3rd Foreign Infantry Regiment
The 3rd Foreign Infantry Regiment is an infantry regiment of the French Foreign Legion. The regiment is stationed in French Guiana. Missions for the regiment are numerous and vary while including the protection of the Centre Spatial Guyanais, a European Space Agency facility; the 3rd Foreign Infantry Regiment 3e REI in its function, like all the various regiments of the Legion, is an elite regiment. The 3e REI and all regiments of the French Foreign Legion, under French command, differentiate from all armies of the world due to, that their Legion Majors, Legion Adjudant Chefs and Legion Adjudants, form both a French and non-French elite composition. On November 11, 1915. M.1erR. E, from the 2nd Marching Regiment of the 2nd Foreign Regiment'2èmeR. M.2èmeR. E. On November 15, 1920. On June 20, 1922. On December 5, 1942. On December 15, the Colonial Infantry Demi-Brigade became the 3rd Foreign Marching Infantry Regiment, 3ème Régiment étranger d'infanterie de marche. On July 1, 1943. E. I. M became again the Marching Regiment of the Foreign Legion On July 1, 1945.
M. L. E was redesignated as the 3ème R. E. I. On April 1, 1948. 3ème R. E. I; the most decorated regiment in the Foreign Legion, the 3rd Foreign Infantry Regiment is heir to the Marching Regiment of the Foreign Legion created in 1915. The R. M. L. E distinguished itself during the siege of de Belly-en-Santerre, on July 4, 1916. With 9 citations earned at the orders of the armed forces during the World War I, the R. M. L. E obtained the double fourragère with ribbon colors of the Legion of Honour and the Croix de Guerre 1914–1918; the R. M. L. E was stationed in Morocco in 1920, where it was designated for the first time as the 3rd Foreign Infantry Regiment. In 1943, the R. M. L. E was reformed and subsequently engaged in combat operations against the German forces at Mansour mountain, in Tunisia, before participating in the campaign of France from 1944 to 1945 within the ranks of the 5th Armored Division. Following theses events, the regiment reached the Rhine, conquered Stuttgart, made way to Austria during the moment of the armistice.
With three new citations, the regiment obtained a fourragère with ribbon colors of the Croix de Guerre 1939–1945, materialized on the double fourragère obtained during the first World War. The R. M. L. E was decorated by the "United Distinguished Badge U. S. " with inscription " Rhine-Bavarian Alps ". The Legion recorded that 42,883 men served on the western front in the Marching Regiments of the 1st Foreign Regiment and 2nd Foreign Regiment of the R. M. L. E having suffered 5,172 killed and around 25,000 wounded or missing, a total of 70% casualties over the course of the war. At the end of the war, the Marching Regiment of the Foreign Legion, R. M. L. E was the second most decorated regiment in the French Army. Following World War II, the R. M. L. E retook the denomination of 3rd Foreign Infantry Regiment. Idle time was short term and the regiment was moved to Indochina as of December 1945. Subsequently, the regiment took positions around colonial routes 3 and 4. Ambushes and convoy attacks followed. In 1948, the first known parachute unit was founded.
3ème R. E. I before being absorbed one year by the corps of the 1st Foreign Parachute Battalion, 1er B. E. P. While combat intensified on July 25, 1948; the combat company of Captain Cardinal resisted heroically and held the line for 9 hours against non-stop assaults of the Việt Minh. In 1950, chef de battalion commander Forget and the entire 3rd battalion disappeared at Cao Bằng on route colonial 4 in a traditional Foreign Legion battlefield; the regiment was still engaged in combat at Đông Khê, Bac Khan and Dien Bien Phu in 1954. The regiment had lost the equivalent of 5 battalions in Indochina. With four new citations, the 3rd Foreign Infantry Regiment obtained a fourragère with ribbon colors of the Médaille militaire, with colors of the ribbon of the Croix de guerre des théâtres d'opérations extérieures. In the Indochina campaign, the regiment had lost seventy-seven officers, three hundred and sixty-four NCOs, three-thousand three-hundred and ninety-six other ranks: a total of three-thousand eight-hundred and thirty-seven Legionnaires.
In December 1954, the regiment disembarked at Bône in Algeria. The regiment was put in charge of the difficult sector of Aures Nementchas. Following the departure of the 3rd battalion for Madagascar, in 1957, the regiment intervened specially in the north and along the Tunisian dam. In 1962, the regiment was based in Madagascar, at Diego Suarez, where its members adapted to the tropical surroundings. On September 11, 1973, the 3rd Foreign Infantry Regiment garrisoned at Kouro
Sinnamary is a town and commune on the coast of French Guiana, between Kourou and Iracoubo. Sinnamary was the second French settlement to be founded in French Guiana: the town was founded in 1664, it lies on the Sinnamary River. The town contains an Indonesian community, as well as a Galibi Amerindian community. Both communities produce jewellery that can be purchased; the main hotel in Sinnamary is the Hôtel du Fleuve. The Guianan Soyuz launch site is situated within the territory of the Sinnamary commune. Colloquially the site and/or project are thus sometimes called "Soyuz at Sinnamary". However, because most other facilities of the Centre Spatial Guyanais are in the neighbouring and more populous Kourou commune, because the entire CSG itself is thus called the Kourou space centre, the Guianan Soyuz site/project is occasionally called "Soyuz at Kourou" though this is technically incorrect. Communes of the Guyane department Guiana Space Center INSEE Images of Sinnamary
Papaïchton is a commune in the overseas region and department of French Guiana. The village lies on the shores of the Maroni River, which used to be the only way to access the village; the village, the seat of the commune was named Papaïchton-Pompidouville in honour of the president Pompidou. It is on the border with Suriname. Papaïchton is home to the seat of their granman. 1895: The village is said to have been founded by "granman Ochi". 1930: Creation of the territory of Inini, administrative division including Papaïchton 1946: Departmentalisation of French Guiana, the territory of Inini becomes an arrondissement 1968: Creation of a municipal circle in Grand-Santi-Papaïchton 1969: Municipal circles transformed into communes 1976: Separation of the communes of Apatou and Grand-Santi-Papaïchton 1993: Separation of the communes of Grand-Santi and Papaïchton. Loka is a hamlet in the commune of Papaïchton. In April 2006, 14 people of the same family, including 12 children, were found dead, believed to be caused by carbon monoxide poisoning.
Communes of the Guyane department INSEE
Brazil the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, its most populated city is São Paulo; the federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers, it borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats; this unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system; the ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy. It has the ninth largest GDP in the world by nominal, eight and PPP measures, it is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, it is that the word "Brazil" comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders in return for assorted European consumer goods; the official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross", but European sailors and merchants called it the "Land of Brazil" because of the brazilwood trade. The popular appellation eclipsed and supplanted the official Portuguese name; some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots". In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama"; this was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".
Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years. The earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil and radiocarbon dated to 8,000 years ago; the pottery was found near Santarém and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture. The Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó in the Amazon delta from 800 CE to 1400 CE, developing sophisticated pottery, social stratification, large populations, mound building, complex social formations such as chiefdoms. Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people semi-nomadic who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture; the indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups. The Tupí people were subdivided into the Tupiniquins and Tupinambás, there were many subdivisions of the other gro
Saint-Élie is a commune of French Guiana, an overseas region and department of France located in South America. It was capital of the Inini territory. Communes of the Guyane department INSEE
Apatou is a commune in French Guiana, an overseas region and department of France in South America. The commune of Apatou was created on 12 November 1976 by detaching its territory from the commune of Grand-Santi-Papaichton. Communes of the Guyane department INSEE
French Guiana is an overseas department and region of France, on the north Atlantic coast of South America in the Guyanas. It borders Brazil to the east and Suriname to the west. Since 1981, when Belize became independent, French Guiana has been the only territory of the mainland Americas, still part of a European country. With a land area of 83,534 km2, French Guiana is the second-largest region of France and the largest outermost region within the European Union, it has a low population density, with only 3.6 inhabitants per square kilometre. Half of its 296,711 inhabitants in 2019 lived in the metropolitan area of its capital. 98.9% of the land territory of French Guiana is covered by forests, a large part of, primeval rainforest. The Guiana Amazonian Park, the largest national park in the European Union, covers 41% of French Guiana's territory. Since December 2015 both the region and the department have been ruled by a single assembly within the framework of a new territorial collectivity, the French Guiana Territorial Collectivity.
This assembly, the French Guiana Assembly, has replaced the former regional council and departmental council, which were both disbanded. The French Guiana Assembly is in charge of departmental government, its president is Rodolphe Alexandre. Before European contact, the territory was inhabited by Native Americans, most speaking the Arawak language, of the Arawakan language family; the people identified as Lokono. The first French establishment is recorded in 1503, but France did not establish a durable presence until colonists founded Cayenne in 1643. Guiana was developed as a slave society, where planters imported Africans as enslaved laborers on large sugar and other plantations in such number as to increase the population. Slavery was abolished in the colonies at the time of the French Revolution. Guiana was designated as a French department in 1797. But, after France gave up its territory in North America in 1803, it developed Guiana as a penal colony, establishing a network of camps and penitentiaries along the coast where prisoners from metropolitan France were sentenced to forced labor.
During World War II and the fall of France to German forces, Félix Éboué was one of the first to support General Charles de Gaulle of Free France, as early as June 18, 1940. Guiana rallied Free France in 1943, it abandoned its status as a colony and once again became a French department in 1946. After De Gaulle was elected as president of France, he established the Guiana Space Centre in 1965, it is now operated by Arianespace and the European Space Agency. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, several hundred Hmong refugees from Laos immigrated to French Guiana, fleeing displacement after United States involvement in the Vietnam War. In the late 1980s, more than 10,000 Surinamese refugees Maroons, arrived in French Guiana, fleeing the Surinamese Civil War. More French Guiana has received large numbers of Brazilian and Haitian economic migrants. Illegal and ecologically destructive gold mining by Brazilian garimpeiros is a chronic issue in the remote interior rain forest of French Guiana. Integrated in the French central state in the 21st century, Guiana is a part of the European Union, its official currency is the euro.
The region has the highest nominal GDP per capita in South America. A large part of Guiana's economy derives from jobs and businesses associated with the presence of the Guiana Space Centre, now the European Space Agency's primary launch site near the equator; as elsewhere in France, the official language is standard French, but each ethnic community has its own language, of which French Guianese Creole, a French-based creole language, is the most spoken. The region still faces such problems as poor infrastructure, high costs of living, high levels of crime and common social unrest. Guiana is derived from an Amerindian language and means "land of many waters"; the addition of the adjective "French" in most languages other than French is rooted in colonial times, when five such colonies had been named along the coast, subject to differing powers. French Guiana and the two larger countries to the north and west and Suriname, are still collectively referred to as "the Guianas" and constitute one large landmass known as the Guiana Shield.
French Guiana was inhabited by indigenous people: Kalina, Emerillon, Palikur and Wayana. The French attempted to create a colony there in the 18th century in conjunction with its settlement of some Caribbean islands, such as Guadeloupe and Saint-Domingue. Bill Marshall, Professor of Comparative Cultural Studies at the University of Stirling wrote of French Guiana's origins: The first French effort to colonize Guiana, in 1763, failed utterly, as settlers were subject to high mortality given the numerous tropical diseases and harsh climate: all but 2,000 of the initial 12,000 settlers died. During operations as a penal colony beginning in the mid-19th century, France transported 56,000 prisoners to Devil's Island. Fewer than 10% survived their sentence. Île du Diable was the site of a small prison facility, part of a larger penal system by the same name, which consisted of prisons on