Edison, New Jersey
Edison is a township in Middlesex County, New Jersey, United States, in the New York City metropolitan area. Situated in north-central New Jersey, Edison lies within the core of the Raritan Valley region; as of the 2010 United States Census, Edison had a total population of 99,967, retaining its position as the fifth-most populous municipality in New Jersey. The 2010 population reflected an increase of 2,280 from the 97,687 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 9,007 from the 88,680 counted in 1990. Edison's population has been above the 100,000 threshold since 2010, increasing by 2.5% to a Census-estimated 102,450 in 2017. What is now Edison Township was incorporated as Raritan Township by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on March 17, 1870, from portions of both Piscataway Township and Woodbridge Township. Portions of the township were taken to form Metuchen on March 20, 1900, Highland Park on March 15, 1905; the name was changed to Edison Township on November 10, 1954, in honor of inventor Thomas Edison, who had his main laboratory in the Menlo Park section of the township.
Edison was ranked the 28th most-livable small city in the United States by CNN Money Magazine, second in New Jersey in 2006 in Money Magazine's "Best Places To Live". In 2008, two years Money Magazine ranked the township 35th out of the top 100 places to live in the United States. In the 2006 survey of America's Safest Cities, the township was ranked 23rd, out of 371 cities included nationwide, in the 13th annual Morgan Quitno survey. In 2009, Edison was ranked as one of "America's 10 Best Places to Grow Up" by U. S. News & World Report; the rankings focused on low crime, strong schools, green spaces, abundance of recreational activities. Edison Township, comprising former sections of Piscataway and Woodbridge townships, was settled in the 17th century; the earliest village was Piscatawaytown, centered around St. James Church and the Piscatawaytown Common, near the intersection of Plainfield and Woodbridge avenues in south Edison; the Laing House of Plainfield Plantation, the Benjamin Shotwell House, the Homestead Farm at Oak Ridge, are buildings from the colonial era included in National Register of Historic Places listings in Middlesex County.
The community was known as "Raritan Township", not to be confused with the current-day Raritan Township in Hunterdon County. In 1876, Thomas Edison set up his home and research laboratory in New Jersey on the site of an unsuccessful real estate development in Raritan Township called "Menlo Park". While there he earned the nickname "the Wizard of Menlo Park." Before his death at age 83 in 1931, the prolific inventor amassed a record 1,093 patents for creations including the phonograph, a stock ticker, the motion-picture camera, the incandescent light bulb, a mechanical vote counter, the alkaline storage battery including one for an electric car, the first commercial electric light. The Menlo Park lab was significant in, one of the first laboratories to pursue practical, commercial applications of research, it was in his Menlo Park laboratory that Thomas Edison came up with the phonograph and a commercially viable incandescent light bulb filament. Christie Street was the first street in the world to use electric lights for illumination.
Edison subsequently left Menlo Park and moved his home and laboratory to West Orange in 1886. Near Piscatawaytown village, a portion of the Township was informally known as "Nixon," after Lewis Nixon, a manufacturer and community leader. Soon after the outbreak of World War I, Nixon established a massive volatile chemicals processing facility there, known as the Nixon Nitration Works, it was the site of the 1924 Nixon Nitration Works disaster, a massive explosion and resulting fire that killed 20 persons and destroyed several square miles of the Township. In 1954, the township's name was changed to honor inventor Thomas A. Edison. On the ballot in 1954 was a failed proposal to change the community's name to Nixon. Edison has been one of the fastest-growing municipalities in New Jersey; as of the 2000 United States Census, it was the fifth most-populated municipality in the state, after the cities of Newark, Jersey City and Elizabeth. Edison is a middle-class community with more than 75 ethnic communities represented.
Edison has a large Jewish community next to Highland Park, with multiple synagogues located in Edison. Edison has a growing Indian community and a number of temples serving the religious needs of the community. Reflecting the number of Edison's residents from India and China, the township has sister city arrangements with Shijiazhuang and Baroda, India. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township had a total area of 30.638 square miles, including 29.940 square miles of land and 0.698 square miles of water. Edison is on the east side of Raritan Valley, along with Plainfield, surrounds the borough of Metuchen, New Jersey, making it part of 21 pairs of "doughnut towns" in the state, where one municipality surrounds another; the township borders East Brunswick Township, Highland Park, New Brunswick, Piscataway Township, South Plainfield and Woodbridge Township in Middlesex County. Unincorporated communities and place names located or within the township include Bonhamtown, Camp Kilmer, Clara Barton, Eggert Mills, Haven Homes, Lincoln Park, Martins Landing, Menlo Park, New Dover, New Durham, Nixon Park, North Edison, Oak Tree, Potters, Pump
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
Middlesex County, New Jersey
Middlesex County is a county located in north- central New Jersey, United States. In 2017 the Census Bureau estimated the county's population at 842,798, making it the state's second-most populous county, an increase of 4.1% from 809,858 in the 2010 census. Middlesex is part of the New York metropolitan area, its county seat is New Brunswick; the center of population of the state of New Jersey is located in Middlesex County, in East Brunswick Township, just east of the New Jersey Turnpike. The 2000 Census showed that the county ranked 63rd in the United States among the highest-income counties by median household; the Bureau of Economic Analysis ranked the county as having the 143rd-highest per capita income of all 3,113 counties in the United States as of 2009. Middlesex County holds the nickname, "The Greatest County in the Land"; the county was settled due to its ideal location near the Raritan River and was established as of March 7, 1683, as part of the Province of East Jersey and was partitioned as of October 31, 1693, into the townships of Piscataway, Perth Amboy and Woodbridge.
Somerset County was established on May 1688, from portions of Middlesex County. The county's first court met in June 1683 in Piscataway, held session at alternating sites over the next century in Perth Amboy and Woodbridge before relocating permanently to New Brunswick in 1778. Middlesex County hosts an extensive park system totaling more than 6,300 acres. According to the 2010 Census, the county had a total area of 322.83 square miles, including 308.91 square miles of land and 13.91 square miles of water. The county is named after the historic English county of Middlesex. Bisected by the Raritan River, the county is topographically typical of Central Jersey in that it is flat; the elevation ranges from sea level to 300 feet above sea level on a hill scaled by Major Road/ Sand Hill Road near Route 1 in South Brunswick Township. Union County, New Jersey – north Monmouth County, New Jersey – southeast Mercer County, New Jersey – southwest Somerset County, New Jersey – northwest Richmond County, New York – northeast As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 809,858 people, 281,186 households, 203,016.292 families residing in the county.
The population density was 2,621.6 per square mile. There were 294,800 housing units at an average density of 954.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 58.60% White, 9.69% Black or African American, 0.34% Native American, 21.40% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 6.99% from other races, 2.95% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 18.40% of the population. There were 281,186 households out of which 34.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.9% were married couples living together, 11.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.8% were non-families. 22.5% of all households were made up of individuals, 8.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.8 and the average family size was 3.29. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.9% under the age of 18, 10.2% from 18 to 24, 28.3% from 25 to 44, 26.3% from 45 to 64, 12.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37.2 years.
For every 100 females there were 96.4 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 94 males; as of the 2010 Census, there were 170,070 people of Asian descent in Middlesex County accounting for 21% of the county's total population. At 61.57% of the population of Asian descent, Indian Americans accounted for a majority of the county's Asian population or 12.93% of the county's total population in 2010, increasing to 119,579 by 2015, more than that of the other sub-groups combined. Middlesex County had the largest population of Asian Indians of all counties in New Jersey. In Middlesex County, election ballots are printed in English, Gujarati and Punjabi. Middlesex County has the largest and fastest growing population of Chinese Americans of all counties in New Jersey, in places such as East Brunswick. Edison is developing a sprawling suburban Chinatown, with other Chinese communities spread out over the county; as of the 2000 United States Census there were 750,162 people, 265,815 households, 190,855 families residing in the county.
The population density was 2,422 people per square mile. There were 273,637 housing units at an average density of 884 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 68.42% White, 9.13% Black or African American, 0.20% Native American, 13.89% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 5.71% from other races, 2.60% from two or more races. 13.59% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Among residents listing their ancestry, 16.1% were of Italian, 13.8% Irish, 10.2% German and 9.8% Polish ancestry according to the 2000 Census. There were 265,815 households out of which 34.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.00% were married couples living together, 10.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.20% were non-families. 22.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.74 and the average family size was 3.23. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.70% under the age of 18, 9.50% from 18 to 24, 32.80% from 25 to 44, 21.70% from 45 to 64, 12.30% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age wa
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
New Brunswick, New Jersey
New Brunswick is a city in Middlesex County, New Jersey, United States, in the New York City metropolitan area. The city is the county seat of Middlesex County, the home of Rutgers University. New Brunswick is on the Northeast Corridor rail line, 27 miles southwest of Manhattan, on the southern bank of the Raritan River; as of 2016, New Brunswick had a Census-estimated population of 56,910, representing a 3.1% increase from the 55,181 people enumerated at the 2010 United States Census, which in turn had reflected an increase of 6,608 from the 48,573 counted in the 2000 Census. Due to the concentration of medical facilities in the area, including Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital and Saint Peter's University Hospital, as well as Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey's Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick is known as both the Hub City and the Healthcare City; the corporate headquarters and production facilities of several global pharmaceutical companies are situated in the city, including Johnson & Johnson and Bristol-Myers Squibb.
New Brunswick is noted for its ethnic diversity. At one time, one quarter of the Hungarian population of New Jersey resided in the city and in the 1930s one out of three city residents was Hungarian; the Hungarian community continues to exist, alongside growing Asian and Hispanic communities that have developed around French Street near Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital. The area around present-day New Brunswick was first inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans; the first European settlement at the site of New Brunswick was made in 1681. The settlement here was called Prigmore's Swamp known as Inian's Ferry. In 1714, the settlement was given the name New Brunswick, after the city of Braunschweig, in state of Lower Saxony, in Germany. Braunschweig was an influential and powerful city in the Hanseatic League and was an administrative seat for the Duchy of Hanover. Shortly after the first settlement of New Brunswick in colonial New Jersey, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Elector of Hanover, became King George I of Great Britain.
Alternatively, the city gets its name from King George II of Great Britain, the Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Centrally located between New York City and Philadelphia along an early thoroughfare known as the King's Highway and situated along the Raritan River, New Brunswick became an important hub for Colonial travelers and traders. New Brunswick was incorporated as a town in 1736 and chartered as a city in 1784, it was incorporated into a town in 1798 as part of the Township Act of 1798. It was occupied by the British in the winter of 1776–1777 during the Revolutionary War; the Declaration of Independence received one of its first public readings, by Col. John Neilson, in New Brunswick on July 9, 1776, in the days following its promulgation by the Continental Congress; the Trustees of Queen's College, founded in 1766, voted to locate the young college in New Brunswick, selecting the city over Hackensack, in Bergen County, New Jersey. Classes began in 1771 with one instructor, one sophomore, Matthew Leydt, several freshmen at a tavern called the'Sign of the Red Lion' on the corner of Albany and Neilson Streets.
The Sign of the Red Lion was purchased on behalf of Queens College in 1771, sold to the estate of Jacob Rutsen Hardenbergh in 1791. Classes were held through the American Revolution in various taverns and boarding houses, at a building known as College Hall on George Street, until Old Queens was erected in 1808, it remains the oldest building on the Rutgers University campus. The Queen's College Grammar School was established in 1766, shared facilities with the College until 1830, when it located in a building across College Avenue from Old Queens. After Rutgers University became the state university of New Jersey in 1945, the Trustees of Rutgers divested itself of Rutgers Preparatory School, which relocated in 1957 to an estate purchased from the Colgate-Palmolive Company in Franklin Township in neighboring Somerset County; the New Brunswick Theological Seminary, founded in 1784 in New York, moved to New Brunswick in 1810, sharing its quarters with the fledgling Queen's College. The Seminary, due to overcrowding and differences over the mission of Rutgers College as a secular institution, moved to tract of land covering 7 acres located less than one-half mile west, which it still occupies, although the land is now in the middle of Rutgers University's College Avenue campus.
New Brunswick was formed by royal charter on December 30, 1730, within other townships in Middlesex and Somerset counties and was reformed by royal charter with the same boundaries on February 12, 1763, at which time it was divided into north and south wards. New Brunswick was incorporated as a city by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on September 1, 1784; the existence of an African American community in New Brunswick dates back to the 18th century, when racial slavery was a part of life in the city and the surrounding area. Local slaveholders bought and sold African American children and men in New Brunswick in the late-eighteenth and early-nineteenth century. In this period, the Market-House was the center of commercial life in the city, it was located at the corner of Queen Street adjacent to the Raritan Wharf. The site was a place where residents of New Brunswick sold and traded their goods which made it an integral part of the city's economy; the Market-House also
78th Infantry Division (United States)
The 78th Training Division is a unit of the United States Army which served in World War I and World War II as the 78th Infantry Division, trains and evaluates units of the United States Army Reserve for deployment. Constituted 5 August 1917 in the National Army as Headquarters, 78th Division Organized 23 August 1917 at Camp Dix, New Jersey Demobilized 9 July 1919 at Camp Dix, New Jersey Reconstituted 24 June 1921 in the Organized Reserves as Headquarters, 78th Division Organized in November 1921 at Newark, New Jersey Redesignated 20 February 1942 as Division Headquarters, 78th Division Ordered into active military service 15 August 1942 and reorganized at Camp Butner, North Carolina. A portion of Interstate 78 in Pennsylvania is named after the 78th division; the 78th Division of the United States Army was activated on 23 August 1917 at New Jersey. It consisted of four infantry regiments – the 309th, 310th, 311th and 312th and three artillery Regiments – the 307th, 308th and 309th; the division was allocated to New York and northern Pennsylvania in the National Army plan.
Whilst the HQ of the 78th Division was activated in August, with the first draftees arriving in September, it was not active until early 1918. It was transported to France in May and June 1918. In France, during the summer and fall of 1918, it was the "point of the wedge" of the final offensive which knocked out Germany; the 78th was in three major campaigns during World War I – Meuse-Argonne, St. Mihiel, Lorraine. Demobilization at the end of the war took place in June 1919. Activated: 27 August 1917. Overseas: May 1918. Major Operations: Meuse-Argonne, St. Mihiel. Roll of Honor: two Medal of Honor recipients Casualties: Total-7,144. Commanders: Maj. Gen. C. W. Kennedy, Brig. Gen. J. S. Mallory, Brig. Gen. James T. Dean, Maj. Gen. Hugh L. Scott, Brig. Gen. James T. Dean, Maj. Gen. J. H. McRae. Inactivated: June 1919. Headquarters, 78th Division 155th Infantry Brigade 309th Infantry Regiment 310th Infantry Regiment 308th Machine Gun Battalion 156th Infantry Brigade 311th Infantry Regiment 312th Infantry Regiment 309th Machine Gun Battalion 153rd Field Artillery Brigade 307th Field Artillery Regiment 308th Field Artillery Regiment 309th Field Artillery Regiment 303rd Trench Mortar Battery 307th Machine Gun Battalion 303rd Engineer Regiment 303rd Field Signal Battalion Headquarters Troop, 78th Division 303rd Train Headquarters and Military Police 303rd Ammunition Train 303rd Supply Train 303rd Engineer Train 303rd Sanitary Train 309th, 310th, 311th, 312th Ambulance Companies and Field Hospitals The division was reconstituted in the Organized Reserve on 24 June 1921 and assigned to the states of Delaware and New Jersey In World War II, the 78th Division was ordered into active military service at Camp Butner, North Carolina on 15 August 1942.
It was designated as a replacement pool division on 1 October 1942, remained in this assignment until 1 March 1943, when the 78th Division was restored to field duty, to its training regimen. 78th Division moved to the Carolina Maneuver Area on 15 November 1943 to test its training, returned to Camp Butner on 7 December 1943. The personnel went on Christmas leave, deployed to the Tennessee Maneuver Area on 25 January 1944, where they participated in the 5th Second Army Tennessee Maneuvers, they moved to Camp Pickett, where they filled their TO&E deployed to the staging area at Camp Kilmer, NJ on 4 October 1944. After two years as a training division, the 78th embarked for the European Theatre from the New York POE on 14 October 1944, whereupon they sailed for England, they arrived on 26 October 1944, after further training crossed to France on 22 November 1944. After landing in France, the division moved to Tongeren, Belgium on 27 November 1944, to Roetgen, Germany on 7 December 1944, to
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea