7th Cavalry Regiment
The 7th Cavalry Regiment is a United States Army cavalry regiment formed in 1866. Its official nickname is "Garryowen", after the Irish air "Garryowen", adopted as its march tune. Following its activation, the Seventh Cavalry Regiment patrolled the Western plains for raiding Native Americans and to protect the westward movement of pioneers. From 1866 to 1881, the regiment marched a total of 181,692 miles across Kansas and Dakota Territory; the regiment was constituted on 28 July 1866 in the regular army as the 7th United States Cavalry. It was organized on 21 September 1866 at Fort Riley, Kansas, as part of an expansion of the regular army following the demobilization of the wartime volunteer and draft forces. From 1866 through 1871, the regiment was posted to Fort Riley and fought in the American Indian Wars. In the Battle of the Washita in 1868, the regiment sustained 22 losses, while inflicting more that 150 deaths on a Cheyenne encampment women and children; this attack was led by George Armstrong Custer, who led the 7th Cavalry to the most calamitous defeat of U.
S. forces in the Indian Wars. Typical of post-Civil War cavalry regiments, the 7th Cavalry was organized as a twelve-company regiment without a formal battalion organization. Battalions at this time were flexible tactical organizations, with companies being assigned and removed as the field commander desired or felt necessary. Throughout this period, the cavalryman was armed with the Colt Single Action Army.45 caliber revolvers and trapdoor Springfield carbines, caliber.45–70, until 1892. The regiment used the McClellan saddle. Sabres were issued but not carried on campaign; the 7th Cavalry, like the other U. S. Army regiments of the time, had a band, which performed mounted as well as on foot, seated for concerts. Established with the support of Major Alfred Gibbs, the 7th's band adopted Garryowen as their favorite tune and thus gave the Seventh their nickname among the rest of the army. From 1871 through 1873, 7th Cavalry companies participated in constabulary duties in the deep South in support of the Reconstruction Act and, for half the regiment, again in 1874–1876.
In 1873, the 7th Cavalry moved its garrison post to Dakota Territory. From here, the regiment carried out Custer's 1874 Black Hills Expedition; this led to the discovery of gold in the Black Hills, starting a gold rush in 1874 that precipitated the Great Sioux War of 1876–77. In June, 1876, Lieutenant Colonel George A. Custer was killed in the Battle of the Little Bighorn, along with 267 soldiers of the 7th Cavalry. Although the regiment is well known for the Battle of the Little Bighorn, it participated in other battles of the American Indian Wars, including the Battle of Bear Paw in Montana and the Battle of Crow Agency in Montana. On 29 December 1890, the regiment instigated the Wounded Knee Massacre in South Dakota, an event that signaled the end of the American Indian Wars. Washita River, Indian Territory - November 27, 1868 Honsinger Bluff, Montana Territory - August 4, 1873 Yellowstone River, Montana Territory - August 11, 1873 Little Bighorn, Montana Territory - June 25–26, 1876 Canyon Creek, Montana Territory - September 13, 1877 Bear Paw Mountain, Montana Territory - September 30-October 5, 1877 Crow Agency, Montana Territory - November 5, 1887 Wounded Knee, South Dakota - December 29, 1890 Drexel Mission, South Dakota - December 30, 1890 September 1866 – November 1866 Maj. John W. Davidson.
November 1866 – April 1869 Col. Andrew J. Smith May 1869 – June 1886 Col. Samuel D. Sturgis July 1886 – November 1894 Col. James W. Forsyth A total of 45 men earned the Medal of Honor while serving with the 7th Cavalry during the American Indian Wars: 24 for actions during the Battle of the Little Bighorn, two during the Battle of Bear Paw, 17 for being involved in the Wounded Knee Massacre or an engagement at White Clay Creek the next day, two during other actions against the Sioux in December 1890. From 1895 until 1899, the regiment served in New Mexico and Oklahoma overseas in Cuba from 1899 to 1902. An enlisted trooper with the Seventh Cavalry, "B" Company, from May 1896 until March 1897 at Fort Grant Arizona Territory was author Edgar Rice Burroughs; the regiment served in the Philippines during the Philippine-American War from 1904 through 1907, with a second tour from 1911 through 1915. Back in the United States, the regiment was again stationed in the southwest, in Arizona, where it patrolled the U.
S.-Mexico border and was part of the Mexican Punitive Expedition of 1916 to 1917. In December 1917, 7th Cavalry was assigned to the 15th Cavalry Division, an on-paper organization designed for service in France during World War I, never more than a simple headquarters; this was because no significant role emerged for mounted troops on the Western Front during the 19 months between the entry of the United States into the war and the Armistice of 11 November 1918. The 7th Cavalry was released from this assignment in May 1918. On 13 September 1921, 7th Cavalry Regiment was assigned to the 1st Cavalry Division, which assignment was maintained until 1957; the division and its 2nd Cavalry Brigade was garrisoned at Fort Bliss, while the 1st Cavalry Brigade was garrisoned at Douglas, Arizona. Additional garrison points were used as well; the 7th Cavalry Regiment continued to train as horse cavalry right up to the American entry into World War II, including participation in several training maneuvers at the Louisiana Maneuver Area on 26 April 1940 – 28 May 1940 12–22 August 1940.
Battle of Pork Chop Hill
The Battle of Pork Chop Hill comprises a pair of related Korean War infantry battles during the spring and summer of 1953. These were fought while the United Nations and the Chinese and North Koreans negotiated the Korean Armistice Agreement. In the U. S. they were controversial because of the many soldiers killed for terrain of no strategic or tactical value, although the Chinese lost many times the number of US soldiers killed and wounded. The first battle was described in the eponymous history Pork Chop Hill: The American Fighting Man in Action, Spring 1953, by S. L. A. Marshall, from which the film Pork Chop Hill was drawn; the United Nations won the first battle but the Chinese won the second battle. The United Nations supported by the United States, won the first battle when the Chinese broke contact and withdrew after two days of fighting; the second battle involved many more troops on both sides and was bitterly contested for five days before United Nations Command conceded the hill to the Chinese forces by withdrawing behind the main battle line.
The 300 meters -high hill, so-named because its topographic shape vaguely resembled a pork chop, was first seized by the U. S. 8th Cavalry Regiment in October 1951. It was taken again in May 1952 by Item Company of the U. S. 180th Infantry Regiment. The 1st Battalion of the 21st Thai Regiment of the U. S. 2nd Infantry Division defended the position in November 1952. From December 29, 1952, it became part of the U. S. 7th Infantry Division's defensive sector. Pork Chop Hill was among several exposed hill outposts along the Main Line of Resistance that were defended by a single company or platoon positioned in sand-bagged bunkers connected with trenches. Opposing the 7th Infantry Division were two divisions of the Chinese People's Volunteer Army: the 141st Division of the 47th Army, the 67th Division of the 23rd Army; these were veteran, well-trained units expert in night infantry assaults, patrolling and mountain warfare. Both armies were part of the 13th Field Army commanded by General Deng Hua, deputy commander of PVA forces in Korea.
The opposing forces in this sector were equal in size, the 7th Division totaling 11 infantry battalions, a battalion of armor, 6 battalions of artillery, while the Chinese forces totalled 12 infantry, 10 artillery, the equivalent of one tank battalion. Both the UNC and the Chinese had used military operations to gain leverage or make political statements relevant to the armistice negotiations since early 1952; the first battle on Pork Chop Hill occurred near Operation Little Switch, the exchange of ill and injured prisoners-of-war scheduled for April 20. The Chinese command authorized the April attack to demonstrate that agreement in contentious negotiations did not equal unwillingness to continue fighting, if necessary. In a surprise night attack on March 23, 1953, a battalion of the Chinese 423rd regiment, 141st Division seized Old Baldy an outpost near Pork Chop Hill and overwhelmed B Company of the 31st Infantry's Colombian Battalion, commanded by Lt. Colonel Alberto Ruiz Novoa, during its relief in the Fifth Battle for Old Baldy.
The regimental commander, Colonel William B. Kern, had ordered C Company of the Colombian Battalion to relieve B Company despite the Colombian commander's protest; the attack caught. Two days of stiff resistance by the maimed and battered B and C Companies failed in retaking the hill due to the failure of the 31st Regiment Command to send reinforcements, causing the UNC to order its abandonment; this preliminary fight exposed Pork Chop to three-sided attack, for the next three weeks, Chinese patrols probed it nightly. On the night of April 16, Company E, 31st Infantry manned Pork Chop Hill. Shortly before midnight, an artillery barrage foreshadowed a sudden infantry assault by a battalion of the Chinese 201st regiment. S. soldiers defended isolated bunkers. Elsewhere in the sector, other positions were attacked. Company K and Company L, 31st Infantry, in reserve behind the MLR, were ordered to counterattack and began their attack at 04:30 on April 17. By dawn they reached the main trenches on top of the hill but suffered 50% casualties, half of Company L's troops had not been able to leave the trenches of an adjacent outpost, Hill 200.
Lt. Clemons, in tactical command of the assault, requested reinforcement. 2nd Battalion 17th Infantry was attached to the 31st Infantry and its Company G was sent forward, linking up with Company K at 08:30. All three companies were subjected to continuous shelling by PVA artillery as they cleared bunkers and dug in again. Through a series of miscommunications between command echelons, Division headquarters ordered Russell's company to withdraw at 15:00 after they too had suffered heavy losses, did not realize the extent of casualties among the other two companies. By the time the situation was clarified the companies of the 31st Infantry were down to a combined 25 survivors. Maj. Gen. Trudeau, by on scene, authorized Col. Kern to send in a fresh company to relieve all elements on Hill 255 and placed him in tactical command with both the 1st and 2nd Battalions of the 17th Infantry attached and at his direction. Kern sent forward Company F, 17th Infantry, which started up the hill at 21:30 under heavy artillery fire but reached the trenches at 22:00, suffer
South Korea the Republic of Korea, is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying to the east of the Asian mainland. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo, one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia, under Gwanggaeto the Great. South Korea has a predominantly mountainous terrain, it comprises an estimated 51.4 million residents distributed over 100,363 km2. Its capital and largest city is Seoul, with a population of around 10 million. Archaeology indicates that the Korean Peninsula was inhabited by early humans starting from the Lower Paleolithic period; the history of Korea begins with the foundation of Gojoseon in 2333 BCE by the mythic king Dangun, but no archaeological evidence and writing was found from this period. The Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in 11th century BCE, its existence and role has been controversial in the modern era; the written historical record on Gojoseon was first mentioned in Chinese records in the early 7th century BCE.
Following the unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea under Unified Silla in CE 668, Korea was subsequently ruled by the Goryeo dynasty and the Joseon dynasty. It was annexed by the Empire of Japan in 1910. At the end of World War II, Korea was divided into Soviet and U. S. zones of occupations. A separate election was held in the U. S. zone in 1948 which led to the creation of the Republic of Korea, while the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was established in the Soviet zone. The United Nations at the time passed a resolution declaring the ROK to be the only lawful government in Korea; the Korean War began in June 1950. The war lasted three years and involved the U. S. China, the Soviet Union and several other nations; the border between the two nations remains the most fortified in the world. Under long-time military leader Park Chung-hee, the South Korean economy grew and the country was transformed into a G-20 major economy. Military rule ended in 1987, the country is now a presidential republic consisting of 17 administrative divisions.
South Korea is a developed country and a high-income economy, with a "very high" Human Development Index, ranking 22nd in the world. The country is considered a regional power and is the world's 11th largest economy by nominal GDP and the 12th largest by PPP as of 2010. South Korea is a global leader in the industrial and technological sectors, being the world's 5th largest exporter and 8th largest importer, its export-driven economy focuses production on electronics, ships, machinery and robotics. South Korea is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, the United Nations, Uniting for Consensus, G20, the WTO and OECD and is a founding member of APEC and the East Asia Summit; the name Korea derives from the name Goryeo. The name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo in the 5th century as a shortened form of its name; the 10th-century kingdom of Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo, thus inherited its name, pronounced by the visiting Persian merchants as "Korea". The modern spelling of Korea first appeared in the late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel.
Despite the coexistence of the spellings Corea and Korea in 19th century publications, some Koreans believe that Imperial Japan, around the time of the Japanese occupation, intentionally standardised the spelling on Korea, making Japan appear first alphabetically. After Goryeo was replaced by Joseon in 1392, Joseon became the official name for the entire territory, though it was not universally accepted; the new official name has its origin in the ancient country of Gojoseon. In 1897, the Joseon dynasty changed the official name of the country from Joseon to Daehan Jeguk; the name Daehan, which means "Great Han" derives from Samhan, referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula. However, the name Joseon was still used by Koreans to refer to their country, though it was no longer the official name. Under Japanese rule, the two names Han and Joseon coexisted. There were several groups who fought for independence, the most notable being the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea.
Following the surrender of Japan, in 1945, the Republic of Korea was adopted as the legal English name for the new country. Since the government only controlled the southern part of the Korean Peninsula, the informal term South Korea was coined, becoming common in the Western world. While South Koreans use Han to refer to the entire country, North Koreans and ethnic Koreans living in China and Japan use the term Joseon as the name of the country; the Korean name "Daehan Minguk" is sometimes used by South Koreans as a metonym to refer to the Korean ethnicity as a whole, rather than just the South Korean state. The history of Korea begins with the founding of Joseon in 2333 BCE by Dangun, according to Korea's foundation mythology. Gojoseon expanded until it controlled parts of Manchuria. Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in the 12th century BC, but its existence and role have been controversial in the modern era. In 108 BCE, the Han dynasty defeated Wiman Joseon and installed four commanderies in the n
A military base is a facility directly owned and operated by or for the military or one of its branches that shelters military equipment and personnel, facilitates training and operations. A military base provides accommodations for one or more units, but it may be used as a command center, training ground or proving ground. In most cases, military bases rely on outside help to operate. However, certain complex bases are able to endure on their own for long periods because they are able to provide food and other life support necessities for their inhabitants while under siege. Military bases for military aviation are called military air bases. Military bases for military ships are called naval bases. Military bases within the United States are considered federal property and are subject to federal law. Civilians living on military bases are subject to the civil and criminal laws of the states where the bases are located. Military bases can range from small outposts to military cities containing up to 100,000 people.
Military bases may belong to a different state than the territory surrounding it. The name used refers to the type of military activity that takes place at the base. A military base may go by any of a number of names, such as the following: Depending on the context, the term'military base' may refer to any establishment that houses a nation's armed forces, or organized paramilitary forces such as the Police, Militia, or Guards. Alternatively, the term may refer to an establishment, used only by an army to the exclusion of a base used by either an air force or a navy; this is consistent with the different meanings of the word'military'. Some examples of permanent military bases used by the navies and air forces of the world are the HMNB Portsmouth in Portsmouth, UK, the Naval Air Station Whidbey Island, Washington State, USA, or Ramstein Air Base, Germany. Other examples of non- or semi-permanent military bases include a Forward Operating Base, a Logistics Base and a Fire Base. A military base may contain large concentrations of military supplies in order to support military logistics.
Most military bases are restricted to the public and only authorized personnel may enter them. In addition to the main military facilities on a certain installation, military bases have various different facilities for military personnel; these facilities vary from country to country. Military bases can provide housing for a post office and dining facilities, they may provide support facilities such as fast food restaurants, gas stations, schools, thrift stores, a hospital or clinic, movie theaters, retail stores. Family, Morale and Recreation provides facilities such as fitness centers, golf courses, Travel centers, Community service centers, child development centers, youth centers, automotive workshops, hobby/arts and crafts centers, bowling centers, community centers. Bases used by the United States Air Force Reserve tend to be active USAF bases. However, there are a few Air Reserve Bases, such as Dobbins ARB, Grissom ARB, both of which are former active-duty USAF bases. Facilities of the Air National Guard are located on civil airports in a secure cantonment area not accessible to the general public, though some units are based on USAF bases, a few ANG-operated bases, such as Selfridge ANGB, Michigan.
Support facilities on Air National Guard and Air Force Reserve installations tend to not be as extensive as active bases. As an examples, 1) the Russian Sevastopol Naval Base comprises individual facilities located within the city of Sevastopol proper as well as an airfield at Kacha north of the city. An overseas military base is a military base, geographically located outside of the territory of the country whose armed forces are the principal occupants of the base; the use of overseas military base has throughout its history of usage been a contentious issue of debate, is a source of opposition for antimilitarists and nationalists in the host country. Such bases may be established by treaties between the governing power in the host country and another country which needs to establish the military base in the host country for various reasons strategic and logistic. Furthermore, overseas military bases serve as the source of the military brat subculture due to the children of the bases' occupant military being born or raised in the host country but raised with a remote parental knowledge of the occupant military's home country.
In the 18th and 19th Centuries the Royal Eng
Dongducheon is a city in Gyeonggi Province, South Korea. The city, to the north of Seoul, is strategically important for the defense of the Korean capital; the main camps of the United States Second Infantry Division are in the city, the division command is at Uijeongbu. Under Goguryeo, the dynasty's territory extended southward into Korean peninsula, Dongducheon became part of the kingdom in the form of naeulmae hyun. Dongducheon became Sacheon village of Unified Silla in the North-South States Period, it was part of the district of Yangju in Goryeo. In 1963, its status was raised to that of Tongducheon. In 1981, Dongducheon City was established. Since 1999, Dongducheon has annually hosted the Dongducheon Rock Festival, one of the biggest rock festivals in South Korea. In 2007, the festival was held at Camp Nimble, a former US Army installation returned to South Korea. A maple festival is held every autumn in several parts of the city. There are 10 high schools, 15 middle schools, 38 elementary schools, Hanbuk University.
Camp Casey Camp Castle Camp Hovey Camp Mobile Camp Nimble List of cities in South Korea Official city website
Not to be confused with Camp A. A. Humphreys in Virginia, now known as Fort Belvoir. Camp Humphreys known as United States Army Garrison-Humphreys, is a United States Army garrison located near Anjeong-ri and Pyeongtaek metropolitan areas in South Korea. Camp Humphreys is home to Desiderio Army Airfield, the busiest U. S. Army airfield with an 8,124-foot runway. In addition to the airfield, there are several U. S. Army direct support and tactical units located there, including the Combat Aviation Brigade, 2nd Infantry Division; the garrison cost US$11 billion. Camp Humphreys is the largest U. S. overseas military base, housing some 500 buildings and amenities. In 2004, an agreement was reached between the United States and South Korean governments to move all U. S. forces to garrisons south of the Han River and relocate the United States Forces Korea and United Nations Command Headquarters to Camp Humphreys. Those movements were expected to be completed by 2016 to transform Camp Humphreys into the largest U.
S. Army garrison in Asia, but as of 2018 this has not yet happened. Under that plan, the 28,500 U. S. troop presence in South Korea will be consolidated by 2016 and United States Forces Korea will move from Yongsan Garrison in Seoul to Camp Humphreys. Camp Humphreys is 40 miles south of the former base in Seoul and about 60 miles from the Demilitarized Zone that divides North and South Korea; that puts the base about twice as far from North Korea as its predecessor, one of the main reasons for the move. The town of Anjeong-ri is located adjacent to the Camp Humphreys main gate. Smaller farming villages are located along the perimeter; the installation covers an area of 1,210 acres. As part of the Yongsan Relocation Plan, that number will grow by 2,328 acres to 3,538 acres; the immediate area around Camp Humphreys is agricultural and consists of rice fields. There are some rolling hills in the vicinity, but for the most part the elevations are less than 150 feet. There is a small mountain range about seven miles south of Camp Humphreys, with peaks reaching 958 feet in elevation.
Larger mountains are located to the northeast and southwest, all within 20 miles with peaks reaching to 2,293 feet in elevation to the south and 1,000 feet in elevation to the southeast. Urban areas are situated to the northeast of the airfield. Seoul is located 55 miles northeast; the Ansong River flows from the east to west toward the West Sea and passes three miles northwest of the airfield. About 12 miles west of Camp Humphreys, the river widens and empties into the Asan Bay, near Koon-ni Range; the numerous areas of water around Camp Humphreys has an effect on the weather. The abundant moisture is responsible for stratus which occurs in the area; this is true from the spring through fall. The history of Camp Humphreys dates back to the beginning of the 20th century when, in 1919 the Japanese military built the Pyeongtaek Airfield. During the Korean War, Pyeongtaek Airfield was named K-6 after being repaired and enhanced by the U. S. Air Force to accommodate a U. S. Marine Air Group and the 614th Tactical Control Group.
In 1962, the base was renamed Camp Humphreys in honor of Chief Warrant Officer Benjamin K. Humphreys, a pilot assigned to the 6th Transportation Company, who died in a helicopter accident. In 1964, Humphreys District command was activated as a separate installation command of the Eighth U. S. Army providing all direct support and maintenance, storage of all conventional ammunition in Korea, Adjutant General publications and training aides and the Eighth U. S. Army Milk Plant. In 1974, with the activation of the 19th Support Brigade, Camp Humphreys was redesignated as U. S. Army Garrison, Camp Humphreys. USAG-Camp Humphreys was still responsible for all affairs affecting personnel stationed at Camp Humphreys, but the 19th Support Command was responsible for all support activities vital to the Eighth U. S. Army and its subordinate units; those units reporting to the 23rd Direct Support Group reported to the 19th Support Command in Daegu. Only the basic functions remained with USAG Camp Humphreys.
The 23rd Direct Support Group and 19th Support were renamed 23rd Support Group and 19th Theater Army Area Command. On 17 June 1996 the United States Army Support Activity Area III was established and made responsible for the peacetime support mission for Camp Humphreys, Camp Long, Camp Eagle and U. S. Army units assigned to Suwon Airbase. On 1 June 2005, the U. S. Army announced that Camps Long would close. Both camps were later closed on 4 June 2010, consolidating installation support activities on Camp Humphreys; the Daechuri Protests were a series of large protests against the South Korean and American governments' plan to expand Camp Humphreys to make it the main base for most U. S. troops in South Korea. It concluded when residents of Daechuri and other small villages near Pyeongtaek agreed to a government settlement to leave their homes in 2006 and allow for the base expansion. Compensation for the land averaged 600 million won per resident. Under a 2004 land-swap pact, the U. S. promised to return a combined 170 square kilometers of land housing 42 military bases and related facilities to South Korea and move U.
S. military forces from garrisons in and north of Seoul to Camp Humphreys. With the creation of the Installation Management Command on 24 October 2006, U. S. Army Support Activity Area III was redesignated as U. S. Army Garrison Humphreys and Area III on 15 March 2007. On 13 November 2007, USFK and South Korean officials conducted a groundbreaking ceremony for the expansion of Camp Humphreys. Under th
Gyeonggi-do is the most populous province in South Korea. Its name, Gyeonggi means "the area surrounding the capital", thus Gyeonggi-do can be translated as "province surrounding Seoul". The provincial capital is Suwon. Seoul—South Korea's largest city and national capital—is in the heart of the province but has been separately administered as a provincial-level special city since 1946. Incheon—South Korea's third-largest city—is on the coast of the province and has been administered as a provincial-level metropolitan city since 1981; the three jurisdictions are collectively referred to as Sudogwon and cover 11,730 km2, with a combined population of 25.5 million—amounting to over half of the entire population of South Korea. Gyeonggi-do has been a politically important area since 18 BCE, when Korea was divided into three nations during the Three Kingdoms period. Since King Onjo, the founder of Baekje, founded the government in Wiryeseong of Hanam, the Han River Valley was absorbed into Goguryeo in the mid-fifth century, became Silla's territory in the year 553.
Afterward, the current location of Gyeonggi-do, one of the nine states of Later Silla, was called Hansanju. The Gyeonggi region started to rise as the central region of Goryeo as King Taejo of Goryeo set up the capital in Gaesong. Since 1018, this area has been called "Gyeonggi." During the Joseon, founded after the Goryeo, King Taejo of Joseon set the capital in Hanyang, while restructuring Gyeonggi's area to include Gwangju, Suwon and Anseong, along with the southeast region. Since the period of King Taejong and Sejong the Great, the Gyeonggi region has been similar to the current administrative area of Gyeonggi-do. In 1895 the 23-Bu system, which reorganized administrative areas, was effected; the Gyeonggi region was divided into Hanseong, Chungju and Kaesong. During the Japanese colonial period, Hanseong-bu was incorporated into Gyeonggi-do. On October 1, 1910, it was renamed Keijo and a provincial government was placed in Keijo according to the reorganization of administrative districts. After liberation and the foundation of two Korean governments, Gyeonggi-do and its capital, were separated with partial regions of Gyeonggi-do being incorporated into Seoul thereafter.
Additionally, Kaesong became North Korean territory, the only city to change control after the countries were divided at the 38th parallel, now part of North Korea's North Hwanghae Province. In 1967 the seat of the Gyeonggi provincial government was transferred from Seoul to Suwon. After Incheon separated from Gyeonggi-do in 1981, Gyeonggi regions such as Ongjin County and Ganghwa County were incorporated into Incheon in 1995. Gyeonggi-do is the western central region of the Korean Peninsula, vertically situated in Northeast Asia and is between east longitude of 126 and 127, north latitude of 36 and 38, its dimension is 10 % of 10,171 square kilometres. It is in contact with 86 kilometres of cease-fire line to the north, 413 kilometres of coastline to the west, Gangwon-do to the east, Chungcheongbuk-do and Chungcheongnam-do to the south, has Seoul, the capital of the Republic of Korea, in its center, its provincial government is in Suwon, but some of its government buildings are in Uijeongbu for the administrative conveniences of the northern region.
The climate of Gyeonggi-do is the continental climate, which has a severe differentiation of temperature between summer and winter, has distinctions of four seasons. Spring is warm, summer is hot and humid, autumn is cool, winter is cold and snowy; the annual average temperature is between 11–13 °C, where the temperature in the mountainous areas to the northeast is lower and the coastal areas to the southwest is higher. For January's average temperature, the Gyeonggi Bay is −4 °C, the Namhangang Basin is −4 to −6 °C, the Bukhangang and Imjingang Basins are −6 to −8 °C, it becomes higher in temperature differentiation from coastal to inland areas. Summer has a lower local differentiation compared to winter; the inland areas are hotter than the Gyeonggi Bay area, the hottest area is Pyeongtaek, making the average temperature of August 26.5 °C. The annual average precipitation is around 1,100 millimetres, with a lot of rainfall, it is dry during winter. The northeastern inland areas of Bukhangang and the upper stream of Imjingang has a precipitation of 1,300–1,400 millimetres, whereas the coastal area has only 900 millimetres of precipitation.
The topography of Gyeonggi-do is divided into southern and northern areas by the Han River, which flows from east to west. The area north to the Han River is mountainous, while the southern area is plain; the configuration of Gyeonggi-do is represented by Dong-go-seo-jeo, where the Gwangju Mountain Range and the Charyeong Mountain Range spreads from the east and drops in elevation in the west. The fields of Gimpo and Pyeongtaek extend to the west. Gyeonggi-do boasts beautiful nature stocked with rivers, lakes and seas, its representative rivers are the Hangang and Anseongcheon, which flow into the Yellow Sea, with Gyeonggi Plain, Yeonbaek Plain and Anseong Plain forming a fertile field area around the rivers. The Gwangju Mountain Range and the Charyeong Mountain Range stre