all throughout the 1990s due to international discontent with the tactics of the Moi regime; the United States reacted positively to the Kenyan elections of 2000, the first democratic transition of power in Kenya's history. The new president, Mwai Kibaki was honored as the first African head of state to be invited to Washington D. C. for a state visit. On August 7, 1998, al Qaeda terrorists detonated a car bomb outside the United States embassy in Nairobi, leaving 200 dead and thousands wounded; the immediate aftermath strained relations between the United States and Kenya, as Kenyans felt that the United States only cared about the Americans who lost their lives, not the Kenyans. The situation was worsened when the American ambassador, Prudence Bushnell, implied that Kenyans were attempting to loot the embassy. However, since that event, the Kenyan and U.
S. governments have intensified cooperation to address all forms of insecurity in Kenya, including terrorism. The United States provides equipment and training to Kenyan security forces, both civilian and military. In its dialog with the Kenyan Government, the United States urges effective action against corruption and insecurity as the two greatest impediments to Kenya achieving sustained, rapid economic growth. Families and victims of the attack have severally appealed to the Kenyan government to petition the U. S. gov
United States–Zimbabwe relations
United States–Zimbabwe relations are bilateral relations between Zimbabwe and the United States. After the Unilateral Declaration of Independence of Rhodesia in November 1965, the United States recalled its Consul General from Salisbury, closed the U. S. Information Service library, withdrew its U. S. Agency for International Development and trade promotion officials. After 1965, the small remaining American consular staff continued to operate under authority of exequaturs issued by Queen Elizabeth II. Following Rhodesia's declaration of a republic, the United States closed its Consulate General on March 17, 1970. In 1971, despite Administration opposition, the U. S. Congress passed legislation permitting the United States to import strategic materials, such as chrome, from Rhodesia; the legislation, which took effect on January 1, 1972, was of little real economic benefit to the Rhodesian economy, the United States continued to support the balance of the sanctions program. After the legislation was repealed in March 1977, the United States once again enforced all sanctions.
The United States supported the United Nations and the United Kingdom in their efforts to influence Rhodesian authorities to accept the principles of majority rule. Beginning in 1976, the United States began to take a more active role in the search for a settlement in cooperation with the UK; the Anglo-American proposals of late-1977, aimed at bringing a negotiated end to the dispute, lent the weight of the United States to the search for a peaceful settlement and were a counterpart to the Soviet-Cuban use of military power to increase their influence in southern Africa. The United States supported British efforts to bring about and implement the settlement signed at Lancaster House on December 21, 1979, extended official diplomatic recognition to the new government after independence as the Republic of Zimbabwe. A resident Embassy was established in Salisbury on Zimbabwean Independence Day, April 18, 1980; the first U. S. Ambassador arrived and presented his credentials in June 1980. US President Jimmy Carter met with Zimbabwean Prime Minister Robert Mugabe in August 1980.
Author Geoff Hill criticized Carter for keeping "quiet as Mugabe's ZANU government nationalised the press, committed genocide against minority tribes and subverted constitution to make himself the sole source of authority."At the Zimbabwe conference on reconstruction and development in March 1981, the United States pledged $225,000,000 over a three-year period towards the Government of Zimbabwe's goals of post-war reconstruction and development of land, the development of skilled manpower. By the end of FY 1986, the United States had contributed $380,000,000 the majority in grants, with some loans and loan guarantees. However, in July 1986, the US Government decided to discontinue future bilateral aid to Zimbabwe as a result of a continuing pattern of uncivil and undiplomatic statements and actions by the Government of Zimbabwe in the United Nations and elsewhere. Aid programmes agreed upon were not affected by the decision. Full programming was restored in 1988. USAID assistance to Zimbabwe since 2002 has focused on family planning, HIV/AIDS prevention and governance programs, emergency food aid, assistance to internally displaced persons.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention began a direct assistance program in August 2000. CDC's program consists of prevention of HIV transmission, improved care for persons with HIV/AIDS, surveillance and evaluation of the epidemic, health-sector infrastructure support. Since 2000, the United States has taken a leading role in condemning the Zimbabwean Government's increased assault on human rights and the rule of law, has joined much of the global village in calling for the Government of Zimbabwe to embrace a peaceful democratic evolution. In 2002 and 2003, the United States imposed targeted measures on the Government of Zimbabwe, including financial and visa sanctions against selected individuals, a ban on transfers of defence items and services, a suspension of non-humanitarian government-to-government assistance. Despite strained political relations, the United States continues as a leading provider of humanitarian assistance to the people of Zimbabwe, providing about $400,000,000 in humanitarian assistance from 2002–07, most of it being food aid.
French President Jacques Chirac angered the governments of the United Kingdom and the United States in February 2003, when he invited President Mugabe to a Franco-African conference on Africa held in France. Mugabe said, he held firm to his principles. We need leaders of his stature." Chirac emphasised that he had not kissed Mugabe on his cheeks when the conference began. The UK had tried to get the European Union to deny Mugabe the right to come to Europe, citing human rights abuses in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwean Foreign Minister Simbarashe Mumbengegwi summoned the U. S. Ambassador to Zimbabwe Christopher Dell on November 9, 2005, expressed his "extreme displeasure" with comments Dell made a few days earlier in Mutare: Dell had said government corruption had led to food shortages. Mugabe replied that Dell could "go to hell." Dell left Zimbabwe for Washington, D. C. United States, on November 9 for consultations after meeting with Mumbengegwi. Mugabe visited Washington DC informally in September 1980, on official working visits in September 1983, July 1991 and 1995, meeting with Presidents Carter, Reagan and Clinton respectively.
He has led a Zimbabwean delegation to the UN on several occasions, most in 2006. Vice-President G
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The Adamawa Region is a constituent region of the Republic of Cameroon. It borders the Centre and East regions to the south, the Northwest and West regions to the southwest, Nigeria to the west, the Central African Republic to the east, the North Region to the north; this mountainous area forms the barrier between Cameroon's forested savanna north. At 64,000 km² in land area, the Adamawa is the third largest of Cameroon's ten regions; the land is sparsely populated, however, as most is devoted to the rearing of cattle. The Muslim Fulbe form the major ethnic group, though Tikar and other peoples are present in lesser numbers; the Adamawa's oldest populations were various Paleo-Sudanese peoples. These were displaced or absorbed by invading Sudanese groups in the 8th or 9th century; these included the Mbum, Kutin, Laka-Mbere, Doayo, Fali and Tupuri. The Kanem-Bornu Empire of Lake Chad had relations with these tribes, they called the area Mabina. The Kanem-Bornu introduced Islam to the region between 1349 and 1385 by way of the Islamic centre at Kano in present-day Nigeria.
However, no more than a few rulers, nobles or merchants converted. Many more tribes entered the territory from the region of Chad between the 17th centuries; these included the Semi-Bantu tribes, such as the Bamileke, Kom, Tikar and Wimbam. The Bantu came as well, examples being Maka and Njem. Other groups who came were the Gbaya, from the present CAR, the Vute, from the Lake Chad region; the Vute were region's first iron workers, they founded the towns of Mbamnyang and Tibaré. The Semi-Bantu peoples moved south before settling near the headwaters of the Mbam River sometime between the 17th and 19th centuries; the Bantu settled east of them, south of the Adamawa Plateau. One or all of these populations founded Banyo and Ngaoundéré. Meanwhile, the Bantu and Semi-Bantu invasions drove the longer-established Sudanese peoples north; the Mbum, Ndoro and Laka-Mbere moved to the present-day province's northern reaches, while the other Sudanese migrated farther. This period marked the highest population for the Adamawa territory until modern times.
However, one event had drastic consequences for the region: the arrival of the Fulbe. Early Fulbe settlers entered the Adamawa from present-day Nigeria or northern Cameroon as early as the 13th century; these settlers and nomads were never numerous and they held subservient status to other tribes. Over time, the steady stream of Fulbe immigrants allowed Fulbe communities to spring up in many areas; these early Fulbe converted to Islam sometime in the 17th century, beginning with the settled, or town, Fulbe. In 1804, Fulbe in the territory and beyond were growing disenchanted with submission to pagan tribes, they were hungry for larger territories that they could use for cattle grazing. The Fulbe leader Usman dan Fodio called a jihad. Usman named his lieutenant Modima Adam Al-Hasan, or Modibo Adama, lamido of Fumbina, Adama raised an army in the territory. Adama's forces proved all but unstoppable, he conquered major Vute centres at Tibaré in 1835, which he renamed Banyo and Tibati. At Adama's death in 1847, Fulbe horsemen controlled territory from the Niger River to the west and the Logone to the east and from the Sahara to the north and the Sanaga River to the south to form the Sokoto Caliphate.
Adama's emirate was divided into districts under governors. Fighting against native peoples continued for many years. Around 1830, the Fulbe conquered the Mbum village of Delbé, which they renamed Ngaoundéré, after a nearby hill. Many Mbum remained, though many others migrated north; the town became the seat of the lamidat of Ardo Ndjobdi. Beginning around 1835, Fulbe immigrants streamed into the newly conquered territories in large numbers. By 1850, the Fulbe were entrenched in northern Cameroon. Native populations were placed under the rule of the local lamidos. Native populations were forced to face enslavement, or flee. Fulbe merchants accepted salt and horses from North Africa in exchange for slaves for sale in the Muslim empires to the north. A smaller number of slaves went south for the trans-Atlantic market; those groups who resisted had no choice but to flee to the unforgiving mountains or else to the jungle south. Those groups who were immediate neighbours to the warring Fulbe, such as the Vute and Gbaya, dislodged others who lay in their path, such as Cameroon's Bantu peoples.
The Fulbe jihads thus served as the single most important event in the peopling of southern Cameroon. The jihad only served to depopulate Cameroon's north, however; the Fulbe invaders did not set up new settlements. Rather, they used their conquered lands as pasture for their cattle. Many of these groups were still migrating when they came into contact with Cameroon's new colonisers: The Germans. British explorers were the first Europeans to enter Adamawa territory when they came in 1822; the German Dr. Gustav Nachtigal was the first Westerner to explore the region extensively, which he did between 1869 and 1873. Nachtigal kept a keen eye out to notice what groups lived in the region, what their relations were like with their neighbours, what resources could be exploited from the area; the British Eduard E. Flegel followed Nachtigal i
The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects. It comprises two institutions: the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the International Development Association; the World Bank is a component of the World Bank Group. The World Bank's most recent stated goal is the reduction of poverty; as of November 2018, the largest recipients of world bank loans were India and China, through loans from IBRD. The World Bank is different from the World Bank Group, an extended family of five international organizations: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development International Development Association International Finance Corporation Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes The World Bank was created at the 1944 Bretton Woods Conference along with the International Monetary Fund; the president of the World Bank is, traditionally, an American. The World Bank and the IMF are both based in Washington, D.
C. and work with each other. Although many countries were represented at the Bretton Woods Conference, the United States and United Kingdom were the most powerful in attendance and dominated the negotiations; the intention behind the founding of the World Bank was to provide temporary loans to low-income countries which were unable to obtain loans commercially. The Bank may make loans and demand policy reforms from recipients. Before 1974, the reconstruction and development loans provided by the World Bank were small; the Bank's staff were aware of the need to instill confidence in the bank. Fiscal conservatism ruled, loan applications had to meet strict criteria; the first country to receive a World Bank loan was France. The Bank's president at the time, John McCloy, chose France over two other applicants and Chile; the loan was for US$250 million, half the amount requested, it came with strict conditions. France had to agree to produce a balanced budget and give priority of debt repayment to the World Bank over other governments.
World Bank staff monitored the use of the funds to ensure that the French government met the conditions. In addition, before the loan was approved, the United States State Department told the French government that its members associated with the Communist Party would first have to be removed; the French government complied and removed the Communist coalition government - the so-called tripartite. Within hours, the loan to France was approved; when the Marshall Plan went into effect in 1947, many European countries began receiving aid from other sources. Faced with this competition, the World Bank shifted its focus to non-European countries; until 1968, its loans were earmarked for the construction of infrastructure works, such as seaports, highway systems, power plants, that would generate enough income to enable a borrower country to repay the loan. In 1960, the International Development Association was formed, providing soft loans to developing countries. From 1974 to 1980 the bank concentrated on meeting the basic needs of people in the developing world.
The size and number of loans to borrowers was increased as loan targets expanded from infrastructure into social services and other sectors. These changes can be attributed to Robert McNamara, appointed to the presidency in 1968 by Lyndon B. Johnson. McNamara implored bank treasurer Eugene Rotberg to seek out new sources of capital outside of the northern banks, the primary sources of funding. Rotberg used the global bond market to increase the capital available to the bank. One consequence of the period of poverty alleviation lending was the rapid rise of third world debt. From 1976 to 1980 developing world debt rose at an average annual rate of 20%. In 1980 the World Bank Administrative Tribunal was established to decide on disputes between the World Bank Group and its staff where allegation of non-observance of contracts of employment or terms of appointment had not been honored. In 1980 McNamara was succeeded by Alden W. Clausen. Clausen crafted a different mission emphasis, his 1982 decision to replace the bank's Chief Economist, Hollis B.
Chenery, with Anne Krueger was an example of this new focus. Krueger was known for her criticism of development funding and for describing Third World governments as "rent-seeking states". During the 1980s the bank emphasized lending to service Third-World debt, structural adjustment policies designed to streamline the economies of developing nations. UNICEF reported in the late 1980s that the structural adjustment programs of the World Bank had been responsible for "reduced health and educational levels for tens of millions of children in Asia, Latin America, Africa". Beginning in 1989, in response to harsh criticism from many groups, the bank began including environmental groups and NGOs in its loans to mitigate the past effects of its development policies that had prompted the criticism, it formed an implementing agency, in accordance with the Montreal Protocols, to stop ozone-depletion damage to the Earth's atmosphere by phasing out the use of 95% of ozone-depleting chemicals, with a target date of 2015.
Since in accordance with its so-called "Six Strategic Themes", the bank has put various additional policies into effect to preserve the environment while promoting development. For example, in 1991 the bank announced that to protect against deforestation in the Amazon, it would not finance any commercial logging or infrastructure projects that harm the en
Mauritius–United States relations
Mauritius – United States relations are bilateral relations between Mauritius and the United States. Official U. S. representation in Mauritius dates from the end of the 18th century. An American consulate was established in 1794 and was closed in 1911, it was reopened in 1967 and elevated to embassy status upon Mauritius' independence in 1968. Since 1970, the mission has been directed by a resident U. S. ambassador. There is a U. S. Embassy in Port Louis, Mauritius. Relations between the United States and Mauritius are cordial and revolve around trade; the United States is Mauritius’ third-largest market but ranks 12th in terms of exports to Mauritius. Principal imports from the U. S. include aircraft parts, automatic data processing machines, jewelry, radio/TV transmission apparatus, telecommunications equipment, agricultural/construction/industrial machinery and equipment, casino slot machines, outboard motors and encyclopedias, industrial chemicals. Mauritian exports to the U. S. include apparel, non-industrial diamonds, jewelry articles, live animals, sunglasses and cut flowers.
Mauritian products that meet the rules of origin are eligible for duty- and quota-free entry in the U. S. market under Opportunity Act. In September 2006, the Governments of Mauritius and the United States signed a Trade and Investment Framework Agreement to remove impediments and further enhance trade and investment relations between the two countries. More than 200 U. S. companies are represented in Mauritius. About 30 have offices in Mauritius, serving the domestic and/or the regional market in the information technology, fast food, express courier, financial services sectors; the largest U. S. subsidiaries are Esso Mauritius. U. S. brands are sold widely. Several U. S. franchises, notably Kentucky Fried Chicken, Pizza Hut, McDonald's have been operating for a number of years in Mauritius. The United States funds a small military assistance program; the embassy manages special self-help funds for community groups and nongovernmental organizations and a democracy and human rights fund. In 2002, Mauritius recalled its Ambassador to the United Nations for not conveying his government's stance in the Security Council debate over how to disarm Iraq.
Principal U. S. Embassy Officials include: Ambassador--David Dale Reimer This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State website https://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/index.htm. History of Mauritius - U. S. relations
Mozambique–United States relations
Mozambique – United States relations are bilateral relations between Mozambique and the United States. Relations between the United States and Mozambique are good and improving. Besides Madagascar, Mozambique was the only East African country to be involved in importing African slaves to the Americas. By 1993, U. S. aid to Mozambique was prominent, due in part to significant emergency food assistance in the wake of the 1991-93 southern African drought, but more important in support of the peace and reconciliation process. During the process leading up to elections in October 1994, the United States served as a significant financier and member of the most important commissions established to monitor implementation of the Rome General Peace Accords; the United States is the largest bilateral donor to the country and plays a leading role in donor efforts to assist Mozambique. The U. S. Embassy opened in Maputo on November 8, 1975, the first American ambassador arrived in March 1976. In that same year, the United States extended a $10 million grant to the Government of Mozambique to help compensate for the economic costs of enforcing sanctions against Rhodesia.
In 1977, however motivated by a concern with human rights violations, the U. S. Congress prohibited the provision of development aid to Mozambique without a presidential certification that such aid would be in the foreign policy interests of the United States. Relations hit a nadir in March 1981, when the Government of Mozambique expelled four members of the U. S. Embassy staff. In response, the United States suspended plans to provide development aid and to name a new ambassador to Mozambique. Relations between the two countries languished in a climate of stagnation and mutual suspicion. Contacts between the two countries continued in the early 1980s as part of the U. S. administration's conflict resolution efforts in the region. In late 1983, a new U. S. ambassador arrived in Maputo, the first Mozambican envoy to the United States arrived in Washington, signaling a thaw in the bilateral relationship. The United States subsequently responded to Mozambique's economic reform and drift away from Moscow's embrace by initiating an aid program in 1984.
President of Mozambique Samora Machel paid a symbolically important official working visit to the United States in 1985, where he met U. S. President Ronald Reagan. After that meeting, a full U. S. Agency for International Development mission was established, significant assistance for economic reform efforts began. President Joaquim Chissano met with President George W. Bush in September 2003. Since taking office in February 2005, President Armando Guebuza has visited the United States on five occasions. In June 2005, President Guebuza visited Washington, D. C. to take part in President Bush's mini-summit on Africa, along with the leaders of Ghana, Namibia and Niger. That month, he attended the Corporate Council on Africa Business Summit in Baltimore. President Guebuza returned in September 2005 for the United Nations General Assembly in New York and in December 2005 attended the Fourth Development Cooperation Forum at the Carter Center in Atlanta. In 2006 he visited New York for the UN General Assembly, in 2007 he visited Washington, D.
C. for the signing of Mozambique's Millennium Challenge Corporation compact. Principal U. S. Embassy officials include: Ambassador—Leslie V. Rowe Chargé d'affaires, a.i.--Todd Chapman USAID Mission Director—Todd Amani Public Affairs Officer—Kristin Kane Defense Attaché—Lt. Col. John Roddy Peace Corps Director—David Bellama Centers for Disease Control Director—Lisa Nelson Management Officer—Jeremey Neitzke Regional Security Officer—Steve Jones Economic/Political Chief—Matt Roth Consular Officer—Sarah HortonThe U. S. Embassy in Mozambique is in Maputo; this article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State website https://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/index.htm. History of Mozambique - U. S. relations Mozambique-US Relations during Cold War from the Dean Peter Krogh Foreign Affairs Digital Archives