University College London
University College London is a public research university in London, and a constituent college of the federal University of London. It is the largest postgraduate institution in the UK by enrollment and is regarded as one of the worlds leading research universities. UCL makes the claims of being the third-oldest university in England. In 1836 UCL became one of the two founding colleges of the University of London, which was granted a charter in the same year. UCL has its campus in the Bloomsbury area of central London, with a number of institutes and teaching hospitals elsewhere in central London. UCL is organised into 11 constituent faculties, within there are over 100 departments, institutes. In 2015/16, UCL had around 38,300 students and 12,000 staff and had an income of £1.36 billion. UCL ranks highly in national and international league tables and its graduates rank among the most employable in the world, UCL academics discovered five of the naturally occurring noble gases, co-discovered hormones, invented the vacuum tube, and made several foundational advances in modern statistics.
There are at least 29 Nobel Prize winners and 3 Fields medalists amongst UCLs alumni and current, UCL was founded on 11 February 1826 under the name London University, as an alternative to the Anglican universities of Oxford and Cambridge. London Universitys first Warden was Leonard Horner, who was the first scientist to head a British university and this suggests that while his ideas may have been influential, he himself was less so. In 1827, the Chair of Political Economy at London University was created, with John Ramsay McCulloch as the first incumbent, in 1828 the university became the first in England to offer English as a subject and the teaching of Classics and medicine began. In 1830, London University founded the London University School, which would become University College School, in 1833, the university appointed Alexander Maconochie, Secretary to the Royal Geographical Society, as the first professor of geography in the UK. In 1834, University College Hospital opened as a hospital for the universitys medical school.
In 1836, London University was incorporated by charter under the name University College. The Slade School of Fine Art was founded as part of University College in 1871, in 1878, the University of London gained a supplemental charter making it the first British university to be allowed to award degrees to women. The same year, UCL admitted women to the faculties of Arts and Law and of Science, although women remained barred from the faculties of Engineering and of Medicine. Armstrong College, an institution of Newcastle University, allowed women to enter from its foundation in 1871. Women were finally admitted to medical studies during the First World War in 1917, in 1898, Sir William Ramsay discovered the elements krypton and xenon whilst professor of chemistry at UCL
Staffordshire is a landlocked county in the West Midlands of England. It adjoins Cheshire to the north west and Leicestershire to the east, Warwickshire to the south east, West Midlands and Worcestershire to the south, and Shropshire to the west. The largest city in Staffordshire is Stoke-on-Trent, which is administered separately from the rest of the county as an independent unitary authority, Lichfield has city status, although this is a considerably smaller cathedral city. Major towns include Stafford, Burton upon Trent, Newcastle-under-Lyme, smaller towns include Stone and Rugeley, and large villages Eccleshall, Kinver, Penkridge and Stretton. Cannock Chase AONB is within the county as well as parts of the National Forest, Walsall, West Bromwich, and Smethwick were historic Staffordshire towns until local government reorganisation created the West Midlands county in 1974. Historically, Staffordshire was divided into the five hundreds of Cuttlestone, Pirehill, the historic boundaries of Staffordshire cover much of what is now the metropolitan county of West Midlands.
The Act saw the towns of Tamworth and Burton upon Trent united entirely in Staffordshire, in 1553 Queen Mary made Lichfield a county separate from the rest of Staffordshire. Handsworth and Perry Barr became part of the county borough of Birmingham in the early 20th century, Burton, in the east of the county, became a county borough in 1901, and was followed by Smethwick, another town in the Black Country in 1907. In 1910 the six towns of the Staffordshire Potteries, including Hanley, a major reorganisation in the Black Country in 1966, under the recommendation of the Local Government Commission for England led to the creation of an area of contiguous county boroughs. Meanwhile, the county borough of Dudley, historically a part of Worcestershire, expanded. County boroughs were abolished, with Stoke becoming a district in Staffordshire. On 1 April 1997, under a recommendation of the Banham Commission, in July 2009 the largest hoard of Anglo-Saxon gold ever found in Britain was discovered in a field near Lichfield.
The artefacts, known as The Staffordshire Hoard have tentatively dated to the 7th or 8th centuries. Some nationally and internationally known companies have their base in Staffordshire. They include the Britannia Building Society which is based in Leek, JCB is based in Rocester near Uttoxeter and bet365 based in Stoke-on-Trent. The theme park Alton Towers is in the Staffordshire Moorlands and several of the worlds largest pottery manufacturers are based in Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire has a completely comprehensive system with eight independent schools. Most secondary schools are from 11–16 or 18, but two in Staffordshire Moorlands and South Staffordshire are from 13–18, there are two universities in the county, Keele University in Newcastle-under-Lyme and Staffordshire University, which has campuses in Stoke-on-Trent, Stafford and Shrewsbury. The modern county of Staffordshire currently has three football clubs – Stoke City and Port Vale, both from Stoke-on-Trent, and Burton Albion, who play in Burton upon Trent.
They were among the 12 founder members of the Football League in 1888, in 1972, the club finally won a major trophy when they lifted the Football League Cup, but after relegation from the First Division in 1985 they would not experience top flight football for 23 years
Hearst Castle is a National Historic Landmark and California Historical Landmark mansion located on the Central Coast of California, United States. It was designed by architect Julia Morgan, between 1919 and 1947, as a residence for newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst, who died in 1951, in 1954 it became a California State Park. The site was opened to visitors in 1958, since that time it has been operated as the Hearst San Simeon State Historical Monument where the estate, and its considerable collection of art and antiques, is open for public tours. Despite its location far from any urban center, the site attracts millions of travelers each year, Hearst formally named the estate La Cuesta Encantada, but usually called it the ranch. Hearst Castle and grounds are sometimes referred to as San Simeon without distinguishing between the Hearst property and the adjacent unincorporated area of the same name. Invitations to Hearst Castle were highly coveted during its heyday in the 1920s and 1930s, the Hollywood and political elite often visited, usually flying into the estates airfield or taking a private Hearst-owned train car from Los Angeles.
While guests were expected to attend the formal dinners each evening, since the Ranch had so many facilities, guests were rarely at a loss for things to do. The estates theater usually screened films from Hearsts own movie studio, Hearst Castle was the inspiration for the Xanadu mansion of the 1941 Orson Welles film Citizen Kane, a fictionalization of William Randolph Hearsts career. Hearst Castle was not used as a location for the film, commercial filming is rare at Hearst Castle and most requests are turned down. U. Y. One condition of the Hearst Corporations donation of the estate was that the Hearst family would be allowed to use it when they wished. Patty Hearst, a granddaughter of William Randolph, related that as a child, the house is screened from tourist routes by a dense grove of eucalyptus to provide maximum privacy for the guests. In 2001, Patty Hearst hosted a Travel Channel show on the estate, Hearst Castle joined the National Register of Historic Places on June 22,1972 and became a United States National Historic Landmark on May 11,1976.
Hearst Castle was included as one of Americas 10 Amazing Castles by Forbes Travel. com, the estate itself is five miles inland atop a hill of the Santa Lucia Range at an altitude of 1,600 feet. The region is sparsely populated because the Santa Lucia Range abuts the Pacific Ocean, the surrounding countryside visible from the mansion remains largely undeveloped. Its entrance is approximately five miles north of Hearst San Simeon State Park, Hearst Castle was built on Rancho Piedra Blanca that William Randolph Hearsts father, George Hearst, originally purchased in 1865. The younger Hearst grew fond of this site over many childhood family camping trips and he inherited the ranch, which had grown to 250,000 acres and 14 miles of coastline, from his mother Phoebe Hearst in 1919. The Hearst Castle area has a mediterranean climate that is moderated by its relative proximity to the Pacific coastline. Hearst first approached American architect Julia Morgan with ideas for a new project in April 1915, I get tired of going up there and camping in tents
William Randolph Hearst
Hearst entered the publishing business in 1887 after being given control of The San Francisco Examiner by his wealthy father. Acquiring more newspapers, Hearst created a chain that numbered nearly 30 papers in major American cities at its peak and he expanded to magazines, creating the largest newspaper and magazine business in the world. Politically he espoused the Progressive Movement, speaking on behalf of the working class and he controlled the editorial positions and coverage of political news in all his papers and magazines and thereby exercised enormous political influence. He called for war in 1898 against Spain—as did many other newspaper editors—but he did it in sensational fashion, after 1918, he called for an isolationist foreign policy to avoid any more entanglement in what he regarded as corrupt European affairs. He was at once a militant nationalist, a fierce anti-communist, and deeply suspicious of the League of Nations and of the British, French and Russians. He was a supporter of Franklin Roosevelt in 1932–34, but broke with FDR.
His life story was the inspiration for Charles Foster Kane. His famous mansion, Hearst Castle, on a hill overlooking the Pacific Ocean near San Simeon, is now a State Historical Monument and a National Historic Landmark. William R. Hearst was born in San Francisco, to mining engineer, goldmine owner and U. S. senator George Hearst. His paternal great-grandfather was John Hearst, of Ulster Protestant origin and he migrated to America from Ballybay, County Monaghan as part of the Cahans Exodus with his wife and six children in 1766 and settled in South Carolina. Their immigration to South Carolina was spurred in part by the governments policy that encouraged the immigration of Irish Protestants. The names John Hearse and John Hearse Jr, the Hearse spelling of the family name never was used afterward by the family members themselves, or any family of any size. Hearsts mother, née Phoebe Elizabeth Apperson, was of Irish ancestry and she was the first woman regent of University of California, funded many anthropological expeditions and founded the Phoebe A.
Hearst Museum of Anthropology. Following preparation at St. Pauls School in Concord, New Hampshire, while there he was a member of Delta Kappa Epsilon, the A. D. Searching for an occupation, in 1887, Hearst took over management of a newspaper, the San Francisco Examiner, a self-proclaimed populist, Hearst went on to publish stories of municipal and financial corruption, often attacking companies in which his own family held an interest. Within a few years, his paper dominated the San Francisco market, the inventor of color comics, and all of Pulitzers Sunday staff as well. Another prominent hire was James J. Montague, who came from the Portland Oregonian, Hearst imported his best managers from the San Francisco Examiner and quickly established himself as the most attractive employer among New York newspapers. Hearsts activist approach to journalism can be summarized by the motto, While others Talk, the New York Journal and its chief rival, the New York World, mastered a style of popular journalism that came to be derided as yellow journalism, after Outcaults Yellow Kid comic
Cotton College was a Roman Catholic boarding school in Cotton, United Kingdom. It was known as Saint Wilfrids College and it closed in 1987 and the site is now derelict. The building is a Grade II listed building and it was founded in 1763 by William Errington, at the recommendation of Bishop Richard Challoner, at Sedgley Park School, Wolverhampton – now a hotel. In 1873 it moved to Cotton Hall, the original house appears to date back to 1630 and was most probably built by the Morrice family before Thomas Gilbert moved there. This began an association of the Gilbert Family and the Earl of Shrewsbury as Land Agents, after its sale to the Earl of Shrewsbury it was used by the Oratorians, and the Passionists, finally the secular clergy of the archdiocese of Birmingham. The school closed in 1987 due to difficulties, and the structure has fallen into a state of disrepair. Only Saint Wilfrids church remains intact, although services are no longer held there. The college building is built of red brick with painted ashlar dressings and it was extended in 1846–1848 by the Victorian architect A W N Pugin, who designed an extension to the building and the chapel.
The building was extended in 1874-1875, 1886-1887 and 1931-1932
Golden Gate International Exposition
The Golden Gate International Exposition, held at San Franciscos Treasure Island, was a Worlds Fair celebrating, among other things, the citys two newly built bridges. The San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge opened in 1936 and the Golden Gate Bridge in 1937, the exposition opened from February 18,1939, through October 29,1939, and from May 25,1940, through September 29,1940. Built by the government, Treasure Island was to be an airport for Pan Americans transpacific flying boats. Due to wartime needs, it was turned into a base used by the US Navy from 1941 to 1997. During the Expo in 1939, Master carver John Wallace demonstrated the art of carving totem poles for visitors, the theme of the exposition was Pageant of the Pacific, as it showcased the goods of nations bordering the Pacific Ocean. The theme was symbolized by The Tower of the Sun. As the boundaries of human intercourse are widened by giant strides of trade and travel, unity of the Pacific nations is Americas concern and responsibility, their onward progress deserves now a recognition that will be a stimulus as well.
Washington is remote from the Pacific, San Francisco stands at the doorway to the sea that roars upon the shores of all these nations, and so to the Golden Gate International Exposition I gladly entrust a solemn duty. May this, Americas Worlds Fair on the Pacific in 1939, truly serve all nations in symbolizing their destinies, one every other. —President Franklin D. Roosevelt, via radio, during the opening ceremonies, the San Francisco Downtown Association created the 49-Mile Scenic Drive to promote the exposition and the city. The drive started at San Francisco City Hall and ended on Treasure Island after winding around the picturesque City by the Bay, the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway started a passenger train, the Valley Flyer, to carry passengers between Bakersfield and Oakland during the exposition. In October 2010, the National Building Museum in Washington, D. C. opened an exhibition titled Designing Tomorrow and this exhibition, which was available for view until September 2011, prominently featured the Golden Gate International Exposition.
The Fauna and Flora of the Pacific mural by Miguel Covarrubias is now on display at the de Young museum in San Francisco. The colorful and oversized map depicts the four Pacific Rim continents with examples of their flora and fauna suspended in a swirling Pacific Ocean populated with sea creatures
Marc-Louis-Emmanuel Solon, pseudonym Miles, was a French porcelain artist for Sèvres Pottery who moved to Stoke-on-Trent in 1870 to become a leading artist at Mintons Ltd. He remained resident in England until his death and his work commanded high prices in the late Victorian period as a leading exponent of the technique of ceramic decoration called pâte-sur-pâte. One of his vases, believed to be his largest, is on display at Osborne House, Solon was born in Montauban, Tarn-et-Garonne. Despite some family resistance to his becoming an artist, he studied at the École des Beaux-Arts, some of Solons work came to the attention of the art director of the Sèvres Pottery. Solon was employed there from 1862–70 as a ceramic artist and designer and his subjects included portraits, female figures, small animals, and birds, in styles derived from Classical Greece, the Renaissance, 17th- and 18th-century paintings, and Victorian postcards. Solon moved to England in 1870, at the time of the Franco-Prussian War and he found employment at Mintons Ltd, and settled at Nº1, The Villas, Stoke-on-Trent.
Mintons experienced more demand for pâte-sur-pâte ceramics than Solon could meet working on his own, Solon married Laure, the daughter of Mintons art director, Léon Arnoux. Their eldest son, Léon-Victor Solon, joined Minton in the 1890s, leon made an important contribution to art nouveau ceramics at Minton before moving to the USA. During his early years in Staffordshire Solon collected local pottery and he used the collection as the basis of his 1883 publication, The Art of the Old English Potter, a book about pottery produced before Josiah Wedgwood transformed the industry. Potteries Museum & Art Gallery Examples of pâte-sur-pâte are to be found in the Potteries Museum & Art Gallery in Hanley, the website has a search facility which allows you to view images of pâte-sur-pâte
San Simeon, California
San Simeon is a town and census-designated place on the Pacific coast of San Luis Obispo County, California. Its position along State Route 1 is approximately halfway between Los Angeles and San Francisco, each of those cities being roughly 230 miles away. A key feature of the area is Hearst Castle, a mansion built by William Randolph Hearst in the early 20th century that is now a tourist attraction. The area is home to a large northern elephant seal rookery. It is located seven miles north of San Simeon on Highway 1, the first European land exploration of Alta California, the Spanish Portolà expedition, traveled northwest along the coast in September,1769. On September 11–12, the party passed the location of San Simeon. At Ragged Point, about 15 miles past San Simeon, the party turned inland across the Santa Lucia Range, San Simeon was founded as an asistencia to Mission San Miguel Arcángel, founded in 1797 and located to the east across the Santa Lucia Range. San Simeon was named for Rancho San Simeon, although the town-site is actually north of that rancho, on the former Rancho Piedra Blanca, in 1865, Pico sold part of the rancho to George Hearst, the father of William Randolph Hearst.
The first Europeans to settle in the area near the bay of San Simeon were Portuguese shore whalers under the command of Captain Joseph Clark from the Cape Verde Islands. In 1869, Captain Clark built a wharf near the point for his whaling station, a small community grew near the 1869 wharf, but the waves near the wharf were too high, and the wharf was abandoned. In 1878, Hearst built a new wharf, and the community moved near the new wharf. A general store was built near the Clark wharf, and relocated near the 1878 wharf, shore whaling continued on the point until the mid-1890s. It ceased for a time, started up again in 1897. In 1953, the Hearst Corporation donated the William Randolph Hearst Memorial Beach, including the Hearst Pier and it is currently part of Hearst San Simeon State Park. The present-day San Simeon pier was built in 1957, the name San Simeon refers to some geologic structures of the area, particularly elements of the coastal Jurassic Age landforms and ophiolite mineral formations.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the census-designated place covers an area of 0.8 square miles, the original townsite of San Simeon is at San Simeon Bay, and was the important 19th-century shipping point with the successive wharves that were built. San Simeon Acres, about four miles south of the townsite at the mouth of Pico Creek. Most of the development at San Simeon Acres was in the 1960s to the 1980s, many motels and cafes serve visitors to Hearst Castle
Chapel of the Chimes (Oakland, California)
Chapel of the Chimes was founded in 1909 as a crematory and columbarium in Oakland, California. The present building dates largely from a 1928 redevelopment based on the designs of the architect Julia Morgan, the Moorish- and Gothic-inspired interior is a maze of small rooms featuring ornate stonework, gardens and mosaics. The name chapel refers primarily to the style of interior design, the building maintains its original functions, and serves as the venue for annual music festivals on the winter and summer solstices. The chapels owners operate funeral homes and cemeteries, not designed by Morgan, in Hayward, under the name Chapel of the Chimes, Chapel of the Chimes holds the records of the Chapel of Memories on Pleasant Valley Avenue. Garden of Memory has been held 1996–present, this is a columbarium walk-through event held every year on the evening of the summer solstice and it features over 40 musicians performing on unique instruments, or compositions designed for the event. The sound is often electronic or electro-acoustic in source and electronically processed. S
Arequipa Pottery was a type of Arts and Crafts style pottery produced in Marin County, California, in the United States from 1911 until 1918. Arequipa Pottery differs from many Arts and Crafts pottery businesses because it was produced as part of the process for women recovering from tuberculosis in the San Francisco Bay Area. The pottery was produced from local clay. Arequipa Pottery was established by Dr. Philip King Brown as part of the therapy program at a tuberculosis sanatorium located outside of Fairfax. The pottery was active from 1911 through 1918, following the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, dust-and ash-filled air contributed to a tuberculosis epidemic in San Francisco. The incidence of the disease was much higher women than men. The Arequipa Sanatorium, directed by Brown, was opened to women in the first stages of tuberculosis. At the time, the known treatment was rest and good nutrition, in the hopes that the lungs could recover. Brown got his first taste of running a sanatorium when he inherited a house left to him by a wealthy relative located in Santa Barbara.
The name of this facility was Miradero, established to rehabilitate nervous cases, at that time, treatment for tuberculosis, or TB, in a sanatorium was costly and there were few alternatives where working-class women could go to recover from this illness. Brown was active with the San Francisco Tuberculosis Polyclinic, which was a facility where people learned about the prevention and this experience motivated Browns desire to establish a facility which was affordable for working-class women. The Arts and Crafts movement flourished from 1860 -1910, the movement encouraged production of hand crafted goods. The production and growth of American art pottery began in the 1870s with a group of women in Cincinnati, the most famous pottery artists were Maria Longworth Nichols Storer and Mary Louise McLaughlin. With the help of artists and members of the areas philanthropic community. The Arts and Crafts Movement believed that crafts could provide great satisfaction, in addition, the director wanted to combat idleness, avoid the stigma of charity, and produce revenue.
The idea of ceramics as a form of occupational therapy had been pioneered by a sanatorium at Marblehead, Browns mother was Dr. Charlotte Blake Brown, a renowned physician in the early history of San Francisco. Dr. Brown received his degree from Harvard University in 1893. Brown returned to California, established his practice and was a teacher, in 1900, he married Helen Hillyer, who was mentored by Phoebe Apperson Hearst