Jonas Ferdinand Gabriel Lippmann was a Franco-Luxembourgish physicist and inventor, Nobel laureate in physics for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference. Gabriel Lippmann was born in Bonnevoie, Luxembourg, on 16 August 1845. At the time, Bonnevoie was part of the commune of Hollerich, given as his place of birth, his father, Isaïe, a French Jew born in Ennery near Metz, managed the family glove-making business at the former convent in Bonnevoie. In 1848, the family moved to Paris where Lippmann was tutored by his mother, Miriam Rose, before attending the Lycée Napoléon, he was said to have been a rather inattentive but thoughtful pupil with a special interest in mathematics. In 1868, he was admitted to the École normale supérieure in Paris where he failed the agrégation examination which would have enabled him to enter the teaching profession, preferring instead to study physics. In 1872, the French government sent him on a mission to Heidelberg University where he was able to specialize in electricity with the encouragement of Gustav Kirchhoff, receiving a doctorate with "summa cum laude" distinction in 1874.
Lippmann returned to Paris in 1875, where he continued to study until 1878, when he became professor of physics at the Sorbonne. Lippmann made several important contributions to various branches of physics over the years. One of Lippmann's early discoveries was the relationship between electrical and capillary phenomena which allowed him to develop a sensitive capillary electrometer, subsequently known as the Lippmann electrometer, used in the first ECG machine. In a paper delivered to the Philosophical Society of Glasgow on 17 January 1883, John G. M'Kendrick described the apparatus as follows: Lippmann's electrometer consists of a tube of ordinary glass, 1 metre long and 7 millimetres in diameter, open at both ends, kept in the vertical position by a stout support; the lower end is drawn into a capillary point, until the diameter of the capillary is.005 of a millimetre. The tube is filled with mercury, the capillary point is immersed in dilute sulphuric acid, in the bottom of the vessel containing the acid there is a little more mercury.
A platinum wire is put into connection with the mercury in each tube, arrangements are made by which the capillary point can be seen with a microscope magnifying 250 diameters. Such an instrument is sensitive, it is thus a delicate means of observing and of measuring minute electromotive forces. Lippmann's PhD thesis, presented to the Sorbonne on 24 July 1875, was on electrocapillarity. In 1881, Lippmann predicted the converse piezoelectric effect. Above all, Lippmann is remembered as the inventor of a method for reproducing colours by photography, based on the interference phenomenon, which earned him the Nobel Prize in Physics for 1908. In 1886, Lippmann's interest turned to a method of fixing the colours of the solar spectrum on a photographic plate. On 2 February 1891, he announced to the Academy of Sciences: "I have succeeded in obtaining the image of the spectrum with its colours on a photographic plate whereby the image remains fixed and can remain in daylight without deterioration." By April 1892, he was able to report that he had succeeded in producing colour images of a stained glass window, a group of flags, a bowl of oranges topped by a red poppy and a multicoloured parrot.
He presented his theory of colour photography using the interference method in two papers to the Academy, one in 1894, the other in 1906. The interference phenomenon in optics occurs as a result of the wave propagation of light; when light of a given wavelength is reflected back upon itself by a mirror, standing waves are generated, much as the ripples resulting from a stone dropped into still water create standing waves when reflected back by a surface such as the wall of a pool. In the case of ordinary incoherent light, the standing waves are distinct only within a microscopically thin volume of space next to the reflecting surface. Lippmann made use of this phenomenon by projecting an image onto a special photographic plate capable of recording detail smaller than the wavelengths of visible light; the light passed through the supporting glass sheet into a thin and nearly transparent photographic emulsion containing submicroscopically small silver halide grains. A temporary mirror of liquid mercury in intimate contact reflected the light back through the emulsion, creating standing waves whose nodes had little effect while their antinodes created a latent image.
After development, the result was a structure of laminae, distinct parallel layers composed of submicroscopic metallic silver grains, a permanent record of the standing waves. In each part of the image, the spacing of the laminae corresponded to the half-wavelengths of the light photographed; the finished plate was illuminated from the front at a nearly perpendicular angle, using daylight or another source of white light containing the full range of wavelengths in the visible spectrum. At each point on the plate, light of the same wavelength as the light which had generated the laminae was reflected back toward the viewer. Light of other wavelengths, not absorbed or scattered by the silver grains passed through the emulsion to be absorbed by a black anti-reflection coating applied to the back of the plate after it had been dev
Albert, Prince Consort
Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha was the husband of Queen Victoria. He was born in the Saxon duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, to a family connected to many of Europe's ruling monarchs. At the age of 20, he married Queen Victoria, he felt constrained by his role of prince consort, which did not afford him power or responsibilities. He developed a reputation for supporting public causes, such as educational reform and the abolition of slavery worldwide, was entrusted with running the Queen's household and estates, he was involved with the organisation of the Great Exhibition of 1851, a resounding success. Victoria came to depend more on his support and guidance, he aided the development of Britain's constitutional monarchy by persuading his wife to be less partisan in her dealings with Parliament—although he disagreed with the interventionist foreign policy pursued during Lord Palmerston's tenure as Foreign Secretary. Albert died at the young age of 42. Victoria was so devastated at the loss of her husband that she entered into a deep state of mourning and wore black for the rest of her life.
On her death in 1901, their eldest son succeeded as Edward VII, the first British monarch of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, named after the ducal house to which Albert belonged. Albert was born at Schloss Rosenau, near Coburg, the second son of Ernest III, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, his first wife, Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg. Albert's future wife, was born earlier in the same year with the assistance of the same midwife, Charlotte von Siebold. Albert was baptised into the Lutheran Evangelical Church on 19 September 1819 in the Marble Hall at Schloss Rosenau with water taken from the local river, the Itz, his godparents were the Dowager Duchess of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. In 1825, Albert's great-uncle, Frederick IV, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, died, his death led to a realignment of Saxon duchies the following year and Albert's father became the first reigning duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Albert and his elder brother, spent their youth in a close companionship marred by their parents' turbulent marriage and eventual separation and divorce.
After their mother was exiled from court in 1824, she married her lover, Alexander von Hanstein, Count of Polzig and Beiersdorf. She never saw her children again, died of cancer at the age of 30 in 1831; the following year, their father married his sons' cousin Princess Marie of Württemberg. The brothers were educated at home by Christoph Florschütz and studied in Brussels, where Adolphe Quetelet was one of their tutors. Like many other German princes, Albert attended the University of Bonn, where he studied law, political economy and the history of art, he played music and excelled at sport fencing and riding. His tutors at Bonn included the poet Schlegel; the idea of marriage between Albert and his cousin, was first documented in an 1821 letter from his paternal grandmother, the Dowager Duchess of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, who said that he was "the pendant to the pretty cousin". By 1836, this idea had arisen in the mind of their ambitious uncle Leopold, King of the Belgians since 1831. At this time, Victoria was the heir presumptive to the British throne.
Her father, Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III, had died when she was a baby, her elderly uncle, King William IV, had no legitimate children. Her mother, the Duchess of Kent, was the sister of both Albert's father—the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha—and King Leopold. Leopold arranged for his sister, Victoria's mother, to invite the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and his two sons to visit her in May 1836, with the purpose of meeting Victoria. William IV, disapproved of any match with the Coburgs, instead favoured the suit of Prince Alexander, second son of the Prince of Orange. Victoria was well aware of the various matrimonial plans and critically appraised a parade of eligible princes, she wrote, " is handsome. Alexander, on the other hand, she described as "very plain". Victoria wrote to her uncle Leopold to thank him "for the prospect of great happiness you have contributed to give me, in the person of dear Albert... He possesses every quality that could be desired to render me happy."
Although the parties did not undertake a formal engagement, both the family and their retainers assumed that the match would take place. Victoria came to the throne aged eighteen on 20 June 1837, her letters of the time show interest in Albert's education for the role he would have to play, although she resisted attempts to rush her into marriage. In the winter of 1838–39, the prince visited Italy, accompanied by the Coburg family's confidential adviser, Baron Stockmar. Albert returned to the United Kingdom with Ernest in October 1839 to visit the Queen, with the objective of settling the marriage. Albert and Victoria felt mutual affection and the Queen proposed to him on 15 October 1839. Victoria's intention to marry was declared formally to the Privy Council on 23 November, the couple married on
Étienne-Jules Marey was a French scientist and chronophotographer. His work was significant in the development of cardiology, physical instrumentation, aviation and the science of laboratory photography, he is considered to be a pioneer of photography and an influential pioneer of the history of cinema. He was a pioneer in establishing a variety of graphical techniques for the display and interpretation of quantitative data from physiological measurement. Marey started by studying blood circulation in the human body, he shifted to analyzing heart beats, respiration and movement of the body. To aid his studies he developed many instruments for precise measurements. For example, in 1859, in collaboration with the physiologist Auguste Chauveau and the watch manufacturer Breguet, he developed a wearable Sphygmograph to measure the pulse; this sphygmograph was an improvement on an earlier and more cumbersome design by the German physiologist Karl von Vierordt. In 1869 Marey constructed a delicate artificial insect to show how an insect flies and to demonstrate the figure-8 shape it produced during movement of its wings.
He became fascinated by movements of air and started to study bigger flying animals, like birds. He adopted and further developed animated photography into a separate field of chronophotography in the 1880s, his revolutionary idea was to record several phases of movement on one photographic surface. In 1890 he published a substantial volume entitled Le Vol des Oiseaux, richly illustrated with photographs and diagrams, he created stunningly precise sculptures of various flying birds. Marey studied other animals too, he published La Machine animale in 1873. The English photographer Eadweard Muybridge carried out his "Photographic Investigation" in Palo Alto, California, to prove that Marey was right when he wrote that a galloping horse for a brief moment had all four hooves off the ground. Muybridge published his photos in 1879 and received some public attention. Marey hoped to merge anatomy and physiology. To better understand his chronophotographic images, he compared them with images of the anatomy, skeleton and muscles of the same species.
Marey produced a series of drawings showing a horse trotting and galloping, first in the flesh and as a skeleton. The presence and activity of Marey in Naples is well documented, in particular thanks to the documentation preserved in the historical archive of the Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn. Marey began to travel to Naples because of his relation with madame Vilbort, wife of Joseph Vilbort, the director of the French journal Le Globe. Madame Vilbort moved to Naples to cure her illness, thanks to the warm climate, Marey followed her. Marey and madame Vilbort bought villa Maria in Posillipo in 1880. Marey accomplished in Naples part of his studies aimed at the realization of his pre-cinematographic tools and in the Dohrn zoological station studied the movement of fishes hosted in the aquarium's tanks. In a letter dated 1 November 1876 Marey requested the Stazione Zoologica to provide live ray fishes for his studies. Among the documentation that witnesses the collaboration of Marey with Anton Dohrn is the archive at the zoological station which preserves photos where the two appear together during an excursion and show Marey on board Dohrn's boat.
The usage of the chronophotographic gun, which Marey used to aim at birds, but without shooting, appeared unusual to local people who referred to Maray sometimes as the "silly from Posillipo". Marey's chronophotographic gun was made in 1882, this instrument was capable of taking 12 consecutive frames a second, with all the frames recorded on the same picture. Using these pictures he studied horses, dogs, donkeys, fish, microscopic creatures, insects, etc; some call it Marey's "animated zoo". Marey conducted the famous study about cats always landing on their feet, he conducted similar studies with a chicken and a dog and found that they could do the same. Marey studied human locomotion, he published another book Le Mouvement in 1894. Marey made movies, they were at a high speed and of excellent image quality. His research on how to capture and display moving images helped the emerging field of cinematography. Towards the end of his life he returned to studying the movement of quite abstract forms, like a falling ball.
His last great work was the observation and photography of smoke trails. This research was funded by Samuel Pierpont Langley under the auspices of the Smithsonian Institution, after the two met in Paris at the Exposition Universelle. In 1901 he was able to build a smoke machine with 58 smoke trails, it became one of the first aerodynamic wind tunnels. Eadweard Muybridge Chronophotography Works by or about Étienne-Jules Marey at Internet Archive Works by Étienne-Jules Marey at Open Library The science of movement and the image of time: online exhibition by the BIUM, with the Collège de France and Pr Marta Braun, author of Picturing Time: The Work of Etienne-Jules Marey Movements of Air, Etienne-Jules Marey, Photographer of Fluids Online exhibition of images, movies, animation Etienne-Jules Marey: digital library, BIUM Photo and biography in the Virtual Laboratory of the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science Étienne-Jules Marey on IMDb La machine animale "Bodies Against Time," an essay by Zoe Beloff in online magazine Tr
Katharine Russell, Viscountess Amberley
Katharine Louisa Russell, Viscountess Amberley referred to as Kate, was a British suffragist and an early advocate of birth control in the United Kingdom. She was the mother of the philosopher Bertrand Russell. Viscountess Amberley was the penultimate child of the politician Edward Stanley, 2nd Baron Stanley of Alderley, the women's education campaigner Henrietta Stanley, Baroness Stanley of Alderley, her nine siblings included Rosalind Howard, Countess of Carlisle, another suffragist, Maude Stanley, a youth work pioneer. On 8 November 1864, she married John Russell, Viscount Amberley, the son of the former prime minister John Russell, 1st Earl Russell, his wife Frances, their first child, John Francis Stanley, was born the next year and followed by twins, Rachel Lucretia and her stillborn sister, in 1868. The couple's last child, Bertrand Arthur William, was born in 1872. Lady Amberley had a sexual relationship with the biologist Douglas Spalding, her children's tutor, with her husband's consent.
Spalding was encouraged to do research in the Amberleys' home, with Lady Amberley as his assistant. He was not fit for marriage. According to their younger son, the Amberleys were concerned for his celibacy and "allowed him to live with her", though Russell wrote that he knew of "no evidence that she derived any pleasure from doing so"; the exact nature of Lady Amberley's relationship with Spalding afterwards is unknown, as her mother-in-law found out about it and destroyed their journals and most of their correspondence shortly after Lord Amberley's death. Lady Amberley was an early proponent of women's rights, she encouraged women to study medicine, providing a scholarship for the medicine student Emily Bovell and employing Elizabeth Garrett Anderson as her personal physician. Harriet Grote introduced her to Helen Taylor in 1865 and the next year, she signed the women's suffrage petition. In 1867, Lord and Lady Amberley travelled to North America, visiting Canada and the United States of America.
They stayed in the United States for several months and met Lucretia Mott, after whom she named her daughter. She became president of the Bristol and West of England Women's Suffrage Society in 1870 and campaigned for equal pay for women and their education and acceptance into all professions. Following a suffrage meeting held in Hanover Square Rooms in 1870, the Countess Russell told her son that she appreciated the fact that his wife had not taken part in it; the relief was unwarranted. In 1874, Viscountess Amberley died of diphtheria caught from her daughter, her death affected her husband, whose decision to have her body cremated shocked the society. Lady Amberley's remains were deposited in the grounds of their Wye Valley home along with those of her daughter and no religious ceremony was held. Shortly after her husband's death two years all three bodies were moved to the Russell family vault at Chenies. Photographs of Lady Amberley Parents and grandparents of Bertrand Russell Lady Amberley's Ten Point Plan January 1871
Étienne Carjat, was a French journalist and photographer. He co-founded the magazine Le Diogène, founded the review Le Boulevard, he is best known for his numerous portraits and caricatures of political and artistic Parisian figures. His best-known work is the iconic portrait of Arthur Rimbaud which he took in October 1871; the location of much of his photography is untraceable after being sold to a Mr. Roth in 1923. Croquis biographiques Les Mouches vertes, satire Peuple, prends garde à toi! Satire électorale
Gustave Le Gray
Jean-Baptiste Gustave Le Gray has been called "the most important French photographer of the nineteenth century" because of his technical innovations, his instruction of other noted photographers, "the extraordinary imagination he brought to picture making." He was an important contributor to the development of the wax paper negative. Gustave Le Gray was born in 1820 in Val-d'Oise, he was trained as a painter, studying under François-Édouard Picot and Paul Delaroche. He lived in painted portraits and scenes of the countryside. Le Gray exhibited his paintings at the salon in 1848 and 1853, he crossed over to photography in the early years of its development. He made his first daguerreotypes by 1847, his early photographs included portraits. He taught photography to students such as Charles Nègre, Henri Le Secq, Olympe Aguado, Maxime Du Camp. In 1851, he became one of the first five photographers hired for the Missions Héliographiques to document French monuments and buildings. In that same year he helped found the Société Héliographique, the "first photographic organization in the world."
Le Gray published a treatise on photography, which went through four editions, in 1850, 1851, 1852, 1854. In 1855, Le Gray opened a "lavishly furnished" studio. At that time, becoming progressively the official photographer of Napoleon III, he became a successful portraitist, his most famous work dates from this period, 1856 to 1858 his seascapes. The studio was a fancy place, but in spite of his artistic success, his business was a financial failure: the business was poorly managed and ran into debts, he therefore "closed his studio, abandoned his wife and children, fled the country to escape his creditors."He began to tour the Mediterranean in 1860 with the writer Alexandre Dumas, père. They encountered Giuseppe Garibaldi during the trip and Le Gray photographed Garibaldi and Palermo, his striking pictures of Giuseppe Garibaldi and Palermo under Sicilian bombardment became as famous throughout Europe. Dumas abandoned Le Gray and the other travelers in Malta and joined the revolutionary forces as a result of a personal conflict.
Le Gray went to Lebanon Syria where he covered the movements of the French army for a magazine in 1861. Injured, he remained there before heading to Egypt. In Alexandria he photographed Henri d'Artois and the future Edward VII of the United Kingdom, wrote to Nadar while sending him pictures, he established himself in Cairo in 1864. He sent pictures to the universal exhibition in 1867 but they did not catch anyone's attention, he received commissions from the vice-king Ismail Pasha. From this late period there remain 50 pictures, he died in Cairo. His technical innovations included: Improvements on paper negatives waxing them before exposure "making the paper more receptive to fine detail". A collodion process published in 1850 but, "theoretical at best"; the invention of the wet collodion method to produce a negative on a glass plate is now credited to Frederick Scott Archer who published his process in 1851. Combination printing, creating seascapes by using one negative for the water and one negative for the sky.
Le Gray documented French monuments on a mission for the French government with other French photographers. He was a successful portrait photographer, capturing figures such as Napoleon III and Edward VII, he became famous for his seascapes, or marine. He spent 20 years in Cairo, but there are few works from this period. In October 1999, Sotheby's sold a Le Gray albumen print "Beech Tree, Fontainebleau" for £419,500, a world record for the most expensive single photograph sold at auction, to an anonymous buyer. At the same auction, an albumen print of "The Great Wave, Sète" by Le Gray was sold for a new world record price of £507,500 or $840,370 to "the same anonymous buyer", revealed to be Sheik Saud Al-Thani of Qatar; the record stood until May 2003 when Al-Thani purchased a daguerreotype by Joseph-Philibert Girault de Prangey for £565,250 or $922,488. A practical treatise on photography, upon paper and glass by Gustave Le Gray, London: T. & R. Willats, 1850. Photographic manipulation: the waxed paper process of Gustave Le Gray by Gustave Le Gray.
Translated from the French. London: George Knight and Sons, 1853. Architecture and landscapes Portraits History of photography List of most expensive photographs Société française de photographie Parry, Eugenia; the photography of Gustave Le Gray. Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago and University of Chicago Press, 1987. ISBN 0-226-39210-4 Aubenas, Sylvie. Gustave Le Gray, 1820-1884. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2002. ISBN 0-89236-672-9 Aubenas, Sylvie. Gustave Le Gray. London and New York: Phaidon, 2003. ISBN 0-7148-4234-6 Works by or about Gustave Le Gray at Internet Archive Gustave Le Gray Collection at Victoria and Albert Museum Novak, Alex. "Photography Price Gyrations: Gustave Le Gray, A Case Study". On Connoisseurship and Photography Print Values: A Discussion. Retrieved 2008-09-16. Gustave Le Gray: Master Photographer of the 19th Century, I Photo Central All the Mighty World: The Photographs of Roger Fenton, 1852-1860, exhibition catalog online as PDF from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on Gustave Le Gray Krygier, Irit on artnet.com Sublime Le Gray
Count Olympe-Clemente-Alexandre-Auguste Aguado de las Marismas was a Franco-Spanish photographer and socialite, active in the 1850s and 1860s. One of several early photographers who learned the practice from Gustave Le Gray, Aguado pioneered a number of photographic processes, including carte de visite photographs and photographic enlargement processes, he was a founding member of the influential French Photographic Society in 1854. Aguado was born in Paris in 1827, the second son of the Spanish-born Marquis Alexandre Aguado and Maria de Carmen Vidoire Moreno. Alexandre Aguado had been a supporter of Joseph Bonaparte during the Peninsular War. Following the war, he went into exile in Paris, rose to become one of the wealthiest bankers in France. In the 1820s and 1830s, he negotiated a series of loans that saved Spain from bankruptcy, King Ferdinand VII of Spain conferred on him the title of "Marquis de las Marismas del Guadalquivir". Upon his death, his sons, including Olympe, inherited a considerable fortune.
In the late 1840s, Aguado learned photography from pioneering French photographer Gustave Le Gray. From his studio on the Place Vendôme, he worked with daguerreotypes, but by the early 1850s, was experimenting with other photographic processes, namely with negative paper and collodion on glass. In 1854, he and Edouard Delessert developed the carte-de-visite printing method as a way to add portraits to visiting cards. In the decade, he experimented with enlargement processes. Like Le Gray, Aguado taught photography among them Camille Silvy. Aguado was a member of the early French photographic organization, the Société héliographique, in the early 1850s. In 1854, he was a founding member the Société héliographique's more inclusive successor, the French Photographic Society; this organization would prove influential in subsequent decades in the development and promotion of photography in France. Aguado served as a judge for the Society's exhibitions during the 1850s and 1860s. Aguado was a frequent figure at the court of Emperor Napoleon III, photographed both the emperor and his wife, Eugénie.
Aguado's photographs during this period included a number of staged portraits that poked fun at the mores and habits of Second Empire nobility. By the end of the 1860s, Aguado had lost interest in photography, produced few photographs in subsequent decades, he died in Compeigne in 1894. Olympe's younger brother, Onésipe, was a photographer, the two collaborated on a number of projects. A nephew of Olympe Aguado, Henry Tenre, was a noted early-20th-century painter. Most of Aguado's photographs consist of portraits, he had a penchant for experimenting with new photographic processes, thus produced photographs using numerous different mediums. Surviving Aguado daguerreotypes include Intérieur d'un hôtel particulier, which depicts the interior of a large house. Salt paper prints by Aguado include Still Life with Garden Equipment and Study of Trees, Bois de Boulogne, he preferred collodion on glass for portraits, but switched to albumen prints. No known examples of Aguado's enlargement experiments have survived.
Some of Aguado's most interesting images consist of a series of staged family portraits, or "living pictures," taken in the 1860s as an apparent critique of Second Empire nobility. The most well-known of these include Admiration, which depicts several people with their backs turned to the camera admiring a painting, La Lecture, which depicts a man reading to a bored audience. Aguado's photographs are included in the collections of the Getty Museum, the Musée d'Orsay, the French Photographic Society, the Strasbourg Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art. Olympe Aguado – Luminous-Lint