A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
Sherwood is a city in Pulaski County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population of the city was 29,523, it is part of the Little Rock−North Little Rock−Conway Metropolitan Statistical Area with 699,757 people according to the 2010 census. Sherwood was incorporated as a town on April 22, 1948. Next, Sherwood moved to a city of Second Class on September 16, 1957, subsequently as a city of First Class on April 30, 1971. Sherwood is located at 34°49′51″N 92°12′41″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 20.8 square miles, of which 20.6 square miles is land and 0.23 square miles, or 1.15%, is water. Sherwood lies in the humid subtropical climate zone. Sherwood does receive cold air masses from the north. July is the hottest month of the year, with an average high of 92 °F and an average low of 73 °F. Temperatures above 100 °F are somewhat common. January is the coldest month with an average high of 50 °F and an average low of 33 °F; the city's highest temperature was 110 °F, recorded in July 1986.
The lowest temperature recorded was −6 °F, in January 1985. As of the census of 2000, there were 21,511 people, 8,798 households, 6,211 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,557.9 people per square mile. There were 9,272 housing units at an average density of 671.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 80.23% White, 17.83% Black or African American, 0.43% Native American, 0.95% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.83% from other races, 1.24% from two or more races. 2.05% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 8,798 households out of which 32.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.4% were married couples living together, 10.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.4% were non-families. 24.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.90. In the city, the population was spread out with 24.5% under the age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 32.0% from 25 to 44, 24.4% from 45 to 64, 10.7% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $44,838, the median income for a family was $51,510. Males had a median income of $34,133 versus $25,757 for females; the per capita income for the city was $21,515. In Sherwood, 6.3% of the population and 5.4% of families were below the poverty line. In addition, 9.7% of those under the age of 18 and 4.2% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. As of the census of 2010, there were 29,523 people, 12,207 households, 8,314 families residing in the city; the racial makeup of the city was 75.3% White, 18.5% Black or African American, 0.5% Native American, 1.6% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.6% from other races, 2.4% from two or more races. 4.0% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 12,207 households out of which 30.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.6% were married couples living together, 13.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.9% were non-families.
27.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 21.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.92. Large corporations with corporate headquarters in Sherwood include ABC Financial, Hank's Fine Furniture, The Heritage Company. Major employers include customer contact centers for Cardinal Health. Another major employer is CHI St Vincent's North Hospital; the City of Sherwood is an incorporated municipality with a Mayor elected to a four-year term, eight elected aldermen, a city clerk, a part-time city attorney. The Sherwood Mayor serves four-year terms, with election held during the November midterm elections. Virginia Hillman was sworn in on August 2007, as Sherwood's first female mayor. Bill Harmon served as interim mayor April 12, 2007 to July 31, 2007, following the resignation of Mayor Danny Stedman. Harmon had not run for re-election after holding the office of mayor for 14 years through 2006. Stedman, elected in November 2006 served as a Sherwood alderman for four years.
Upon taking office in January 2007, Stedman was excited about his plans for Sherwood and the city's future. In April 2007, Stedman cited health concerns for his wife as he resigned from office. Stedman had been one of three newly elected officials in the city in the 2006 election. Others include city clerk/treasurer Virginia R. Hillman, council member Charlie Harmon. In 2007 a series of special elections were held. Five candidates ran for the office of Sherwood mayor after the resignation of former Mayor Danny Stedman. No candidate received more than 50 percent of the votes, forcing a special election runoff between the two candidates receiving the most votes, held on July 31, 2007. Results The City of Sherwood is represented on the city council by two aldermen position from four wards for a total of eight aldermen. Aldermen serve four-year terms, staggered with alternating positions up for election every 2 years. Sherwood is supported by the Sherwood Police Department since 1964. According to the city's website, the City of Sherwood has the third lowest crime rate in the Arkansas.
Sherwood is supported by the Sherwood Fire Departme
Jacksonville is a city in Pulaski County, United States, a suburb of Little Rock. As of the 2010 census, the population of the city was 28,364, it is part of the Little Rock–North Little Rock–Conway Metropolitan Statistical Area with 729,135 people as of 2014. The city is named for Nicholas Jackson, a landowner who deeded the land for the railroad right-of-way to the Cairo & Fulton Railroad in 1870; the community evolved from the settlement surrounding the railroad depot incorporating in 1941. In 1941, construction began on the Arkansas Ordnance Plant, which served as the primary facility for the development of fuses and detonators for World War II. Following the war, AOP ceased operations and the land was sold for commercial interests, including the development of the Little Rock Air Force Base in 1955. Today, portions of AOP still remain, including the Arkansas Ordnance Plant Guard House, on the National Register of Historic Places and the Jacksonville Museum of Military History. Despite Pulaski County being an Arkansas county, not a "dry" county, as it allows the sales of beer and liquor, the municipal limits of Jacksonville are "moist", as it does not allow the sales of alcohol in stores, but allows the sale of alcohol in some restaurants with special permits.
Jacksonville is located at 34°52′13″N 92°6′55″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 28.2 square miles, of which 28.1 square miles is land and 0.12 square miles, or 0.42%, is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 29,916 people, 10,890 households, 8,004 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,134.2 people per square mile. There were 11,890 housing units at an average density of 450.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 64.17% White, 27.88% Black or African American, 0.50% Native American, 1.98% Asian, 0.13% Pacific Islander, 1.14% from other races, 2.58% from two or more races. 6.24% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 10,890 households out of which 40.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.1% were married couples living together, 14.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.5% were non-families. 22.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.08. In the city, the population was spread out with 29.0% under the age of 18, 12.8% from 18 to 24, 33.2% from 25 to 44, 17.6% from 45 to 64, 7.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $35,460, the median income for a family was $40,381. Males had a median income of $26,708 versus $21,804 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,369. About 11.9% of families and 14.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.5% of those under age 18 and 7.9% of those age 65 or over. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Jacksonville has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps. Since 1927, Jacksonville had been part of the Pulaski County Special School District, one of the largest school districts in Arkansas.
In the years leading up to September, 2008, parts of the Jacksonville community expressed a desire to split from the PCSSD. This measure was approved by the board of the PCSSD during that month, clearing the way for the formation of what would become Jacksonville North Pulaski School District. In a response to a petition signed by more than 2,000 voters, the Arkansas Board of Education ordered an election to carve a new school district out of the existing Pulaski County Special School District. Jacksonville voters approved of the separation on September 16, 2014 with a vote of 3,672 for and 202 against. According to JNPSD officials, the district would be administered by the Pulaski County Special School District until its final detachment, which became effective July 1, 2016; the district consists of one middle school and one high school. The schools include Jacksonville High School, Jacksonville Middle School, Bayou Meto Elementary School, Arnold Drive Elementary School, Tolleson Elementary School, Dupree Elementary School, Pinewood Elementary School and Taylor Elementary School.
A number of operated daycare services and church-affiliated schools are available throughout the city. In addition, Arkansas State University-Beebe maintains a degree center at Little Rock Air Force Base for post-secondary education; the Central Arkansas Library System includes the Esther Dewitt Nixon Library in Jacksonville. Grady Adkins, pitcher for Chicago White Sox 1928-29 Glen Rice, NBA champion in 2000 Homer Martin Adkins, governor of Arkansas from 1941 to 1945, was born in Jacksonville in 1890 Kris Allen, American Idol Season 8 winner Lisa Blount, memorable role An Officer and a Gentleman Clinton McDonald, defensive tackle for NFL's Tampa Bay Buccaneers of Seattle Seahawks, Super Bowl XLVIII champion.
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Central Arkansas known as the Little Rock metro, designated by the United States Office of Management and Budget as the Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway Metropolitan Statistical Area, is the most populous metro area in the US state of Arkansas. With an estimated 2016 population of 734,622, it is the most populated area in Arkansas. Located at the convergence of Arkansas's other geographic regions, the region's central location make Central Arkansas an important population, economic and political center in Arkansas and the South. Little Rock is the state's capital, the city is home to two Fortune 500 companies, Arkansas Children's Hospital, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences; the site known as "little rock" along the Arkansas River was discovered by explorer Bernard de la Harpe in 1722. The territorial capitol had been located at Arkansas Post in Southeast Arkansas since 1819, but the site had proven unsuitable as a settlement due to frequent flooding of the Arkansas River. Over the years, the "little rock" remained unsettled.
A land speculator from St. Louis, Missouri who had acquired many acres around the "little rock" began pressuring the Arkansas territorial legislature in February 1820 to move the capital to the site, but the representatives could not decide between Little Rock or Cadron, the preferred site of Territorial Governor James Miller; the issue was tabled until October 1820, by which time most of the legislators and other influential men had purchased lots around Little Rock. The legislature moved the capital to Little Rock, where it has remained since. Central Arkansas is located in the Southern United States, within a subregion known as the Upper South; the South is a distinct cultural region reliant upon a plantation economy in the 18th and 19th century, until the secession of the Confederate States of America and the Civil War. The region is the point of convergence for four other Arkansas regions: the Ozarks to the north, the Arkansas River Valley to the west, the Arkansas Delta to the east, Piney Woods to the southwest.
The Arkansas River crosses the region, serves as the dividing line between Little Rock and North Little Rock. The Arkansas is an important geographic feature in Central Arkansas, requiring long bridge spans but allowing barge traffic to the Port of Little Rock and points upriver. Central Arkansas includes both the Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway MSA, though the broader Little Rock CSA is considered Central Arkansas; the MSA is defined by the United States Office of Management and Budget as Faulkner, Lonoke, Perry and Saline counties. The CSA definition adds the Pine Bluff metropolitan area adding Cleveland and Lincoln counties, the Searcy Micropolitan Area, which adds White County, it is the core of the broader Little Rock-North Little Rock Combined Statistical Area. Its economic and demographic center is Little Rock, Arkansas's capital and largest city; the Little Rock Combined Statistical area spans ten counties and had an estimated population of 905,847 in 2016. Prior to 2002, the area consisted of four core counties: Pulaski, Faulkner and Lonoke.
The area was expanded to include adjoining Perry County to the west, Grant County to the south. The city of Conway was designated as a third principal city for the MSA by 2007; as of the census of 2000, there were 610,518 people, 241,094 households, 165,405 families residing within the MSA. The racial makeup of the MSA was 75.40% White, 21.02% African American, 0.44% Native American, 0.96% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.87% from other races, 1.27% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.07% of the population. The median income for a household in the MSA was $37,912, the median income for a family was $44,572. Males had a median income of $31,670 versus $23,354 for females; the per capita income for the MSA was $18,305. As of the census of 2000, there were 785,024 people, 304,335 households, 210,966 families residing within the CSA; the racial makeup of the CSA was 73.97% White, 22.73% African American, 0.42% Native American, 0.85% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.80% from other races, 1.20% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.93% of the population. The median income for a household in the CSA was $35,301, the median income for a family was $41,804. Males had a median income of $31,192 versus $22,347 for females; the per capita income for the CSA was $16,898. Communities are categorized based on their populations in the 2000 U. S. Census. Little Rock Conway North Little Rock Benton Bryant Cabot Jacksonville Maumelle Pine Bluff Sherwood The Little Rock Regional Chamber of Commerce, the oldest association in Arkansas, has produced the following list of largest employers in Central Arkansas. Source: Little Rock Regional Chamber of Commerce Interstate 30 Interstate 430 Interstate 530 Interstate 630 Interstate 40 Interstate 440 U. S. Highway 64 U. S. Highway 65 U. S. Highway 67 U. S. Highway 70 U. S. Highway 165 U. S. Highway 167 U. S. Highway 270 The Clinton National Airport in Little Rock is the largest commercial airport in the state, with more than 100 flights arriving or departing each day and nonstop jet service to eighteen cities.
North Little Rock Municipal Airport, located across the Arkansas River, is designated as a general aviation reliever airport for Clinton National by the Federal Aviation Administration. Central Arkansas has several smaller municipally owned general aviation airports: Conway Airport at Cantrell Field in Conway, Saline County Regional in Benton, Grider Field in Pine Bluff; the city of
Pulaski County, Arkansas
Pulaski County is a county in the U. S. state of Arkansas with a population of 392,664. Its county seat is Little Rock, Arkansas's capital and largest city. Pulaski County is Arkansas's fifth county, formed on December 15, 1818, alongside Clark and Hempstead Counties; the county is named for Casimir Pulaski, a Polish volunteer who saved George Washington's life during the American Revolutionary War. Pulaski County is included in the Little Rock–North Little Rock–Conway, AR Metropolitan Statistical Area which had 731,612 people in the 2015 census estimates; the Little Rock, North Little Rock Combined Statistical Area had 904,469 people in the 2015 census estimates. An 1863 American Civil War battle, the Battle of Bayou Fourche, occurred in Pulaski County. Pulaski County was home to Willow Springs Water Park, one of the oldest water parks in the nation, which opened in 1928 and closed in 2013. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 808 square miles, of which 760 square miles is land and 48 square miles is water.
I-30 I-40 Future I-57 I-430 I-440 I-530 I-630 U. S. Highway 65 U. S. Highway 67 U. S. Highway 70 U. S. Highway 165 U. S. Highway 167 Highway 5 Highway 10 Highway 100 Highway 161 Highway 300 Highway 338 Highway 365 Highway 367 Faulkner County Lonoke County Grant County Jefferson County Saline County Perry County Little Rock Central High School National Historic Site I-30 Speedway As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 361,474 people, 147,942 households, 95,718 families residing in the county; the population density was 469 people per square mile. There were 161,135 housing units at an average density of 209 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 63.96% White, 31.87% Black or African American, 0.39% Native American, 1.25% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 1.09% from other races, 1.40% from two or more races. 2.44% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 147,942 households out of which 30.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.90% were married couples living together, 15.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.30% were non-families.
30.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.98. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.20% under the age of 18, 9.60% from 18 to 24, 31.10% from 25 to 44, 22.60% from 45 to 64, 11.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $38,120, the median income for a family was $46,523. Males had a median income of $33,131 versus $25,943 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,466. About 10.40% of families and 13.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.90% of those under age 18 and 9.80% of those age 65 or over. The Arkansas Department of Correction Wrightsville Unit is in Wrightsville. Pulaski County is one of the most Democratic counties in the Southern United States.
The city of North Little Rock was ranked the most liberal community in the state. In the Reconstruction Era following the Civil War, Republicans carried the county in every presidential election from 1868 to 1892. Since Republicans have only won the county four times: 1956, 1972, 1984, 1988; the Pulaski County Special School District is the county's public school district for 729 square miles surrounding Little Rock and North Little Rock, which maintain independent districts. The Little Rock School District and North Little Rock School District. Pulaski Technical College is a two-year community college and technical school that offers seven locations throughout the county, including a flagship campus in western North Little Rock. Four-year postsecondary institutions include the University of Arkansas at Little Rock, the University of Arkansas System's only metropolitan campus, the United Methodist Church-affiliated Philander Smith College, Arkansas Baptist College, the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences — all located in Little Rock.
Cammack Village Jacksonville Little Rock Maumelle North Little Rock Sherwood Wrightsville Cabot Alexander Crystal Hill Gravel Ridge Ironton Mabelvale Marche Woodyardville Townships in Arkansas are the divisions of a county. Each township includes unincorporated areas and some may have incorporated towns or cities within part of their space. Townships have limited purposes in modern times. However, the US Census does list Arkansas population based on townships. Townships are of value for historical purposes in terms of genealogical research; each town or city is within one or more townships in an Arkansas county based on census maps. Pulaski County only has two townships, as of 2010, they are listed below. List of lakes in Pulaski County, Arkansas National Register of Historic Places listings in Pulaski County, Arkansas Pulaski County Government Pulaski County, Arkansas entry on the Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif