George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron, known as Lord Byron, was a British poet, peer and leading figure in the Romantic movement. He is regarded as one of the greatest British poets and remains read and influential. Among his best-known works are the lengthy narrative poems Don Juan and Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, he travelled extensively across Europe in Italy, where he lived for seven years in the cities of Venice and Pisa. During his stay in Italy he visited his friend and fellow poet Percy Bysshe Shelley. In life Byron joined the Greek War of Independence fighting the Ottoman Empire, for which Greeks revere him as a national hero, he died in 1824 at the age of 36 from a fever contracted in Missolonghi. Described as the most flamboyant and notorious of the major Romantics, Byron was both celebrated and castigated in his life for his aristocratic excesses, which included huge debts, numerous love affairs with both men and women, as well as rumours of a scandalous liaison with his half-sister.
One of his lovers, Lady Caroline Lamb, summed him up in the famous phrase "mad and dangerous to know". His only legitimate child, Ada Lovelace, is regarded as the first computer programmer based on her notes for Charles Babbage's Analytical Engine. Byron's illegitimate children include Allegra Byron, who died in childhood, Elizabeth Medora Leigh. Ethel Colburn Mayne states that George Gordon Byron was born on 22 January 1788, in a house on 16 Holles Street in London, his birthplace is now occupied by a branch of the English department store John Lewis. However, Robert Charles Dallas in his Recollections states. Byron was the son of Captain John "Mad Jack" Byron and his second wife, the former Catherine Gordon, a descendant of Cardinal Beaton and heiress of the Gight estate in Aberdeenshire, Scotland. Byron's father had seduced the married Marchioness of Carmarthen and, after she divorced her husband, he married her, his treatment of her was described as "brutal and vicious", she died after giving birth to two daughters, only one of whom survived, Byron's half-sister, Augusta.
To claim his second wife's estate in Scotland, Byron's father took the additional surname "Gordon", becoming "John Byron Gordon", he was styled "John Byron Gordon of Gight." Byron himself used this surname for a time and was registered at school in Aberdeen as "George Byron Gordon." At the age of 10 he inherited the English Barony of Byron of Rochdale, becoming "Lord Byron", dropped the double surname. Byron's paternal grandparents were Vice-Admiral the Hon. John "Foulweather Jack" Byron, Sophia Trevanion. Vice Admiral John Byron had circumnavigated the globe and was the younger brother of the 5th Baron Byron, known as "the Wicked Lord", he was christened at St Marylebone Parish Church as "George Gordon Byron", after his maternal grandfather George Gordon of Gight, a descendant of James I of Scotland, who had committed suicide in 1779. "Mad Jack" Byron married his second wife for the same reason that he married her fortune. Byron's mother had to sell her land and title to pay her new husband's debts, in the space of two years, the large estate, worth some £23,500, had been squandered, leaving the former heiress with an annual income in trust of only £150.
In a move to avoid his creditors, Catherine accompanied her profligate husband to France in 1786, but returned to England at the end of 1787 to give birth to her son on English soil. He was born on 22 January in lodgings at Holles Street in London. Catherine moved back to Aberdeenshire in 1790, his father soon joined them in their lodgings in Queen Street, but the couple separated. Catherine experienced mood swings and bouts of melancholy, which could be explained by her husband's continuingly borrowing money from her; as a result, she fell further into debt to support his demands. It was one of these importunate loans that allowed him to travel to Valenciennes, where he died in 1791; when Byron's great-uncle, the "wicked" Lord Byron, died on 21 May 1798, the 10-year-old boy became the sixth Baron Byron of Rochdale and inherited the ancestral home, Newstead Abbey, in Nottinghamshire. His mother proudly took him to England, but the Abbey was in an embarrassing state of disrepair and, rather than living there, she decided to lease it to Lord Grey de Ruthyn, among others, during Byron's adolescence.
Described as "a woman without judgment or self-command," Catherine either spoiled and indulged her son or vexed him with her capricious stubbornness. Her drinking disgusted him and he mocked her for being short and corpulent, which made it difficult for her to catch him to discipline him. Byron had been born with a deformed right foot. However, Byron's biographer, Doris Langley-Moore, in her 1974 book, Accounts Rendered, paints a more sympathetic view of Mrs Byron, showing how she was a staunch supporter of her son and sacrificed her own precarious finances to keep him in luxury at Harrow and Cambridge. Langley-Moore questions the Galt claim. Upon the death of Byron's mother-in-law Judith Noel, the Hon. Lady Milbanke, in 1822, her will required that he change his surname to "Noel" so as to inherit half of her estate, he obtained a Royal Warrant, allowing him to "take and use the surname of Noel only" and to "subscribe the said surname of Noel before all titles of honour". From that point he signed himself "Noel Byron" (the usual signature of a peer being the peerage, in this case "Byron
The Ingenious Gentleman Sir Quixote of La Mancha, or just Don Quixote, is a Spanish novel by Miguel de Cervantes. Published in two parts, in 1605 and 1615, Don Quixote is the most influential work of literature from the Spanish Golden Age and the entire Spanish literary canon; as a founding work of modern Western literature, it appears high on lists of the greatest works of fiction published, such as the Bokklubben World Library collection that cites Don Quixote as the authors' choice for the "best literary work written". The story follows the adventures of a noble named Alonso Quixano who reads so many chivalric romances that he loses his sanity and decides to become a knight-errant, reviving chivalry and serving his country, under the name Don Quixote de la Mancha, he recruits a simple farmer, Sancho Panza, as his squire, who employs a unique, earthy wit in dealing with Don Quixote's rhetorical orations on antiquated knighthood. Don Quixote, in the first part of the book, does not see the world for what it is and prefers to imagine that he is living out a knightly story.
Throughout the novel, Cervantes uses such literary techniques as realism and intertextuality. The book had a major influence on the literary community, as evidenced by direct references in Alexandre Dumas' The Three Musketeers, Mark Twain's Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Edmond Rostand's Cyrano de Bergerac, as well as the word quixotic and the epithet Lothario; the 19th-century German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer cited Don Quixote as one of the four greatest novels written, along with Tristram Shandy, La Nouvelle Héloïse, Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre. When first published, Don Quixote was interpreted as a comic novel. After the French Revolution, it was better known for its central ethic that individuals can be right while society is quite wrong and seen as disenchanting. In the 19th century, it was seen as a social commentary, but no one could tell "whose side Cervantes was on". Many critics came to view the work as a tragedy in which Don Quixote's idealism and nobility are viewed by the post-chivalric world as insane, are defeated and rendered useless by common reality.
By the 20th century, the novel had come to occupy a canonical space as one of the foundations of modern literature. Cervantes wrote that the first chapters were taken from "the archives of La Mancha", the rest were translated from an Arabic text by the Moorish author Cide Hamete Benengeli; this metafictional trick appears to give a greater credibility to the text, implying that Don Quixote is a real character and that the events related occurred several decades prior to the recording of this account. However, it was common practice in that era for fictional works to make some pretense of being factual, such as the common opening line of fairy tales "Once upon a time in a land far away...". In the course of their travels, the protagonists meet innkeepers, goat-herders, priests, escaped convicts and scorned lovers; the aforementioned characters sometimes tell tales that incorporate events from the real world, like the conquest of the Kingdom of Maynila or battles in the Eighty Years' War. Their encounters are magnified by Don Quixote's imagination into chivalrous quests.
Don Quixote's tendency to intervene violently in matters irrelevant to himself, his habit of not paying debts, result in privations and humiliations. Don Quixote is persuaded to return to his home village; the narrator says that records of it have been lost. Alonso Quixano, the protagonist of the novel, is a Hidalgo, nearing 50 years of age, living in an unnamed section of La Mancha with his niece and housekeeper, as well as a boy, never heard of again after the first chapter. Although Quixano is a rational man, in keeping with the humoral physiology theory of the time, not sleeping adequately—because he was reading—has caused his brain to dry; as a result, he is given to anger and believes every word of these fictional books of chivalry to be true. Imitating the protagonists of these books, he decides to become a knight-errant in search of adventure. To these ends, he dons an old suit of armour, renames himself "Don Quixote", names his exhausted horse "Rocinante", designates Aldonza Lorenzo, a neighboring farm girl, as his lady love, renaming her Dulcinea del Toboso, while she knows nothing of this.
Expecting to become famous he arrives at an inn, which he believes to be a castle. He spends the night holding vigil over his armor and becomes involved in a fight with muleteers who try to remove his armor from the horse trough so that they can water their mules. In a pretended ceremony, the innkeeper sends him on his way. Don Quixote next "frees" a young boy named Andres, tied to a tree and beaten by his master, makes his master swear to treat the boy fairly. Don Quixote encounters traders from Toledo, who "insult" the imaginary Dulcinea, he attacks them, only to be
Alfredo James Pacino is an American actor and filmmaker who has had a career spanning more than five decades. He has received numerous accolades and honors both competitive and honorary, among them an Academy Award, two Tony Awards, two Primetime Emmy Awards, a British Academy Film Award, four Golden Globe Awards, the Lifetime Achievement Award from the American Film Institute, the Golden Globe Cecil B. DeMille Award and the National Medal of Arts, he is one of few performers to have won a competitive Oscar, an Emmy and a Tony Award for acting, dubbed the "Triple Crown of Acting". A method actor and former student of the HB Studio and the Actors Studio in New York City, where he was taught by Charlie Laughton and Lee Strasberg, Pacino made his feature film debut with a minor role in Me, Natalie and gained favorable notice for his lead role as a heroin addict in The Panic in Needle Park, he achieved international acclaim and recognition for his breakthrough role as Michael Corleone in Francis Ford Coppola's The Godfather receiving his first Oscar nomination and would reprise the role in the successful sequels The Godfather Part II and The Godfather Part III.
Pacino's performance as Michael Corleone in these films is regarded as one of the greatest screen performances in film history. Pacino received his first Best Actor Oscar nomination for Serpico, and Justice for All and won the award in 1993 for his performance as blind Lieutenant Colonel Slade in Scent of a Woman. For his performances in The Godfather, Dick Tracy and Glengarry Glen Ross, Pacino was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. Other notable roles include Tony Montana in Scarface, Carlito Brigante in Carlito's Way, Lieutenant Vincent Hanna in Heat, Benjamin Ruggiero in Donnie Brasco, Lowell Bergman in The Insider and Detective Will Dormer in Insomnia. In television, Pacino has acted in several productions for HBO, including the miniseries Angels in America and the Jack Kevorkian biopic You Don't Know Jack. In addition to his work in film, Pacino has had an extensive career on stage, he is a two-time Tony Award winner, in 1969 and 1977, for his performances in Does a Tiger Wear a Necktie? and The Basic Training of Pavlo Hummel, respectively.
A lifelong fan of Shakespeare, Pacino directed and starred in Looking for Richard, a documentary film about the play Richard III, a role which Pacino had earlier portrayed on stage in 1977. He has acted as Shylock in a 2004 feature film adaptation and a 2010 stage production of The Merchant of Venice. Having made his filmmaking debut with Looking for Richard, Pacino has directed and starred in the independent film Chinese Coffee and the films Wilde Salomé and Salomé, about the play Salomé by Oscar Wilde. Since 1994, Pacino has been the joint president of the Actors Studio with Ellen Burstyn and Harvey Keitel. In 2016, he received the Kennedy Center Honor. Pacino was born in East Harlem, New York City, to Italian American parents Salvatore and Rose Pacino, his parents divorced. His mother took him to The Bronx where they lived with her parents and James Gerardi who were immigrants from Corleone, Sicily, his father, from San Fratello in the Province of Messina, moved to Covina, California to work as an insurance salesman and restaurateur.
In his teenage years, Pacino was known as "Sonny" to his friends. He had ambitions to become a baseball player and was nicknamed "The Actor". Pacino attended Herman Ridder Junior High School, but by secondary school he had dropped out of most of his classes except for English, he subsequently attended the High School of Performing Arts, after gaining admission by audition. His mother disagreed with his decision and, after an argument, he left home. To finance his acting studies, Pacino took low-paying jobs as messenger, busboy and postal clerk, once worked in the mailroom for Commentary magazine. Pacino began smoking and drinking at age nine, used marijuana casually at age 13, but he abstained from hard drugs, his two closest friends died from drug abuse at the ages of 19 and 30. Growing up in the Bronx, Pacino got into occasional fights and was considered somewhat of a troublemaker at school, he acted in basement plays in New York's theatrical underground but was rejected as a teenager by the Actors Studio.
Pacino joined the Herbert Berghof Studio, where he met acting teacher Charlie Laughton, who became his mentor and best friend. In this period, he was unemployed and homeless, sometimes slept on the street, in theaters, or at friends' houses. In 1962, his mother died at the age of 43; the following year, Pacino's grandfather James Gerardi died. Pacino recalled it as "the lowest point of my life". After four years at HB Studio, Pacino auditioned for the Actors Studio; the Actors Studio is a membership organization of professional actors, theatre directors, playwrights in the Hell's Kitchen neighborhood of Manhattan. Pacino studied "method acting" under acting coach Lee Strasberg, who appeared with Pacino in the films The Godfather Part II and in... And Justice for All. During interviews he spoke about Strasberg and the Studio's effect on his career. "The Actors Studio meant so much to me in my life. Lee Strasberg hasn't been given the credit he deserves
Justin Brooks Atkinson was an American theatre critic. He worked for The New York Times from 1925 to 1960. In his obituary, the Times called him "the theater's most influential reviewer of his time." A war correspondent during World War II, he received the Pulitzer Prize in 1947 for his work as the Moscow correspondent for the Times. Atkinson was born in Melrose, Massachusetts to Jonathan H. Atkinson, a salesman statistician and Garafelia Taylor; as a boy, he printed his own newspaper, planned a career in journalism. He attended Harvard University, he graduated from Harvard in 1917, worked at the Springfield Daily News and the Boston Evening Transcript, where he was assistant to the drama critic. In 1922, he became the editor of the New York Times Book Review, in 1925 the drama critic. Atkinson married Oriana MacIlveen, a writer, in August 1926. On the drama desk, Atkinson became known for his commitment to new kinds of theater—he was one of the first critical admirers of Eugene O'Neill—for his interest in all kinds of drama, including off-Broadway productions.
In 1928, he said of the new play The Front Page, "No one who has ground his heels in the grime of a police headquarters press room will complain that this argot misrepresents the gentlemen of the press." In 1932 Atkinson dropped the J. from his bi-line and embraced the witty, direct writing style that became his hallmark. His reviews were reputed to have the power to make or break a new stage production: for example, his panning in 1940 of Lawrence Riley's Return Engagement led to that comedy's closure after only eight performances, this despite the fact that Riley's previous comedy, Personal Appearance, had lasted for over 500 performances on Broadway. Atkinson, dubbed "the conscience of the theater," was not comfortable with the influence he wielded over the Broadway box office. After the bombing of Pearl Harbor in December 1941, Atkinson attempted to enlist in the Navy, but was refused, he requested a reassignment to war coverage, The New York Times sent him to the front lines as a war correspondent in China, where he covered the second Sino-Japanese war until 1945.
While in China, he visited Mao Tse-Tung in Yenan and was captivated by Mao, writing favorably on the Chinese Communist Party movement, against the Nationalist government of Chiang Kai-shek, which he saw as reactionary and corrupt. After visiting Yenan, he wrote that the CCP political system was best described as an "agrarian or peasant democracy, or as a farm labor party." Atkinson viewed the Chinese Communist Party as Communist in name only and more democratic than totalitarian. After the end of the war, Atkinson stayed only in New York before being sent to Moscow as a press correspondent. After returning from the Soviet Union, Atkinson was reassigned to the drama desk, where he remained until his retirement in 1960, he is given much credit for the growth of Off-Broadway into a major theatrical force in the 1950s, has been cited by many influential people in the theatre as crucial to their careers. David Merrick's infamous spoof ad for Subways Are For Sleeping—in which he hired seven ordinary New Yorkers who had the same names as prominent drama critics to praise his musical—had to wait for Atkinson's retirement, because Merrick could not find anyone with the right name.
There was only one Brooks Atkinson in New York City. Atkinson was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1960, he came out of retirement in 1965 to write a favorable review of Man of La Mancha. After his retirement, he became a member of The Players who organized a tribute dinner for Atkinson's 80th birthday, attended by Arthur Miller, Elia Kazan, other prominent actors and playwrights, he died on January 1984 at Crestwood Hospital in Huntsville, Alabama. Atkinson had moved to Huntsville from his farm in Durham, New York in 1981 to be closer to his family. Skyline Promenades, 1925 East of the Hudson, 1931 The Cingalese Prince, 1934 Once Around the Sun, 1951 New Voices in American Theater, 1955 Tuesdays and Fridays, 1963 Broadway, 1970 This Bright Land: A Personal View, 1972 The Lively Years, 1920-1973, 1973 Henry Thoreau, The Cosmic Yankee, 1981 In 1960, the Mansfield Theatre in New York was renamed Brooks Atkinson Theatre in his honor. Brooks Atkinson Theatre Broadway, New York, NY Brooks Atkinson papers, 1904-1980, held by the Billy Rose Theatre Division, New York Public Library for the Performing Arts
Sydney Hughes Greenstreet was a British actor. While he did not work in films until the age of 61, he had a run of significant motion pictures in a Hollywood career lasting for under a decade, he is best remembered for his Warner Bros. films with Humphrey Bogart and Peter Lorre, which include The Maltese Falcon and Passage to Marseille. He became a naturalized United States citizen in 1925, he portrayed Nero Wolfe on radio from 1950 to 1951. Greenstreet was born in Sandwich, the son of Ann and John Jarvis Greenstreet, a tanner, he had seven siblings. He left home at the age of 18 to make his fortune as a Ceylon tea planter, but drought forced him out of business, he began managing a brewery and, took acting lessons. Greenstreet's stage debut was as a murderer in a 1902 production of a Sherlock Holmes story at the Marina Theatre, Kent, he toured Britain with Ben Greet's Shakespearean company, in 1905, he made his New York City debut in Everyman. Thereafter he appeared in such plays as a revival of.
Greenstreet appeared in numerous plays in Britain and America, working through most of the 1930s with Alfred Lunt and Lynn Fontanne at the Theatre Guild. Throughout his stage career, his parts ranged from musical comedy to Shakespeare, years of such versatile acting on two continents led to many offers to appear in films, he refused until he was 61. In 1941, Greenstreet began working for Warner Bros, his debut film role was as Kasper Gutman co-starring with Humphrey Bogart in The Maltese Falcon. The film featured Peter Lorre, as the twitchy Joel Cairo, a pairing that would prove durable; the two men appeared in some nine films altogether, including Casablanca, with Greenstreet as crooked club owner Signor Ferrari, as well as Background to Danger, Passage to Marseille, reteaming him with Casablanca stars Bogart and Claude Rains, The Mask of Dimitrios, The Conspirators, with Hedy Lamarr and Paul Henreid, Hollywood Canteen, Three Strangers and The Verdict. In the last two in the list, The Mask of Dimitrios, Greenstreet received top billing.
The actor played roles both in dramatic films, such as William Makepeace Thackeray in Devotion and witty performances in screwball comedies, for instance Alexander Yardley in Christmas in Connecticut. Near the end of his film career, Greenstreet played opposite Joan Crawford in Flamingo Road. After little more than eight years, Greenstreet's film career ended with Malaya, in which he was billed third, after Spencer Tracy and James Stewart. In those years, he worked with stars ranging from Clark Gable to Ava Gardner to Joan Crawford. Author Tennessee Williams wrote his one-act play The Last of My Solid Gold Watches with Greenstreet in mind, dedicated it to him. During 1950–51, Greenstreet played Nero Wolfe on the NBC radio program, The New Adventures of Nero Wolfe, based loosely on the rotund detective genius created by Rex Stout. Greenstreet suffered from Bright's disease, a kidney disorder. Five years after leaving films, Greenstreet died in 1954 in Hollywood due to complications from both conditions.
He is interred at Forest Lawn Memorial Park, California, in the Utility Columbarium area of the Great Mausoleum, inaccessible to the public. He was survived by John Ogden Greenstreet, from his marriage to Dorothy Marie Ogden. Actor Mark Greenstreet is a distant relative. Sculthorpe, Derek; the Life and Times of Sydney Greenstreet. Bear Manor Media. ISBN 978-1-62933-308-3. Youngkin, Stephen D.. The Lost One: A Life of Peter Lorre. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 0-8131-2360-7. – Contains a chapter on the professional friendship between Greenstreet and Peter Lorre. Sydney Greenstreet on IMDb Sydney Greenstreet at the TCM Movie Database Sydney Greenstreet at the Internet Broadway Database Sandwich People & History: Sydney Greenstreet FreeOTRShows – The Adventures of Nero Wolfe Sydney Greenstreet at Find a Grave Literature on Sydney Greenstreet
Anna Sokolow was an American dancer and choreographer. That worked internationally, creating theatrical pieces, she worked including the Martha Graham Company and Batsheva Dance Company. Sokolow formed her own group “Dance Unit” which became Players’ Project after its dispersal and her death, she was a co-founder of the Actors Studio. Anna Sokolow was born on February 1910 in Hartford, Connecticut to Jewish parents, her father, Samuel Sokolowski, immigrated to the U. S. around 1905 in pursuit of a job. Her mother, came to the U. S. in 1907. Intending to reside in Hartford, Connecticut and Sara moved to New York City for better job prospects. Sarah started working in the garment industry. A socialist, Sarah was involved in the Garment Workers Union. Anna Sokolow was the third child of four born to Samuel and Sarah, preceded by Isadore and Rose, succeeded by Gertie. Sokolow began her dance training by taking classes at the Emanuel Sisterhood alongside her sister Rose, her first teacher, Elsa Pohl, was influenced by the work of Isadora Duncan.
Despite the objection of her family, Sokolow moved away from home and dropped out of school in favor of a dance career at age 15. While training, Sokolow supported herself by working in a factory, she began training under Bird Larson, Irene Lewisohn, Louis Horst, Martha Graham, Blanche Talmud at the Neighborhood Playhouse at the Henry Street Settlement House in 1925 as a “Junior Player.” Talmud, Sokolow's main teacher, had a background in Dalcroze eurhythmics. As a student at the Playhouse, Sokolow studied voice and pantomime, she received a full scholarship at the Playhouse, participated in her first major performance in 1928 as a part of Bloch’s “Israel Symphony.” Sokolow first performed with the Martha Graham Company in 1930. She danced with the company as a soloist for about 8 years. While performing with the Graham company, she assisted Louis Horst in his choreography classes. One of her notable performances with the company was in Massine’s “Rite of Spring” in 1930. Sokolow’s first solo performances occurred between 1929 and 1932.
She developed the Theatre Union Dance Group in 1933, renamed “Dance Unit” in 1935. In programs for “Dance Unit”, Anna Sokolow’s name wasn’t emphasized in order to bring more attention to the group as opposed to certain individuals. Despite this, the dancers were known as the "Sokolovas." In 1936, a full evening of her own work was presented at the Y. M. H. A. in New York City. Some of the works included in the program were Speaker, Strange American Funeral, Inquisition ‘36, Four Little Salon Pieces. In 1937, four men joined the Dance Unit for the first time. With the addition men, she avoided dividing movement based on gender and instead presented all bodies as equals. Sokolow joined the New Dance League in 1937. Beginning in the 1930s, she affiliated herself with the politicized "radical dance" movement, out of which developed her work Anti-War Trilogy. During this time period, she performed and choreographed both solo and ensemble works, which tackled subject matter that included the exploitation of workers and growing troubles of Jews in Germany.
Sokolow drew a lot of inspiration from the Union movement as she considered the unions her first audience. She explored themes of Communism and the working class through her dances in Strange American Funeral and Case No. --. Several works from this period, including Anti-War Trilogy, were set to music by the composer Alex North. In the 1940s, Sokolow continued premiering works in various venues throughout New York City, such as The Bride, a piece influenced by traditional elements from Orthodox Jewish wedding ceremonies. From 1955-1985, Sokolow choreographed for the Juilliard Dance Ensemble at the Juilliard School, she created many notable pieces for the group including Ballade. In 1953, Sokolow created one of her most well-received works. A collection of solos and ensemble work set to the music of Alban Berg, Lyric Suite was noteworthy for its lack of a narrative and its "suite form" design; the New Dance Group sponsored the first showing of Lyric Suite in March 1954. Sokolow considered this piece as the beginning of a new era in her choreography.
Another one of Sokolow's signature works was a piece that explored loneliness. The music - composed by Kenyon Hopkins - was a jazz score. Rooms was divided into six sections: Dream, Desire, Panic and The End? The piece featured eight dancers and eight chairs, with the intention that each dancer and chair portrayed a specific character in a secluded room. Rooms garnered positive reviews, with many critics noting its powerful emotional impact. From 1958-65, Sokolow created her Opus series; this series includes Opus'58, Opus Jazz 1958, Opus'60, Opus'62, Opus'63, Opus'65. The set of six pieces, along with Session for Six and Session for Eight used similar movement vocabularies and content with slight variations in each. Labanotation scores show the similarities found, used of strong accents and the dropping of the body and its parts to the floor. In the 1960s, Sokolow used jazz style to protest the war occurring in Vietnam and to give voice to the countercultures of America. Time+ was a war protest dance with multiple parts.
In the piece she used their experiences of war. The piece ended with soldiers that appear to be
The Actors Studio is a membership organization for professional actors, theatre directors and playwrights at 432 West 44th Street between Ninth and Tenth Avenues in the Hell's Kitchen neighborhood of Manhattan in New York City. It was founded October 5, 1947, by Elia Kazan, Cheryl Crawford and Robert Lewis, who provided training for actors who were members. Lee Strasberg joined and took the helm in 1951 until his death on February 17, 1982; the Studio is best known for its work teaching method acting. The approach was developed by the Group Theatre in the 1930s based on the innovations of Konstantin Stanislavski. While at the Studio, actors work together to develop their skills in a private environment where they can take risks as performers without the pressure of commercial roles; as of May 2018, the studio's co-presidents are Alec Baldwin and Al Pacino. The Artistic Director in New York, is Beau Gravitte, the Associate Artistic Director in New York is Estelle Parsons. After an initial meeting held on October 5, 1947, at the Labor Stage, located at 106 W. 39th Street, in which goals and ground rules of the new organization were discussed, the studio opened for business the following day at the Union Methodist Episcopal Church, located at 229 West 48th Street home to the Actors Kitchen and Lounge, long a source of rental rehearsal space for local theatrical producers.
Before settling in its current location in 1955, the Studio moved over an eight-year period: In January 1948, it was a dance studio on East 59th Street. In April of that year, a move to the CBS Building at 1697 Broadway, near 53rd Street, established some semblance of stability. From that point, the old Theatre Guild rehearsal rooms on the top floor of the ANTA Theatre became home, as they would remain until October 1954, at which point theatre renovations reduced the Studio to renting space twice a week; this it did at the Malin Studios at 1545 Broadway, room 610. This arrangement would persist throughout the 1954–1955 theatrical season as the Studio was acquiring and renovating its current venue. In 1955 it moved to its current location in the former West Forty-fourth Street United Presbyterian Church, a Greek Revival structure, built for the Seventh Associate Presbyterian Church in 1858 or 1859, it was one of the last churches to be built in that style in New York City. From September 1994 through May 2005, the Studio collaborated with The New School in the education of masters-level theatre students at the Actors Studio Drama School.
After ending its contract with the New School, the Actor's Studio established The Actors Studio Drama School at Pace University in 2006. Inside the Actors Studio Notes Further reading ArticlesGerard, Jeremy "Frank Corsaro to Head Actors Studio," The New York Times Heimer, Mel, "My New York" Rochester Sentinel p. 2 Kleiner, Dick "The Actors Studio: Making Stars Out of the Unknown," Sarasota Journal p. 26 Pogrebin, Robin "Pacino and Keitel To Lead the Actors Studio," The New York Times Seligsohn, Leo "Actors Studio Needs Cash Birthday Gift," Sarasota Herald-Tribune p. 6-B Smith, Liz "Controversy Engulfs Actors Studio As Anna Strasberg Resigns," Sarasota Herald-Tribune p. 4-CBooksFrome, Shelly The Actors Studio: a History. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-1073-6 Garfield, David A Player's Place: The Story of the Actors Studio. New York: MacMillan. ISBN 0-02-542650-8 Hirsch, Foster A Method to their Madness: The History of the Actors Studio. New York: WW Norton & Co Inc. ISBN 0-393-01783-4 Official website PBS American Masters Series profile Inside the Actors Studio The Actors Studio MFA Program at Pace University Audio collection of the Actors Studio from 1956–69 at the Wisconsin Historical Society A brief history of the Actors Studio, including Lee Strasberg on its origin and purpose.
David Garfield research files on the Actors Studio, 1947–2003, held by the Billy Rose Theatre Division, New York Public Library for the Performing Arts