A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi
Little Rock, Arkansas
Little Rock is the capital and most populous city of the U. S. state of Arkansas. It is the county seat of Pulaski County, it was incorporated on November 7, 1831, on the south bank of the Arkansas River close to the state's geographic center. The city derives its name from a rock formation along the river, named the "Little Rock" by the French explorer Jean-Baptiste Bénard de la Harpe in the 1720s; the capital of the Arkansas Territory was moved to Little Rock from Arkansas Post in 1821. The city's population was 198,541 in 2016 according to the United States Census Bureau; the six-county Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway, AR Metropolitan Statistical Area is ranked 78th in terms of population in the United States with 738,344 residents according to the 2017 estimate by the United States Census Bureau. Little Rock is a cultural, economic and transportation center within Arkansas and the South. Several cultural institutions are in Little Rock, such as the Arkansas Arts Center, the Arkansas Repertory Theatre, the Arkansas Symphony Orchestra, in addition to hiking and other outdoor recreational opportunities.
Little Rock's history is available through history museums, historic districts or neighborhoods like the Quapaw Quarter, historic sites such as Little Rock Central High School. The city is the headquarters of Dillard's, Windstream Communications, Stephens Inc. University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Heifer International, the Clinton Foundation, the Rose Law Firm, Arkansas Blue Cross and Blue Shield. Other corporations, such as Dassault Falcon Jet, LM Wind Power, Simmons Bank, Euronet Worldwide, AT&T, Entergy have large operations in the city. State government is a large employer, with many offices downtown. Two major Interstate highways, Interstate 30 and Interstate 40, meet in Little Rock, with the Port of Little Rock serving as a shipping hub. Little Rock derives its name from a small rock formation on the south bank of the Arkansas River called the "Little Rock"; the Little Rock was used by early river traffic as a landmark and became a well-known river crossing. The Little Rock is across the river from The Big Rock, a large bluff at the edge of the river, once used as a rock quarry.
Archeological artifacts provide evidence of Native Americans inhabiting Central Arkansas for thousands of years before Europeans arrived. The early inhabitants may have been the Folsom people, Bluff Dwellers, Mississippian culture peoples who built earthwork mounds recorded in 1541 by Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto. Historical tribes of the area were the Caddo, Osage and Cherokee. Little Rock was named for a stone outcropping on the bank of the Arkansas River used by early travelers as a landmark, it was named in 1722 by French explorer and trader Jean-Baptiste Bénard de la Harpe, marked the transition from the flat Mississippi Delta region to the Ouachita Mountain foothills. Travelers referred to the area as the "Little Rock." Though there was an effort to name the city "Arkopolis" upon its founding in the 1820s, that name did appear on a few maps made by the US Geological Survey, the name Little Rock is what stuck. Little Rock is located at 34°44′10″N 92°19′52″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 116.8 square miles, of which 116.2 square miles is land and 0.6 square miles is water.
Little Rock is located on the south bank of the Arkansas River in Central Arkansas. Fourche Creek and Rock Creek run through the city, flow into the river; the western part of the city is located in the foothills of the Ouachita Mountains. Northwest of the city limits are Pinnacle Mountain and Lake Maumelle, which provides Little Rock's drinking water; the city of North Little Rock is located just across the river from Little Rock, but it is a separate city. North Little Rock was once the 8th ward of Little Rock. An Arkansas Supreme Court decision on February 6, 1904, allowed the ward to merge with the neighboring town of North Little Rock; the merged town renamed itself Argenta, but returned to its original name in October 1917. The 2017 U. S. Census population estimate for the Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway, AR Metropolitan Statistical Area was 738,344; the MSA covers the following counties: Pulaski, Grant, Lonoke and Saline. The largest cities are Little Rock, North Little Rock, Jacksonville, Sherwood, Cabot and Bryant.
Little Rock lies in the humid subtropical climate zone, with hot, humid summers and cool winters, with little snow. It has experienced temperatures as low as −12 °F, recorded on February 12, 1899, as high as 114 °F, recorded on August 3, 2011; as of the 2005–2007 American Community Survey conducted by the U. S. Census Bureau, White Americans made up 52.7% of Little Rock's population. Blacks or African Americans made up 42.1% of Little Rock's population, with 42.0% being non-Hispanic blacks. American Indians made up 0.4% of Little Rock's population while Asian Americans made up 2.1% of the city's population. Pacific Islander Americans made up less than 0.1% of the city's population. Individuals from some other race made up 1.2% of the city's population. Individuals from two or more races made up 1.4% of the city's population. In addition and Latinos made up 4.7% of Little Rock's population. As of the 2010 census, there were 193,524 people, 82,018 households, 47,799 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,576.0 people p
North Little Rock, Arkansas
North Little Rock is a city in Pulaski County, United States, across the Arkansas River from Little Rock in the central part of the state. The population was 62,304 at the 2010 census. In 2017 the estimated population was 65,911. North Little Rock, along with Little Rock and Conway, anchors the six-county Little Rock–North Little Rock–Conway Metropolitan Statistical Area, further included in the Little Rock-North Little Rock Combined Statistical Area with 902,443 residents; the city's downtown is anchored in the Argenta Historic District, which draws its name from the original name of the city. Farther west in the city is one of the largest municipal parks in the United States. North Little Rock has a long history, dating back to the Burial Mound People, it was once known as Argenta, a name that applies to downtown North Little Rock. In 1890, Little Rock annexed the unincorporated Argenta community as its Eighth Ward, preempting a competing petition to incorporate Argenta. A neighboring area was incorporated as the Town of North Little Rock in 1901 as part of a plan to reclaim the Eighth Ward from Little Rock.
By 1904, the Arkansas Supreme Court allowed the town to annex the Eighth Ward. The combined city adopted the Argenta name by 1906, but reverted to North Little Rock in October 1917. A remnant of the city's earliest years can be found in North Little Rock City Hall, which still contains plaques referring to "Argenta", contains "C of A" ornamental designs. North Little Rock is located at 34°46′51″N 92°15′25″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 47.0 square miles, of which 44.8 square miles is land and 2.2 square miles is water. North Little Rock is the eastern terminus of Interstate 30 and southern terminus of the Arkansas-designated portion of Interstate 57. Interstate 40, US 65, US 67, US 167 all run through the city; the climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, North Little Rock has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps. North Little Rock has a humid subtropical climate with long and sunny summers and mild, wet winters with little snow.
January on average is the coldest month, while July is the warmest, but August can claim the title. The overall yearly average temperature is 62.5 degrees. Precipitation averages 45.79 inches a year, with winter and spring tending to be wetter than summer and autumn. Severe thunderstorms can occur during the Spring, on April 25, 2011, a possible tornado struck the air force base in the city; as of the census of 2010, there were 62,304 people, 25,542 households, 16,117 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,348.6 people per square mile. There were 27,567 housing units at an average density of 615.2 per square mile. The city was 54.0% White, 39.7% Black or African American, 0.41% Native American, 0.59% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.18% from other races, 1.26% from two or more races. 5.7% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 25,542 households out of which 28.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.9% were married couples living together, 17.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.9% were non-families.
32.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.97. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.5% under the age of 18, 9.0% from 18 to 24, 28.4% from 25 to 44, 22.5% from 45 to 64, 14.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $35,578, the median income for a family was $43,595. Males had a median income of $31,420 versus $24,987 for females; the per capita income for the city was $19,662. About 12.4% of families and 16.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.5% of those under age 18 and 11.7% of those age 65 or over. The City of North Little Rock elected officials are a mayor, city council of Aldermen, city clerk/treasurer, city attorney, two judges; this is supplemented by a number of commissions composed of city officials and residents.
The North Little Rock Police Department has approval to operate unmanned aerial vehicle s. The department has been working with a small pilotless helicopter since 2008. In addition to fire and EMS calls, the North Little Rock Fire Department responds to calls for their Special Operations Response Team, Haz Mat Response Team and Water Rescue for the Arkansas River. University of Arkansas – Pulaski Technical College Shorter College Arkansas College of Barbering and Hair Design New Tyler Barber College Diesel Driving Academy Lee's School of Cosmetology The Salon Professional Academy National Real Estate School U. S. Dept of Veterans Affairs Police Law Enforcement Training Center Most students attend public schools in the North Little Rock School District which includes: One High School North Little Rock High School grades 9-12 One Mid
Pulaski County, Arkansas
Pulaski County is a county in the U. S. state of Arkansas with a population of 392,664. Its county seat is Little Rock, Arkansas's capital and largest city. Pulaski County is Arkansas's fifth county, formed on December 15, 1818, alongside Clark and Hempstead Counties; the county is named for Casimir Pulaski, a Polish volunteer who saved George Washington's life during the American Revolutionary War. Pulaski County is included in the Little Rock–North Little Rock–Conway, AR Metropolitan Statistical Area which had 731,612 people in the 2015 census estimates; the Little Rock, North Little Rock Combined Statistical Area had 904,469 people in the 2015 census estimates. An 1863 American Civil War battle, the Battle of Bayou Fourche, occurred in Pulaski County. Pulaski County was home to Willow Springs Water Park, one of the oldest water parks in the nation, which opened in 1928 and closed in 2013. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 808 square miles, of which 760 square miles is land and 48 square miles is water.
I-30 I-40 Future I-57 I-430 I-440 I-530 I-630 U. S. Highway 65 U. S. Highway 67 U. S. Highway 70 U. S. Highway 165 U. S. Highway 167 Highway 5 Highway 10 Highway 100 Highway 161 Highway 300 Highway 338 Highway 365 Highway 367 Faulkner County Lonoke County Grant County Jefferson County Saline County Perry County Little Rock Central High School National Historic Site I-30 Speedway As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 361,474 people, 147,942 households, 95,718 families residing in the county; the population density was 469 people per square mile. There were 161,135 housing units at an average density of 209 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 63.96% White, 31.87% Black or African American, 0.39% Native American, 1.25% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 1.09% from other races, 1.40% from two or more races. 2.44% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 147,942 households out of which 30.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.90% were married couples living together, 15.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.30% were non-families.
30.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.98. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.20% under the age of 18, 9.60% from 18 to 24, 31.10% from 25 to 44, 22.60% from 45 to 64, 11.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $38,120, the median income for a family was $46,523. Males had a median income of $33,131 versus $25,943 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,466. About 10.40% of families and 13.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.90% of those under age 18 and 9.80% of those age 65 or over. The Arkansas Department of Correction Wrightsville Unit is in Wrightsville. Pulaski County is one of the most Democratic counties in the Southern United States.
The city of North Little Rock was ranked the most liberal community in the state. In the Reconstruction Era following the Civil War, Republicans carried the county in every presidential election from 1868 to 1892. Since Republicans have only won the county four times: 1956, 1972, 1984, 1988; the Pulaski County Special School District is the county's public school district for 729 square miles surrounding Little Rock and North Little Rock, which maintain independent districts. The Little Rock School District and North Little Rock School District. Pulaski Technical College is a two-year community college and technical school that offers seven locations throughout the county, including a flagship campus in western North Little Rock. Four-year postsecondary institutions include the University of Arkansas at Little Rock, the University of Arkansas System's only metropolitan campus, the United Methodist Church-affiliated Philander Smith College, Arkansas Baptist College, the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences — all located in Little Rock.
Cammack Village Jacksonville Little Rock Maumelle North Little Rock Sherwood Wrightsville Cabot Alexander Crystal Hill Gravel Ridge Ironton Mabelvale Marche Woodyardville Townships in Arkansas are the divisions of a county. Each township includes unincorporated areas and some may have incorporated towns or cities within part of their space. Townships have limited purposes in modern times. However, the US Census does list Arkansas population based on townships. Townships are of value for historical purposes in terms of genealogical research; each town or city is within one or more townships in an Arkansas county based on census maps. Pulaski County only has two townships, as of 2010, they are listed below. List of lakes in Pulaski County, Arkansas National Register of Historic Places listings in Pulaski County, Arkansas Pulaski County Government Pulaski County, Arkansas entry on the Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture
United States National Guard
The United States National Guard commonly referred to as just the National Guard, is part of the reserve components of the United States Armed Forces. It is a reserve military force, composed of National Guard military members or units of each state and the territories of Guam, the Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, the District of Columbia, for a total of 54 separate organizations. All members of the National Guard of the United States are members of the militia of the United States as defined by 10 U. S. C. § 246. National Guard units are under the dual control of the federal government; the majority of National Guard soldiers and airmen hold a civilian job full-time while serving part-time as a National Guard member. These part-time guardsmen are augmented by a full-time cadre of Active Guard & Reserve personnel in both the Army National Guard and Air National Guard, plus Army Reserve Technicians in the Army National Guard and Air Reserve Technicians in the Air National Guard; the National Guard is a joint activity of the United States Department of Defense composed of reserve components of the United States Army and the United States Air Force: the Army National Guard and the Air National Guard respectively.
Local militias were formed from the earliest English colonization of the Americas in 1607. The first colony-wide militia was formed by Massachusetts in 1636 by merging small older local units, several National Guard units can be traced back to this militia; the various colonial militias became state militias. The title "National Guard" was used in 1824 by some New York State militia units, named after the French National Guard in honor of the Marquis de Lafayette. "National Guard" became a standard nationwide militia title in 1903, indicated reserve forces under mixed state and federal control since 1933. The first muster of militia forces in what is today the United States took place on September 16, 1565, in the newly established Spanish military town of St. Augustine; the militia men were assigned to guard the expedition's supplies while their leader, Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, took the regular troops north to attack the French settlement at Fort Caroline on the St. Johns River; this Spanish militia tradition and the English tradition that would be established to the north would provide the basic nucleus for Colonial defense in the New World.
The militia tradition continued with the first permanent English settlements in the New World. Jamestown Colony and Plymouth Colony both had militia forces, which consisted of every able bodied adult male. By the mid-1600s every town had at least one militia company and the militia companies of a county formed a regiment. From the nation's founding through the early 1900s, the United States maintained only a minimal army and relied on state militias, directly related to the earlier Colonial militias to supply the majority of its troops; as a result of the Spanish–American War, Congress was called upon to reform and regulate the training and qualification of state militias. The first national laws regulating the militia were the Militia acts of 1792. In 1903, with passage of the Dick Act, the predecessor to the modern-day National Guard was formed, it required the states to divide their militias into two sections. The law recommended the title "National Guard" for the first section, known as the organized militia, "Reserve Militia" for all others.
During World War I, Congress passed the National Defense Act of 1916, which required the use of the term "National Guard" for the state militias and further regulated them. Congress authorized the states to maintain Home Guards, which were reserve forces outside the National Guards being deployed by the Federal Government. In 1933, with passage of the National Guard Mobilization Act, Congress finalized the split between the National Guard and the traditional state militias by mandating that all federally funded soldiers take a dual enlistment/commission and thus enter both the state National Guard and the National Guard of the United States, a newly created federal reserve force; the National Defense Act of 1947 created the Air Force as a separate branch of the Armed Forces and concurrently created the Air National Guard of the United States as one of its reserve components, mirroring the Army's structure. The National Guard of the several states and the District of Columbia serves as part of the first-line of defense for the United States.
The state National Guard is organized into units stationed in each of the 50 states, three territories, the District of Columbia, operates under their respective state or territorial governor, except in the instance of Washington, D. C. where the National Guard operates under the President of his designee. The governors exercise control through the state adjutants general; the National Guard may be called up for active duty by the governors to help respond to domestic emergencies and disasters, such as hurricanes and earthquakes. The National Guard is administered by the National Guard Bureau, a joint activity of the Army and Air Force under the DoD; the National Guard Bureau provides a communication channel for state National Guards to the DoD. The National Guard Bureau provides policies and requirements for training and funds for state Army National Guard and state Air National Guard units, the allocation of federal funds to the Army National Guard and the Air National Guard, other administrative responsibilities prescribed under 10 U.
S. C. § 10503. The National Guard Bureau is
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c