Electorates of the Australian states and territories
A State Electoral District is an electorate within the Lower House or Legislative Assembly of Australian states and territories. Most state electoral districts send a single member to a state or territory's parliament using the preferential method of voting; the area of a state electoral district is dependent upon the Electoral Acts in the various states and vary in area between them. At present, there are 409 state electoral districts in Australia. State electoral districts do not apply to the Upper House, or Legislative Council, in those states that have one. In New South Wales and South Australia, MLCs represent the entire state, in Tasmania they represent single-member districts, in Victoria and Western Australia they represent a region formed by grouping electoral districts together. There are five electorates for the Legislative Assembly, each with five members each, making up 25 members in total. There are 93 electoral districts in New South Wales. There are 25 single-member electoral divisions in the Northern Territory, 17 former divisions.
There are 93 electoral districts in Queensland, for the Legislative Assembly of Queensland. Information about the QLD electoral districts for the 2006 elections can be obtained from the Electoral Commission of Queensland website. There are 47 single-member electoral districts in South Australia, for the South Australian House of Assembly. There are 15 electoral divisions in Tasmania for the upper house Legislative Council. In the lower house the five federal divisions are used, but electing 5 members each There are 88 electoral districts in Victoria, for the Victorian Legislative Assembly. There are 59 single-member electoral districts in Western Australia for the Western Australian Legislative Assembly. 42 are in the Perth metropolitan area and 17 are in the rest of the state. Divisions of the Australian House of Representatives Local government in Australia Parliaments of the Australian states and territories
Postcodes in Australia
Postcodes are used in Australia to more efficiently sort and route mail within the Australian postal system. Postcodes in Australia are placed at the end of the Australian address. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department and are now managed by Australia Post, are published in booklets available from post offices or online from the Australia Post website. Australian envelopes and postcards have four square boxes printed in orange at the bottom right for the postcode; these are used. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department to replace earlier postal sorting systems, such as Melbourne's letter and number codes and a similar system used in rural and regional New South Wales; the introduction of the postcodes coincided with the introduction of a large-scale mechanical mail sorting system in Australia, starting with the Sydney GPO. By 1968, 75% of mail was using postcodes, in the same year post office preferred-size envelopes were introduced, which came to be referred to as “standard envelopes”.
Postcode squares were introduced in June 1990 to enable Australia Post to use optical character recognition software in its mail sorting machines to automatically and more sort mail by postcodes. Australian postcodes consist of four digits, are written after the name of the city, suburb, or town, the state or territory: Mr John Smith 100 Flushcombe Road BLACKTOWN NSW 2148When writing an address by hand, a row of four boxes is pre-printed on the lower right hand corner of an envelope, the postcode may be written in the boxes. If addressing a letter from outside Australia, the postcode is recorded before'Australia'. Australian postcodes are sorting information, they are linked with one area. Due to post code rationalisation, they can be quite complex in country areas; the south-western Victoria 3221 postcode of the Geelong Mail Centre includes twenty places around Geelong with few people. This means that mail for these places is not sorted until it gets to Geelong; some postcodes cover large populations, while other postcodes have much smaller populations in urban areas.
Australian postcodes range from 0200 for the Australian National University to 9944 for Cannonvale, Queensland. Some towns and suburbs have two postcodes — one for street deliveries and another for post office boxes. For example, a street address in the Sydney suburb of Parramatta would be written like this: Mr John Smith 99 George Street PARRAMATTA NSW 2150But mail sent to a PO Box in Parramatta would be addressed: Mr John Smith PO Box 99 PARRAMATTA NSW 2124Many large businesses, government departments and other institutions receiving high volumes of mail had their own postcode as a Large Volume Receiver, e.g. the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital has the postcode 4029, the Australian National University had the postcode 0200. More postcode ranges were made available for LVRs in the 1990s. Australia Post has been progressively discontinuing the LVR programme since 2006; the first one or two numbers show the state or territory that the postcode belongs to Sometimes near the state and territory borders, Australia Post finds it easier to send mail through a nearby post office, across the border: Some of the postcodes above may cover two or more states.
For example, postcode 2620 covers both a locality in NSW as well as a locality in the ACT, postcode 0872 covers a number of localities across WA, SA, NT and QLD. Three locations straddle the NSW-Queensland border. Jervis Bay Territory, once an exclave of the ACT but now a separate territory, is geographically located on the coast of NSW, it is just south of the towns of Huskisson, with which it shares a postcode. Mail to the Jervis Bay Territory is still addressed to the ACT; the numbers used to show the state on each radio callsign in Australia are the same number as the first number for postcodes in that state, e.g. 2xx in New South Wales, 3xx in Victoria, etc. Radio callsigns pre-date postcodes in Australia by more than forty years. Australia's external territories are included in Australia Post's postcode system. While these territories do not belong to any state, they are addressed as such for mail sorting: Three scientific bases in Antarctica operated by the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions share a postcode with the isolated sub-Antarctic island of Macquarie Island: Each state's capital city ends with three zeroes, while territorial capital cities end with two zeroes.
Capital city postcodes were the lowest postcodes in their state or territory range, before new ranges for LVRs and PO Boxes were made available. The last number can be changed from "0" to "1" to get the postcode for General Post Office boxes in any capital city: While the first number of a postcode shows the state or territory, the second number shows a region within the state. However, postcodes with the same second number are not always next to each other; as an example, postcodes in the range 2200–2299 are split between the southern suburbs of Sydney and the Central Coast of New South Wales. Postcodes with a second number of "0" or "1" are always located within the metropolitan area of the state's capital city. Postcodes with higher secon
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Trams in Brisbane
The Brisbane tramway network served the city of Brisbane, between 1885 and 1969. It ran on standard gauge track; the electric system was energised to 500 volts, subsequently increased to 600 volts. All tramcars built in Brisbane up to 1938 had an open design; this proved so popular on hot summer nights, that the trams were used as fundraisers and chartered right up until the last service by social groups. Most trams operated with a two-person crew – a driver and a conductor, who moved about the tram collecting fares and issuing tickets; the exceptions to this arrangement were on the Gardens line where the short duration of the trip meant it was more effective for passengers to drop their fare into a fare box as they entered the tram. The peak year for patronage was in 1944–45 when 160 million passengers were carried; the system route length reached its maximum extent of 109 kilometres in 1952. The total track length was 199 kilometres, owing to many routes ending in single, rather than double, track.
Single track segments of the track were protected by signalling. By 1959 more than 140 kilometres of track were laid in concrete, a method of track construction pioneered in Brisbane; the last track opened was in O'Keefe Street Woolloongabba, in May 1961. However, this track was not used in normal passenger service and was used to reduce dead running from Logan Road back to Ipswich Road Depot. Of the Australian capital cities which closed their networks between the 1950s and 1970s, Brisbane was the last capital city to close its tram network. Despite the decision to shut down the network, the city's trams were held with great affection by locals. There have been ongoing proposals since the early 1990s to reinstate a functional tram network. Brisbane expanded to become one of the most dispersed cities in the world by the 1870s. In the early years of Brisbane's settlement walking was the most convenient way to get around as most people choose to live close to their workplace. In 1875, the railway line to Ipswich opened up some areas in western and southern districts, however fares were expensive, as was owning a horse.
By 1885 an omnibus service reached every part of Brisbane. Omnibuses consisted of a constructed wooden wagon with seating for males on the roof and a back-door entrance to the interior. On 10 August 1885 the Metropolitan Tramway and Investment Company began official horse-drawn tramway services for the public; the 18 tramcars were built from polished cedar and mahogany in the United States by J G Brill and Company and John Stephenson Company. Fares were expensive, with the typical patron belonging to the middle class; some used the services to go home for lunch. Depression struck in 1893 and combined with 1893 Brisbane floods the horse-drawn tramway services saw large drops in patronage; the first electric tramway ran along Stanley Street, in South Brisbane on 16 June 1897. Horse-drawn carriages were still being used in 1899. Up until the end of World War I, Brisbane's trams were the primary method used for travelling within the city. Between 1923 and 1934 tram services in Brisbane were expanded.
Brisbane's tramway system came under the control of the newly merged Brisbane City Council in 1925. Through the 1940s and 1950s the tram system enjoyed strong political support within the council, which continued to expand the tram network and upgrade its fleet with some of the most advanced trams in Australia; until 1934, the trams carried mail between the Brisbane General Post Office and suburban post office branches, acted as mobile postboxes. Trolleybuses were introduced in 1951; the last tramway to open was in March 1961. Clem Jones became Lord Mayor of Brisbane the same year, all new route construction was cancelled. By 1948 Brisbane's trams failed to return a profit as they could not compete with the more efficient bus services. Urban development well away from public transport, the rise of suburban shopping centres and the relative decline in the cost of motorcars meant that as elsewhere, Brisbane's public street transport system had to compete with the private motor car and patronage declined from a post war peak of 148 million passenger journeys in 1946, to 64 million passenger journeys in 1968.
Political support for the tram system waned in the 1960s so after the Paddington tram depot fire on 28 September 1962. 67 trams were destroyed. Brisbane's Lord Mayor Alderman Clem Jones was private car; the Kalinga, Toowong and Bulimba ferry routes closed in December 1962. In common with many other cities, Brisbane converted its remaining tram lines between 1968 and 1969 to all bus operation; the last trolley buses ran on 13 March 1969 and the final trams ran on 13 April 1969. The tramway closure was notable for the speed. Over 300 replacement Leyland Panther buses were purchased, at the time the largest single bus purchase in the world. Most older, wooden trams were stripped of metal parts and burnt at the City Council's yard at Cribb Street, Milton; the bodies of all-metal cars were sold as sheds and playground equipment. The Brisbane Tramway Museum Society was formed in 1968 to preserve some of Brisbane's trams. At present the museum has 24 Brisbane trams with 6 operational.
The Eastern Busway is a bus-only road running from the University of Queensland's St Lucia campus to Langlands Park busway station in Queensland, Australia. The Eastern Busway was opened in stages; the first section between the University of Queensland and the South East Busway opened in August 2009and the Buranda to Main Avenue section in August 2011. Construction began in April 2007 on the 1.5 kilometres UQ Lakes to Buranda section with it opening on 3 August 2009. The UQ Lakes to Buranda section of the busway was built under an alliance with Thiess, Sinclair Knight Merz and the Department of Transport and Main Roads, it included a 640 metre long tunnel built under the old Bogga Road Gaol. Tunnelling was done with a Voest-Alpine Industrieanlagenbau AM105 roadheader machine. A second tunnel passes under the Pacific Motorway to connect with the South East Busway at Buranda. On 1 December 2008, a worker was killed in an accident during construction of the section near the Princess Alexandra Hospital.
The accident occurred. The accident led to the suspension of construction for several days and charges being laid against construction contractor Theiss in relation to alleged breaches of the Workplace Health and Safety Act; this death was the only recorded construction-related fatality on the busway network to date. In June 2008, the Queensland Government approved the project's Concept Design and Impact Management Plan; the Concept Design and Impact Management Plan projects for a long-term investment in the future of the eastern suburbs. The Government committed $466 million for the next section of the Eastern Busway; this funding included 96 property resumptions between Buranda and Cavendish Road and construction of the 1.05 kilometres section between the South East Busway and Main Avenue, Coorparoo with stations at Stones Corner and Langlands Park. In December 2008, the Queensland Government announced the Eastern Busway Alliance of Leighton Contractors, Sinclair Knight Merz, Maunsell and AECOM to build this section.
The Buranda to Main Avenue section connects the existing South East Busway at Buranda with Coorparoo via Stones Corner. Busway stations have been built at Stones Corner and Langlands Park. Construction work on the section commenced in August 2009; the section opened on 29 August 2011. Further stages of the Eastern Busway are ready for immediate delivery, should funding become available under the Australian Government's Infrastructure Australia program; the Queensland Government's Transport and Main Roads Department has stated that Planning for the ultimate Eastern Busway between Main Avenue and Capalaba is being revised, with further stages subject to funding and government priorities. Busways - Department of Transport and Main Roads The department is developing cost-effective short and medium term options on Old Cleveland Road, including intersection upgrades to allow for bus priority, it is proposed to extend the Eastern Busway along the Old Cleveland Road corridor via the suburbs of Coorparoo, Camp Hill, Carina and Chandler to Capalaba.
The Old Cleveland Road corridor was a major tram route until closure of Brisbane's tram network in 1969. Busway stations on the Eastern Busway include: UQ Lakes Boggo Road Princess Alexandra Hospital Buranda Stones Corner Langlands ParkMajor proposed stations on the busway include: a new station underneath the old Myer building at Coorparoo a new station at Carindale busway station near Westfield Carindale the existing Sleeman Centre park & ride facility at Chandler the existing Capalaba bus stationRoad access to the busway is available at Dutton Park and Langlands Park. Boggo Road busway station is located alongside the Park Road railway station; the busway platforms are listed as Platform 5 and 6 to align with the existing platforms at Park Road station. This may cause confusion to busway users as on each other station in the Busway network, inbound traffic is designated Platform 1 while outbound traffic is designated Platform 2. All services on the busway are operated by Brisbane Transport.
Media related to Eastern Busway at Wikimedia Commons
Cleveland railway line
The Cleveland railway line is a suburban railway line extending 37.3 kilometres east-southeast from Brisbane, the state capital of Queensland, Australia. It is part of the Queensland Rail City network. Following the opening of the Wooloongabba Branch railway line from Corinda to Stanley Street in South Brisbane in 1884, calls were made for extending the line to Cleveland to serve the developing farming area. A line was surveyed, took an indirect route to avoid hilly country and to serve Fort Lytton, a gun emplacement at the south entrance to the Brisbane River the major defence installation for the city; the line was opened to Manly in 1888 and extended to the first Cleveland station in 1889. An extension to the second Cleveland station opened in 1897, at which time the first Cleveland station was renamed West Cleveland; the initial constricted terminus at Stanley St was replaced by a dual track line to South Brisbane in 1891, the Cleveland line connection to it was realigned to junction at Park Road railway station at that time.
An extension to Redland Bay and Mount Cotton was surveyed in 1889. The extension to Redland Bay was recommended by the Royal Commission into Public Works in 1922 but was never built; the line from Park Road to Murarrie was duplicated on 17 June 1912, extended to Manly in 1913. In 1960, the line from Lota to Cleveland was closed; the Redland Shire Council opposed the closure, preserved the corridor. The opening of the Merivale Bridge in 1978 connected the Cleveland line to the Brisbane CBD, the line was electrified in 1982; the line beyond Lota was rebuilt to contemporary standards and reopened on the original alignment to Thorneside in 1982 and the line was electrified in 1983. The line was extended to the third Cleveland station in 1987, reputedly to facilitate potential extension of the line to Redland Bay in the future, being electrified upon opening; the travel time of 46 minutes compares to the steam-era time of 82–86 minutes. A third line was laid between Park Road and Lindum railway station in the 1990s as part of the Fisherman Islands line to provide a dedicated freight track to the Port of Brisbane, being dual gauge to connect to the Acacia Ridge freight Terminal and the Australian standard gauge rail network.
Most services stop at all stations to Bowen Hills railway station. The typical travel time between Cleveland and Brisbane City is 56 minutes. During weekday peak times, a few services run express between Morningside and Manly stations, for faster travel times for commuters working in the Brisbane central business district. Prior to 2014, an afternoon service on school days only operated express between Cleveland and Buranda stations, stopping only at Thorneside and Lota. Cleveland line services continue as Shorncliffe line services. Passengers for/from the Gold Coast lines can change at Park Road. Queensland Rail TransInfo Translink railway network map
Carindale is a suburb of Brisbane, Australia. It is located 10 kilometres east of the CBD, borders Belmont, Carina Heights, Mansfield, Mount Gravatt East, Tingalpa. Notable features of the suburb include a large shopping centre - Westfield Carindale, the Pacific Golf Club, Belmont State School, Belmont Bushland Reserve, Belmont Private Hospital and Bulimba Creek; the Gateway Motorway borders the suburb. In addition to Indooroopilly in the west. Public transport runs to and from Carindale and the City via Old Cleveland Road and Creek Road, leading to the South East Busway. Carindale is represented by Ross Vasta, Steve Minnikin, Adrian Schrinner at the federal and local levels respectively. Carindale was the name of a housing estate constructed in the area in 1976, was taken as the official name of the suburb when it separated from Belmont in 1980; the name itself is a combination of "Carin" from the nearby suburb of Carina, "dale" meaning valley. The area was first settled by Europeans in the 1850s, with activity focussing on timber and agriculture.
In 1973 Carindale Nursing Home was opened in Foxglove St, Mt Gravatt East and in 1978 permission was granted to the developers to use Carindale as the name of the new shopping centre. In 1980 the suburb of Carindale was created; the Carindale Library opened in 1999 with a major refurbishment in 2012. In the 2016 census, Carindale recorded a population of 15,740 people, 48.6 % male. The median age of the Carindale population was 42 years of 4 years above the Australian median. 65.3% of people living in Carindale were born in Australia, compared to the national average of 66.7%. 71.5% of people spoke only English at home. According to the 2016 census, Carindale includes the largest Greek Australian community of any suburb in Queensland, numbering 746 individuals and making up 4.7% of the suburb's population. The suburb is home to one of the largest Westfield shopping centres in Brisbane, Westfield Carindale; this large shopping complex has over 400 stores, anchored by major tenants: Department stores: Myer, David Jones and Big W Supermarkets: Coles and Aldi Cinemas: Event Carindale public library operated by Brisbane City Council Media related to Carindale, Queensland at Wikimedia Commons