September 11 attacks
The September 11 attacks were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001. The attacks killed 2,996 people, injured over 6,000 others, caused at least $10 billion in infrastructure and property damage. Additional people died of 9/11-related cancer and respiratory diseases in the months and years following the attacks. Four passenger airliners operated by two major U. S. passenger air carriers —all of which departed from airports in the northeastern United States bound for California—were hijacked by 19 al-Qaeda terrorists. Two of the planes, American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175, were crashed into the North and South towers of the World Trade Center complex in Lower Manhattan. Within an hour and 42 minutes, both 110-story towers collapsed. Debris and the resulting fires caused a partial or complete collapse of all other buildings in the World Trade Center complex, including the 47-story 7 World Trade Center tower, as well as significant damage to ten other large surrounding structures.
A third plane, American Airlines Flight 77, was crashed into the Pentagon in Arlington County, which led to a partial collapse of the building's west side. The fourth plane, United Airlines Flight 93, was flown toward Washington, D. C. but crashed into a field in Stonycreek Township near Shanksville, after its passengers thwarted the hijackers. 9/11 is the single deadliest terrorist attack in human history and the single deadliest incident for firefighters and law enforcement officers in the history of the United States, with 343 and 72 killed, respectively. Suspicion fell on al-Qaeda; the United States responded by launching the War on Terror and invaded Afghanistan to depose the Taliban, which had failed to comply with U. S. demands to extradite Osama bin expel al-Qaeda from Afghanistan. Many countries strengthened their anti-terrorism legislation and expanded the powers of law enforcement and intelligence agencies to prevent terrorist attacks. Although Osama bin Laden, al-Qaeda's leader denied any involvement, in 2004 he claimed responsibility for the attacks.
Al-Qaeda and bin Laden cited U. S. support of Israel, the presence of U. S. troops in Saudi Arabia, sanctions against Iraq as motives. After evading capture for a decade, bin Laden was located in Pakistan and killed by SEAL Team Six of the U. S. Navy in May 2011; the destruction of the World Trade Center and nearby infrastructure harmed the economy of Lower Manhattan and had a significant effect on global markets, which resulted in the closing of Wall Street until September 17 and the civilian airspace in the U. S. and Canada until September 13. Many closings and cancellations followed, out of respect or fear of further attacks. Cleanup of the World Trade Center site was completed in May 2002, the Pentagon was repaired within a year. On November 18, 2006, construction of One World Trade Center began at the World Trade Center site; the building was opened on November 3, 2014. Numerous memorials have been constructed, including the National September 11 Memorial & Museum in New York City, the Pentagon Memorial in Arlington County and the Flight 93 National Memorial in a field in Stonycreek Township near Shanksville, Pennsylvania.
Although not confirmed, there is evidence of alleged Saudi Arabian involvement in the attacks. Given as main evidence in these charges are the contents of the 28 redacted pages of the December 2002 Joint Inquiry into Intelligence Community Activities before and after the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001 conducted by the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence; these 28 pages contain information regarding the material and financial assistance given to the hijackers and their affiliates leading up to the attacks by the Saudi Arabian government. The origins of al-Qaeda can be traced to 1979. Osama bin Laden helped organize Arab mujahideen to resist the Soviets. Under the guidance of Ayman al-Zawahiri, bin Laden became more radical. In 1996, bin Laden issued his first fatwā. In a second fatwā in 1998, bin Laden outlined his objections to American foreign policy with respect to Israel, as well as the continued presence of American troops in Saudi Arabia after the Gulf War.
Bin Laden used Islamic texts to exhort Muslims to attack Americans until the stated grievances are reversed. Muslim legal scholars "have throughout Islamic history unanimously agreed that the jihad is an individual duty if the enemy destroys the Muslim countries", according to bin Laden. Bin Laden orchestrated the attacks and denied involvement but recanted his false statements. Al Jazeera broadcast a statement by bin Laden on September 16, 2001, stating, "I stress that I have not carried out this act, which appears to have been carried out by individuals with their own motivation." In November 2001, U. S. forces recovered a videotape from a destroyed house in Afghanistan. In the video, bin Laden admits foreknowledge of the attacks. On December 27, 2001, a second bin Laden video was released. In the video, he said: It has become clear that the West in general and America in particular have an unspeakable hatred for Islam.... It is the hatred of crusaders. Terrorism against America deserves to be praised because it was a response to injustice, aimed at forcing America to stop its support for Israel, which kills our people....
Frontline (U.S. TV program)
Frontline is the flagship investigative journalism program of the Public Broadcasting Service, producing in-depth documentaries on a variety of domestic and international stories and issues, broadcasting them on air and online. Produced at WGBH-TV in Boston and distributed through PBS in the United States, the critically acclaimed program has received every major award in broadcast journalism, its investigations have helped breathe new life into terrorism cold cases, freed innocent people from jail, prompted U. N. resolutions, spurred both policy and social change. Since the program's debut in 1983, Frontline has broadcast for 35 seasons, producing over 600 documentaries from both in-house and independent filmmakers; the program has produced original digital reporting and analysis, worked to innovate the documentary form through interactive documentaries and virtual reality journalism projects. More than 200 Frontline documentaries are available on the program's website, with new Frontline documentaries made available for free online streaming at the same time as their PBS television broadcast.
The program debuted in 1983, with NBC anchorwoman Jessica Savitch as the show's first host, but Savitch died after the first-season finale. PBS NewsHour's Judy Woodruff took over as host in 1984, hosted the program for five years, combining her job with a sub anchor place on The MacNeil-Lehrer NewsHour when Jim Lehrer was away. In 1990, episodes of Frontline began airing without a host, the narrator was left to introduce each episode. Since 1988, Frontline has aired "The Choice"—a special edition aired during the lead-up to the presidential election every four years, focusing on the Democratic and Republican candidates contending for the office of President of the United States. "The Choice 2016" is the most recent installment, aired on September 27, 2016, featuring Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump. The previous version aired on October 9, 2012, featured a dual biography tracing the lives and careers of incumbent President Barack Obama and his challenger, Mitt Romney. A prior installment aired on October 14, 2008, using the same dual-biography format for Barack Obama and John McCain.
The 2008 documentary, produced by Michael Kirk, generated favorable reviews from The New York Times, which stated that the program helped viewers "gain perspective" about the "idea-oriented campaign", Los Angeles Times, which labeled it "refreshingly clear" and "informative". Most Frontline reports are an hour in length, but some are extended to 90 minutes, 2 hours, or beyond. Frontline produces and transmits such occasional specials as From Jesus to Christ, The Farmer's Wife, Country Boys. Since 1995, Frontline has been producing deep-content, companion web sites for all of its documentaries; the program publishes extended interview transcripts, in-depth chronologies, original essays, sidebar stories, related links and readings, source documents including photographs and background research. Frontline has made many of its documentaries available via streaming Internet video, from its website. Will Lyman is the distinctive voice who has narrated most of the installments of the program since its inception in 1983.
However, certain reports have been narrated by David Ogden Peter Berkrot. The show is produced by the WGBH Educational Foundation, the parent company of WGBH-TV in Boston, responsible for its content. WGBH is the creator of The Documentary Consortium, with another 4 PBS stations, including WNET in New York and KCTS in Seattle. In 2015, the creator and founding executive producer of Frontline, David Fanning, retired after more than 32 years as executive producer of the program, Raney Aronson-Rath succeeded him in senior grade. Fanning, remains editor-at-large of Frontline as a founding member. On September 14, 2017, the program launched; the podcast is a production of PBS and WGBH in Boston alongside PRX. Frontline/World is a spin-off program from Frontline, first transmitted on May 23, 2002, transmitted four to eight times a year on Frontline until it was canceled in 2010, it focused on issues from around the globe, used a "magazine" format, where each hour-long episode had three stories that ran about 15 to 20 minutes in length.
Its tagline was: Stories from a small planet. A co-production of WGBH, Boston and KQED, San Francisco, Frontline/World was based in part at the University of California at Berkeley's Graduate School of Journalism, where the program's producers recruited a new generation of reporters and producers to the Frontline program. Frontline/World streamed stories on its website, which won two Webby awards in 2008 for its original program of online videos called "Rough Cuts." In 2005, the Overseas Press Club of America gave the program its Edward R. Murrow Award for the best TV coverage of international events, citing producers David Fanning, Stephen Talbot, Sharon Tiller and Ken Dornstein; the program broke new ground in 2007 by winning two Emmys. Other Frontline reports focus on political and criminal justice issues. Ofra Bikel, a producer for Frontline since the first season, has produced a significant number of films on the criminal justice system in the United States; the films have focused on issues ranging from post-conviction DNA testing, the use of drug snitches and mandatory minimum sentencing laws, the plea system, the use of eyewitness testimony.
As a result of the films, 13 people have been released from prison. After the September 11 attacks, the White House requested a copy of "Hunting Bin Laden". In 1999, Frontlin
The Washington Post
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper published in Washington, D. C. with a particular emphasis on national politics and the federal government. It has the largest circulation in the Washington metropolitan area, its slogan "Democracy Dies in Darkness" began appearing on its masthead in 2017. Daily broadsheet editions are printed for the District of Columbia and Virginia; the newspaper has won 47 Pulitzer Prizes. This includes six separate Pulitzers awarded in 2008, second only to The New York Times' seven awards in 2002 for the highest number awarded to a single newspaper in one year. Post journalists have received 18 Nieman Fellowships and 368 White House News Photographers Association awards. In the early 1970s, in the best-known episode in the newspaper's history, reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein led the American press' investigation into what became known as the Watergate scandal, their reporting in The Washington Post contributed to the resignation of President Richard Nixon.
In years since, the Post's investigations have led to increased review of the Walter Reed Army Medical Center. In October 2013, the paper's longtime controlling family, the Graham family, sold the newspaper to Nash Holdings, a holding company established by Jeff Bezos, for $250 million in cash; the Washington Post is regarded as one of the leading daily American newspapers, along with The New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, The Wall Street Journal. The Post has distinguished itself through its political reporting on the workings of the White House and other aspects of the U. S. government. Unlike The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post does not print an edition for distribution away from the East Coast. In 2009, the newspaper ceased publication of its National Weekly Edition, which combined stories from the week's print editions, due to shrinking circulation; the majority of its newsprint readership is in the District of Columbia and its suburbs in Maryland and Northern Virginia.
The newspaper is one of a few U. S. newspapers with foreign bureaus, located in Beirut, Beijing, Bogotá, Hong Kong, Jerusalem, London, Mexico City, Nairobi, New Delhi and Tokyo. In November 2009, it announced the closure of its U. S. regional bureaus—Chicago, Los Angeles and New York—as part of an increased focus on "political stories and local news coverage in Washington." The newspaper has local bureaus in Virginia. As of May 2013, its average weekday circulation was 474,767, according to the Audit Bureau of Circulations, making it the seventh largest newspaper in the country by circulation, behind USA Today, The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, the Daily News, the New York Post. While its circulation has been slipping, it has one of the highest market-penetration rates of any metropolitan news daily. For many decades, the Post had its main office at 1150 15th Street NW; this real estate remained with Graham Holdings when the newspaper was sold to Jeff Bezos' Nash Holdings in 2013.
Graham Holdings sold 1150 15th Street for US$159 million in November 2013. The Washington Post continued to lease space at 1150 L Street NW. In May 2014, The Washington Post leased the west tower of One Franklin Square, a high-rise building at 1301 K Street NW in Washington, D. C; the newspaper moved into their new offices December 14, 2015. The Post has its own exclusive zip code, 20071. Arc Publishing is a department of the Post, which provides the publishing system, software for news organizations such as the Chicago Tribune and the Los Angeles Times; the newspaper was founded in 1877 by Stilson Hutchins and in 1880 added a Sunday edition, becoming the city's first newspaper to publish seven days a week. In 1889, Hutchins sold the newspaper to Frank Hatton, a former Postmaster General, Beriah Wilkins, a former Democratic congressman from Ohio. To promote the newspaper, the new owners requested the leader of the United States Marine Band, John Philip Sousa, to compose a march for the newspaper's essay contest awards ceremony.
Sousa composed "The Washington Post". It became the standard music to accompany the two-step, a late 19th-century dance craze, remains one of Sousa's best-known works. In 1893, the newspaper moved to a building at 14th and E streets NW, where it would remain until 1950; this building combined all functions of the newspaper into one headquarters – newsroom, advertising and printing – that ran 24 hours per day. In 1898, during the Spanish–American War, the Post printed Clifford K. Berryman's classic illustration Remember the Maine, which became the battle-cry for American sailors during the War. In 1902, Berryman published another famous cartoon in the Post—Drawing the Line in Mississippi; this cartoon depicts President Theodore Roosevelt showing compassion for a small bear cub and inspired New York store owner Morris Michtom to create the teddy bear. Wilkins acquired Hatton's share of the newspaper in 1894 at Hatton's death. After Wilkins' death in 1903, his sons John and Robert ran the Post for two years before selling it in 1905 to John Roll McLean, owner of the Cincinnati Enquirer.
During the Wilson presidency, the Post was credited with the "most famous newspaper typo" in D. C. history according to Reason magazine. When John McLean died in 1916, he put the newspap
The Geneva Conventions comprise four treaties, three additional protocols, that establish the standards of international law for humanitarian treatment in war. The singular term Geneva Convention denotes the agreements of 1949, negotiated in the aftermath of the Second World War, which updated the terms of the two 1929 treaties, added two new conventions; the Geneva Conventions extensively defined the basic rights of wartime prisoners, established protections for the wounded and sick, established protections for the civilians in and around a war-zone. The treaties of 1949 were ratified, by 196 countries. Moreover, the Geneva Convention defines the rights and protections afforded to non-combatants, because the Geneva Conventions are about people in war, the articles do not address warfare proper—the use of weapons of war—which is the subject of the Hague Conventions, the bio-chemical warfare Geneva Protocol; the Swiss businessman Henry Dunant went to visit wounded soldiers after the Battle of Solferino in 1859.
He was shocked by the lack of facilities and medical aid available to help these soldiers. As a result, he published his book, A Memory of Solferino, on the horrors of war, his wartime experiences inspired Dunant to propose: A permanent relief agency for humanitarian aid in times of war A government treaty recognizing the neutrality of the agency and allowing it to provide aid in a war zoneThe former proposal led to the establishment of the Red Cross in Geneva. The latter led to the 1864 Geneva Convention, the first codified international treaty that covered the sick and wounded soldiers in the battlefield. On 22 August 1864, the Swiss government invited the governments of all European countries, as well as the United States and Mexico, to attend an official diplomatic conference. Sixteen countries sent a total of twenty-six delegates to Geneva. On 22 August 1864, the conference adopted the first Geneva Convention "for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded in Armies in the Field".
Representatives of 12 states and kingdoms signed the convention: For both of these accomplishments, Henry Dunant became corecipient of the first Nobel Peace Prize in 1901. On 20 October 1868 the first, attempt to expand the 1864 treaty was undertaken. With the'Additional Articles relating to the Condition of the Wounded in War' an attempt was initiated to clarify some rules of the 1864 convention and to extend them to maritime warfare; the Articles was only ratified by the Netherlands and North America. The Netherlands withdrew their ratification; the protection of the victims of maritime warfare would be realized by the third Hague Convention of 1899 and the tenth Hague Convention of 1907. In 1906 thirty-five states attended. On 6 July 1906 it resulted in the adoption of the "Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armies in the Field", which improved and supplemented, for the first time, the 1864 convention, it remained in force until 1970. The 1929 conference yielded two conventions that were signed on 27 July 1929.
One, the "Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armies in the Field", was the third version to replace the original convention of 1864. The other was adopted after experiences in World War I had shown the deficiencies in the protection of prisoners of war under the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907; the "Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War" was not to replace these earlier conventions signed at The Hague, rather it supplemented them. Inspired by the wave of humanitarian and pacifistic enthusiasm following World War II and the outrage towards the war crimes disclosed by the Nuremberg Trials, a series of conferences were held in 1949 reaffirming and updating the prior Geneva and Hague Conventions, it yielded four distinct conventions: The First Geneva Convention "for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field" was the fourth update of the original 1864 convention and replaced the 1929 convention on the same subject matter.
The Second Geneva Convention "for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea" replaced the Hague Convention of 1907. It was the first Geneva Convention on the protection of the victims of maritime warfare and mimicked the structure and provisions of the First Geneva Convention; the Third Geneva Convention "relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War" replaced the 1929 Geneva Convention that dealt with prisoners of war. In addition to these three conventions, the conference added a new elaborate Fourth Geneva Convention "relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War", it was the first Geneva Convention not to deal with combatants, rather it had the protection of civilians as its subject matter. The 1899 and 1907 Hague Conventions had contained some provisions on the protection of civilians and occupied territory. Article 154 provides that the Fourth Geneva Convention is supplementary to these provisions in the Hague Conventions.
Despite the length of these documents, they were found over time to be incomplete. In fact, the nature of armed conflicts had changed with the beginning of the Cold War era, leading many to believe that the 1949 Geneva Conventions were addressing a extinct reality: on the one hand, most armed conflicts had
Michael R. Lehnert
Major General Michael R. Lehnert is a retired major general of the United States Marine Corps, he graduated from Central Michigan University in 1973 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in history and was commissioned a Second Lieutenant through the Platoon Leader Course program. After attending the Marine Officers Basic School in Quantico, Virginia, he was transferred to Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. Assignments at Camp Lejeune included: engineer platoon commander and maintenance officer LSU-32 and S-4, H&S Battalion, 2nd FSSG. Assigned to 9th Engineer Support Battalion in Okinawa, Japan, he served as Battalion Operations Officer and finished his tour as commander Company A, 9th Engineers. In 1977, he was ordered to Marine Barracks, Subic Bay, Republic of the Philippines as the Operations Officer. In 1978, he took command of Marine Barracks, Subic Bay. In 1979, he attended the U. S. Army Advanced Engineer School at Fort Belvoir, Virginia. After graduation, he served as USMC Recruiting Station, San Antonio, Texas.
He was transferred to Camp Pendleton, California in 1983 and held the following assignments from 1983 to 1986: Company Commander, Company C, 1st Landing Support Battalion. In 1987, he was selected for Armed Forces Staff College. After graduation, he was assigned to the United States Southern Command in the J-3 Operations Directorate as Chief, Central American Exercise Branch. During the Panama crisis, he participated in Operation Promote Liberty, he was reassigned in 1990 as Inspector-Instructor, 6th Engineer Support Battalion, Oregon. He was selected for top level school, completed the Naval War College in 1993 with the award of a Master's degree. In 1993, he was assigned to the Joint Warfighting Center in Norfolk, Virginia where he served as the Chief of the Futures Branch, Doctrine Division. In 1995, he reported to the 2nd Marine Aircraft Wing and participated in Operation Sea Signal, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba as Commander, Joint Task Group Bulkeley, JTF 160. Where he commanded the security forces responsible for operation of Haitian migrant camps.
He commanded Marine Wing Support Group 27 at Cherry Point, North Carolina from May 23, 1996 to May 28, 1998. He was reassigned as the Deputy Chief of Staff, G-4 II MEF. In 1999, he deployed to Panama as the Chief of Staff, Joint Task Force Panama to oversee the final turnover of the Canal and the remaining military bases, his first tour as a general officer was at Headquarters Marine Corps, where he served as the Assistant Deputy Commandant for Installations and Logistics. He took command of 2nd Force Service Support Group in July 2001 and in January 2002, he deployed to Guantanamo Bay, Cuba as Commander, Joint Task Force 160. JTF 160's mission was to construct and operate the detention facilities for Taliban and Al Queda detainees. While in command of the detention facility, he endeavoured to ensure that the provisions of the Geneva Convention were applied, in the face of opposition from defense secretary Donald Rumsfeld, inviting the ICRC to visit and advise on conditions of detention, appointing a Muslim chaplain and creating an ethos of human decency.
In 2003, he deployed with the 2d FSSG to the CENTCOM theater and participated in Operation Iraqi Freedom as Commander, Marine Logistics Command. He served as Chief of Staff,United States Southern Command, Florida, his most recent assignment was as Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California. Decorations include: This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Marine Corps."Major General Michael R. Lehnert, Marine Corps Installations West". Biographies: General Officers and Senior Executives. Manpower & Reserve Affairs, United States Marine Corps. Archived from the original on 2012-02-20. Retrieved 2006-11-19
Camp four (Guantanamo)
Camp four is one of the camps that make up the complex of camps for captives held in extrajudicial detention in the United States' Guantanamo Bay detention camps, in Cuba. Camp four is the camp that most resembles a traditional Prisoner of War camp. Captives held there live in communal dormitories, have day long access to communal exercise yard and books. Camp authorities only allowed the captives; the captives in Camp four are allowed to wear white or tan uniforms which distinguish them from the orange uniforms "non-compliant" captives wear. On May 19, 2006 a skirmish took place in Bay 1, Zulu Block of Camp IV. A ten-person "quick reaction force" entered bay 1 in response to a possible suicide attempt. A scuffle ensued for about five minutes between the team and the occupants, which escalated to the use of tear gas, non-lethal bullets, "bean bags" against light fixtures and fan blades. Six occupants were treated for minor injuries
Camp Delta (Guantanamo Bay)
Camp Delta is a permanent American detainment camp at Guantanamo Bay that replaced the temporary facilities of Camp X-Ray. Its first facilities were built between 27 February and mid-April 2002 by Navy Seabees, Marine Engineers, workers from Halliburton subsidiary Kellogg and Root, it is composed of detention camps 1 through 6, Camp Platinum, Camp Iguana, the Guantanamo psychiatric ward, Camp Echo and Camp No. The prisoners, referred to as detainees, have uncertain rights due to their location not on American soil. There are allegations of abuse of prisoners. Most of the security forces are U. S. Army military police, U. S. Navy Masters-at-Arms; the camps have different levels of comfort. Detainees are quartered in different parts of Camp Delta according to their level of cooperation with guards and interrogators, with the exception of newly arriving detainees who always go to maximum security in Camp 3. Thereafter, cooperative detainees are moved to Camp 2 and Camp 1 as rewards for cooperation.
When detainees cooperate and are thought to show no security risk they can be moved to the buildings of Camp 4, which have a shower and lavatory, plus four communal living rooms for 10 detainees each. In Camp 4, each detainee has a locker. Camp 4 detainees may eat their meals together, instead of alone in their own cells as in the other camps, Camp 4 detainees are set apart by their white jump suits, in contrast to the orange worn by detainees in other camps. In addition to these benefits, detainees are allowed special meal supplements to their diets, along with longer shower periods and longer exercise periods. Camp one is one of the camps where the United States held detainees classified as "enemy combatants in extrajudicial detention". Although the camp was reported to have been closed, Human Rights Watch reported in June 2008 that it houses non-compliant detainees. At that time they said. Camp three is one of the camps that held detainees classified as "enemy combatants in extrajudicial detention."Although the camp was closed in 2006, Human Rights Watch reported in June 2008 that it was used to house half a dozen non-compliant detainees who had to be housed in isolation.
The detainees' cells were sufficiently isolated from one another that they could not see one another. Camp four is the camp that most resembles a traditional Prisoner of War camp. Captives held there live in communal dormitories, have day long access to communal exercise yard and books. Camp authorities only allow the captives they considered "compliant" to stay in camp four and they are allowed to wear white or tan uniforms which distinguish them from the orange uniforms "non-compliant" captives wear. According to Commander Jeff Hayhurst, deputy commander of the Guard force, "...the camp opened in 2004, cost $17.5 million. It's modeled on a max security facility in Terre Haute, Indiana." The camp was built by Kellogg and Root. Hayhurst said. In September 2006, National Public Radio reported that the camp could hold 100 detainees, was about half full; the press was told the fourteen "high value detainees" transferred from CIA custody on 5 September 2006 were held in Camp five. But they were in fact held in a small, ultra high security facility – Camp seven.
The Department of Defense reports that Mohammad Ahmed Abdullah Saleh Al Hanashi committed suicide in camp five on 1 June 2009. Camp Five Echo is a "disciplinary block" for "non-compliant" prisoners. Lawyers claim that the cells are too small to be regarded as humane, that the toilets are inadequate, the lights are too bright and the air in the cells is foul; the cells are only half the size of the cells in Camp Five and have squat toilets in the floor instead of standard prison toilets. David Remes described Camp Five Echo in 2011 as violating the Geneva Conventions, called it "a throwback to the bad old days at Guantánamo." Camp Six, constructed by Halliburton, was modeled on US Federal medium-security penitentiaries. It was constructed to have individual cells that surrounded and looked in on a communal mess area, where it was planned compliant detainees could interact for part of the day. However, while the building was still under construction, the decision was made to confine all detainees to their cells, except when they were taken to shower, taken for solitary exercise, or for official business.
The communal areas were left unused. This transformed the facility to a high-security facility. In April 2010 The Guardian published a photo essay that showed that a TV had been installed in the common areas. Detainees were shackled to the floor during their TV privileges. Camp Seven known as Camp Platinum, is an isolated outpost off-limits from the Pentagon's media tour. A group of six military lawyers representing prisoners at Camp seven concluded in February 2012 that the conditions at the camp fall short of the minimum guarantees of humane treatment under the Geneva Conventions. Administrative Review Board Combatant Status Review Tribunal Guantanamo military commissions Platt Amendment – Document that Guarantees U. S. Navy use in Cuba Qur'an desecration controversy of 2005 Camp Delta Standard Operating Procedures Camp Delta: Still in Need of Closure by James Day, Daily Metro, 15 July 2009 Photos – Inside Camp Delta, Guantanamo Bay