Arcata Union Town or Union, is a city adjacent to the Arcata Bay portion of Humboldt Bay in Humboldt County, United States. At the 2010 census, Arcata's population was 17,231. Arcata, located 280 miles north of San Francisco, is home to Humboldt State University. Arcata is the location of the Arcata Field Office of the Federal Bureau of Land Management, responsible for the administration of natural resources and mineral programs, including the Headwaters Forest, on 200,000 acres of public land in Northwestern California. Arcata has been notably progressive in its political makeup, was the first city in the United States to elect a majority of its city council members from the Green Party; as a result of the progressive majority, Arcata capped the number of chain restaurants allowed in the city. Arcata was the first municipality to ban the growth of any type of Genetically Modified Organism within city limits, with exceptions for research and educational purposes. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 11.0 square miles, of which 9.1 square miles is land and 1.9 square miles is water.
Arcata contains major shopping areas within the city. They include: the Downtown/Plaza Area and Valley West. There are additional named neighborhoods encompassed by the city: They include: Aldergrove, Arcata Bottoms, portions of Bayside, California Heights, the Creamery District, Fickle Hill, the Marsh District, Redwood Park, Sunny Brae and Westwood. Arcata has the Arcata Marsh, a preserve located on the City's bay shore. Arcata has a cool summer mediterranean climate, dominated by marine influences associated with Humboldt Bay and the Pacific Ocean. On average, Arcata experiences 40 to 50 inches of rain per year, though there is a short but pronounced dry season from June to September. Northerly winds keep the spring cool and create a coastal upwelling of deep, cold ocean water; this upwelling in turn results in foggy conditions throughout the summer, with high temperatures in the 50s and low 60s. Yet just a few miles inland the temperatures may fall. Winter high temperatures average in the low 40s with lows in the mid-30s to lower 40s.
Temperatures infrequently dip below 30 °F in the winter, nearly as infrequently climb above 72 °F in the summer and fall. Changing populations have happened in timber and mining towns in the American West as a result of boom and bust economic cycles; some towns decrease in population following a bust, while some, like Arcata, experience a change in demographics. In the case of Arcata, the peak and the bust were close due to Arcata's late entry into the timber industry, its domination by mechanization; the population of the city of Arcata was 3,729 during its peak 1950, when lumber was exported throughout the country and abroad. For the County of Humboldt, the age distribution for urban residents, which would include Arcata, had 23.7% of the population under the age of 15. Those that would be considered young workers made up 14% of the population. “Normal” aged workers made up 23.9% of the population. Older working age made up 19.4% of the population. Pre-retirement aged made up 9.7% of the population.
Those of retirement age made up 9.1% of the population. For Arcata those age 65 and older were 8.3% of the population in 1950, the median age was 29.4 years. After the bust, in 1955, the population of Arcata in 1960 was 5,235. In Arcata the population under the age of 15 was 28.1%. Those age 15–24 made up 22.8% of Arcata's population. Those age 25–39 made up 19.4% of the population. Those age 40–54 made up 16% of Arcata's population; those age 55–64 made up 6.7% of Arcata's population. Those age 65 and over made up 6.9% of Arcata's population. Overall, census data reflects a lowering in the age of the Arcata population, due to an influx of young workers, due to there not being enough time after the bust for older workers to leave, in the decade between 1950 and 1960, during which the timber industry peaked and busted; the 2010 United States Census reported that Arcata had a population of 17,231. The population density was 1,567.4 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Arcata was: 14,094 White, 2,000+ Hispanic or Latino, 1,135 from two or more races, 769 from other races, 454 Asian, 393 Native American, 351 African American, 35 Pacific Islander,The Census reported that 15,486 people lived in households, 1,745 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized.
There were 7,381 households, out of which 1,275 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 1,651 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 649 had a female householder with no husband present, 325 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 764 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 75 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 2,730 households were made up of individuals and 524 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.10. There were 2,625 families; the population dispersal was wit
Geographic coordinate system
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection; the invention of a geographic coordinate system is credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene, who composed his now-lost Geography at the Library of Alexandria in the 3rd century BC. A century Hipparchus of Nicaea improved on this system by determining latitude from stellar measurements rather than solar altitude and determining longitude by timings of lunar eclipses, rather than dead reckoning. In the 1st or 2nd century, Marinus of Tyre compiled an extensive gazetteer and mathematically-plotted world map using coordinates measured east from a prime meridian at the westernmost known land, designated the Fortunate Isles, off the coast of western Africa around the Canary or Cape Verde Islands, measured north or south of the island of Rhodes off Asia Minor.
Ptolemy credited him with the full adoption of longitude and latitude, rather than measuring latitude in terms of the length of the midsummer day. Ptolemy's 2nd-century Geography used the same prime meridian but measured latitude from the Equator instead. After their work was translated into Arabic in the 9th century, Al-Khwārizmī's Book of the Description of the Earth corrected Marinus' and Ptolemy's errors regarding the length of the Mediterranean Sea, causing medieval Arabic cartography to use a prime meridian around 10° east of Ptolemy's line. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes' recovery of Ptolemy's text a little before 1300. In 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England as the zero-reference line; the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911.
In order to be unambiguous about the direction of "vertical" and the "horizontal" surface above which they are measuring, map-makers choose a reference ellipsoid with a given origin and orientation that best fits their need for the area they are mapping. They choose the most appropriate mapping of the spherical coordinate system onto that ellipsoid, called a terrestrial reference system or geodetic datum. Datums may be global, meaning that they represent the whole Earth, or they may be local, meaning that they represent an ellipsoid best-fit to only a portion of the Earth. Points on the Earth's surface move relative to each other due to continental plate motion and diurnal Earth tidal movement caused by the Moon and the Sun; this daily movement can be as much as a metre. Continental movement can be up to 10 m in a century. A weather system high-pressure area can cause a sinking of 5 mm. Scandinavia is rising by 1 cm a year as a result of the melting of the ice sheets of the last ice age, but neighbouring Scotland is rising by only 0.2 cm.
These changes are insignificant if a local datum is used, but are statistically significant if a global datum is used. Examples of global datums include World Geodetic System, the default datum used for the Global Positioning System, the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, used for estimating continental drift and crustal deformation; the distance to Earth's center can be used both for deep positions and for positions in space. Local datums chosen by a national cartographical organisation include the North American Datum, the European ED50, the British OSGB36. Given a location, the datum provides the latitude ϕ and longitude λ. In the United Kingdom there are three common latitude and height systems in use. WGS 84 differs at Greenwich from the one used on published maps OSGB36 by 112 m; the military system ED50, used by NATO, differs from about 120 m to 180 m. The latitude and longitude on a map made against a local datum may not be the same as one obtained from a GPS receiver. Coordinates from the mapping system can sometimes be changed into another datum using a simple translation.
For example, to convert from ETRF89 to the Irish Grid add 49 metres to the east, subtract 23.4 metres from the north. More one datum is changed into any other datum using a process called Helmert transformations; this involves converting the spherical coordinates into Cartesian coordinates and applying a seven parameter transformation, converting back. In popular GIS software, data projected in latitude/longitude is represented as a Geographic Coordinate System. For example, data in latitude/longitude if the datum is the North American Datum of 1983 is denoted by'GCS North American 1983'; the "latitude" of a point on Earth's surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the Equator and to each other; the North Pole is 90° N. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the Equator, the fun
Humboldt County, California
Humboldt County is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 132,646; the county seat is Eureka. Humboldt County comprises CA Micropolitan Statistical Area, it is located on the far North Coast, about 270 miles north of San Francisco. Its primary population centers of Eureka, the site of College of the Redwoods main campus, the smaller college town of Arcata, site of Humboldt State University, are located adjacent to Humboldt Bay, California's second largest natural bay. Area cities and towns are known for hundreds of ornate examples of Victorian architecture. Humboldt County is a densely forested mountainous and rural county with about 110 miles of coastline, situated along the Pacific coast in Northern California's rugged Coast Ranges. With nearly 1,500,000 acres of combined public and private forest in production, Humboldt County alone produces twenty percent of total volume and thirty percent of the total value of all forest products produced in California.
The county contains over forty percent of all remaining old growth Coast Redwood forests, the vast majority of, protected or conserved within dozens of national and local forests and parks, totaling 680,000 acres. The original inhabitants of the area now known as Humboldt County include the Wiyot, Hupa, Chilula and the Eel River Athapaskan peoples, including the Wailaki and Nongatl. Andrés de Urdaneta found the coast near Cape Mendocino followed the coast south to Acapulco in 1565. Spanish traders made unintended visits to California with the Manila Galleons on their return trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565. Humboldt County was formed in 1853 from parts of Trinity County; the first recorded entry by people of European origin was a landing by the Spanish in 1775 in Trinidad. The first recorded entry of Humboldt Bay by non-natives was an 1806 visit from a sea otter hunting party from Sitka employed by the Russian American Company; the hunting party included Captain Jonathan Winship, an American, some Aleut hunters.
The bay was not visited again by people of European origin until 1849 when Josiah Gregg's party visited. In 1850, Douglas Ottinger and Hans Buhne entered the bay, naming it Humboldt in honor of the great naturalist and world explorer, Alexander von Humboldt, the name was applied to the county as a whole; the area around Humboldt Bay was once inhabited by the Wiyot Indian tribe. One of the largest Wiyot villages, was located on Indian Island in Humboldt Bay. Founded around 900 BC, it contains a shell midden 6 acres in size and 14 feet deep, it was the site of the February 26, 1860 massacre of the Wiyot people, recorded by Bret Harte living in Union, now called Arcata. Between 60 and 200 Wiyot men and children were murdered that night. Tolowot is now a National Historic Landmark. State historic landmarks in Humboldt County include Arcata and Mad River Railroad, California's First Drilled Oil Wells in Petrolia, Camp Curtis, Centerville Beach Cross, the City of Eureka, the town of Ferndale, Fort Humboldt, Humboldt Harbor Historical District, the Jacoby Building, The Old Arrow Tree, Old Indian Village of Tsurai, the Town of Trinidad, Trinidad Head.
On February 5 and 6, 1885, Eureka's entire Chinese population of 300 men and 20 women were expelled after a gunfight between rival Chinese gangs resulted in the wounding of a 12-year-old boy and the death of 56-year-old David Kendall, a Eureka City Councilman. After the shooting, an angry mob of 600 Eureka residents met and informed the Chinese that they were no longer wanted in Eureka and would be hanged if they were to stay in town longer than 3 p.m. the next day. They were shipped to San Francisco. No one was killed in the expulsion. Another Chinese expulsion occurred during 1906 in a cannery on the Eel River, in which 23 Chinese cannery workers were expelled after objections to their presence. However, some Chinese remained in the Orleans area, where some white landowners sheltered and purchased food for the Chinese mineworkers until after racial tension passed. Chinese did not return to the coastal cities until the 1950s; the coastal zone of the county experiences wet, cool winters and dry, mild foggy summers.
In the winter, temperatures range from highs of 40–59 °F to lows of 32–49 °F. Coastal summers are cool to mild, with average highs of 60 -- frequent fogs. Coastal summer temperatures range from highs of 64–70 °F to lows of 46–55 °F. In the populated areas and cities near the coast, the highest temperatures tend to occur at locations just a few miles inland from Eureka and Arcata, in towns like Fortuna, Rio Dell, smaller unincorporated communities located somewhat further away from Humboldt Bay. In these locations summer highs are 70–75 °F; the coastal zone experiences a number of frosty nights in winter and early spring, though snowfall and hard freezes are rare. Coastal winters are wet. Winter rainstorms are frequent, with averages from 30 inches to 100 inches a year varying with elevation. Inland areas of the county experience wet, cool winters. Snowfall is common at elevations over 3,000 ft throughout the winter months, is deep enough at higher elevations to have inspired the opening of a small ski lift operation on Horse Mountain, near Willow Creek, for several decades in the late 1900s.
Summer displays the sharpest difference between the inland climates. Inland regions of Humboldt County experience highs of 80–99 °F depending on
California Historical Landmark
California Historical Landmarks are buildings, sites, or places in the U. S. state of California that have been determined to have statewide historical landmark significance. Historical significance is determined by meeting at least one of the criteria listed below: The first, only, or most significant of its type in the state or within a large geographic region. California Historical Landmarks of number 770 and above are automatically listed in the California Register of Historical Resources. By contrast, a site, feature, or event, of local significance may be designated as a California Point of Historical Interest. List of California Historical Landmarks by county National Historic Sites National Register of Historic Places listings in California Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument List of San Francisco Designated Landmarks Johnson, Marael. Why Stop? A Guide to California Roadside Historical Markers. Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing Company. P. 213. ISBN 9780884159230. OCLC 32168093. Official OHP—California Office of Historic Preservation website OHP: California Historical Sites searchpage — links to lists by county
Mad River (California)
The Mad River is a river in upper Northern California. It flows for 113 miles in a northwest direction through Trinity County and Humboldt County, draining a 497-square-mile watershed into the Pacific Ocean north of the town of Arcata near Arcata-Eureka Airport in McKinleyville; the river's headwaters are in the Coast Range near South Kelsey Ridge. Before Euro-American settlers arrived in the mid-1800s, the native peoples occupying the lower Mad River watershed were the Wiyot who spoke a dialect affiliated with the Algonquian language family, with upriver reaches controlled by three different groups whose languages are related to the Athabascan family, the Whilkut and Lassik. Today, among these distinct groups, only the Wiyot-affiliated Blue Lake Rancheria and the Wiyot Tribe of the Table Bluff Reservation are federally recognized tribes and the United States holds lands in trust for their citizens; the Whilkut and Lassik were annihilated during the Bald Hills War in the 1860s. The river was named in December, 1849 in memory of an incident when Dr. Josiah Gregg lost his temper when his exploration party did not wait for him at the river mouth.
The Mad River drains 497 square miles of the Coast Range Geomorphic Province and empties into the Pacific Ocean north of Humboldt Bay in Humboldt County, California. The basin is about 100 miles in length and averages six miles wide. Elevations range from sea level at the mouth to 3,000 feet along the western ridge to 6,000 feet in the headwaters. Principal tributaries to the Mad River include South Fork Mad River, North Fork Mad River, Barry Creek, Pilot Creek, Deer Creek, Bug Creek, Graham Creek, Grace Flat, Blue Slide Creek, Boulder Creek, Maple Creek, Canõn Creek, Lindsey Creek, Mill Creek; the river provides groundwater recharge for agricultural water supplies and is free-flowing for 85 percent of its length. Matthews Dam, about one third of the way down the river from its source, forms Ruth Reservoir; the dam is owned by Humboldt Bay Municipal Water District, which provides water from Ranney collectors near Essex for municipal and industrial use in Eureka, Blue Lake and numerous unincorporated communities in the Humboldt Bay area.
The reservoir can hold 48,000 acre feet of water. The greatest problem of the Mad River drainage basin, as for many rivers in this area of the state, is erosion causing excessive sediment buildup in the river and its tributaries; the main causes of the erosion are excessive road building and logging historical logging practices like clear-cutting. In addition, the removal of riparian vegetation increases erosion and urbanization causes decreased water quality. In 1992, the Environmental Protection Agency listed the Mad River under section 303 of the California Clean Water Act Section as sediment impaired, due to elevated erosion and siltation. In 2006, the river was additionally listed as turbidity-impaired; the upper half of the river is inside the Six Rivers National Forest, but the vast majority of the river flows through private land in the national forest. About 64 percent of the land is used for timber production. Green Diamond is with about 42 percent of all land; the next largest landowners are R. Emmerson and Humboldt Redwood Company, with 3 and 2 percent respectively.
There are quite a few ranchers and lumber companies that own still sizable, parcels. Private residences, open space and parks make up most of the rest; the river provides important habitat to fish and wildlife. Flora of the area includes the Mad River fleabane, a wildflower, named for the river. Key fish species include coho salmon, Chinook salmon, steelhead, which were federally-listed as threatened in the Mad River in 1997, 1999, 2000, respectively. Two threatened osmerid species - longfin smelt and eulachon - are listed as present in the estuarine portion of the Mad River, but have not been observed in recent years. Before entering the ocean, the river turns abruptly north near the triple junction of the Gorda, North American, Pacific plates; this bend denotes the usual upper limit of the estuary, although brackish waters can extend as far upstream as Highway 101 during king tides. Although small, this estuary provides nursery habitat for juvenile rockfish and several species of flatfish, including starry flounder, English sole, speckled sanddab.
The estuary serves as a migration corridor for salmonids and Pacific lamprey, as a summer feeding ground for several marine species, including topsmelt and surf smelt. Pacific staghorn sculpin prickly sculpin, coast range sculpin, Three-spine stickleback are present in the estuary year-round. Above the estuary, the Mad River is home to resident coastal cutthroat trout, rainbow trout, Sacramento sucker, Humboldt sucker; the Mad River Estuary is recognized for protection by the Californ