Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Harley-Davidson, Inc. or Harley, is an American motorcycle manufacturer, founded in Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 1903. One of two major American motorcycle manufacturers to survive the Great Depression, the company has survived numerous ownership arrangements, subsidiary arrangements, periods of poor economic health and product quality, as well as intense global competition, to become one of the world's largest motorcycle manufacturers and an iconic brand known for its loyal following. There are events worldwide as well as a company-sponsored brand-focused museum. Noted for a style of customization that gave rise to the chopper motorcycle style, Harley-Davidson traditionally marketed heavyweight, air-cooled cruiser motorcycles with engine displacements greater than 700 cm³ and has broadened its offerings to include its more contemporary VRSC and middle-weight Street platforms. Harley-Davidson manufactures its motorcycles at factories in Pennsylvania. Construction of a new plant in Thailand is scheduled to begin in late 2018.
The company markets its products worldwide. Besides motorcycles, the company licenses and markets merchandise under the Harley-Davidson brand, among them apparel, home decor and ornaments, accessories and scale figures of its motorcycles, video games based on its motorcycle line and the community. In 1901, 20-year-old William S. Harley drew up plans for a small engine with a displacement of 7.07 cubic inches and four-inch flywheels. The engine was designed for use in a regular pedal-bicycle frame. Over the next two years and his childhood friend Arthur Davidson worked on their motor-bicycle using the northside Milwaukee machine shop at the home of their friend, Henry Melk, it was finished in 1903 with the help of Walter Davidson. Upon testing their power-cycle and the Davidson brothers found it unable to climb the hills around Milwaukee without pedal assistance, they wrote off their first motor-bicycle as a valuable learning experiment. Work began on a new and improved second-generation machine.
This first "real" Harley-Davidson motorcycle had a bigger engine of 24.74 cubic inches with 9.75 inches flywheels weighing 28 lb. The machine's advanced loop-frame pattern was similar to the 1903 Milwaukee Merkel motorcycle; the bigger engine and loop-frame design took it out of the motorized bicycle category and marked the path to future motorcycle designs. The boys received help with their bigger engine from outboard motor pioneer Ole Evinrude, building gas engines of his own design for automotive use on Milwaukee's Lake Street; the prototype of the new loop-frame Harley-Davidson was assembled in a 10 ft × 15 ft shed in the Davidson family backyard. Most of the major parts, were made elsewhere, including some fabricated at the West Milwaukee railshops where oldest brother William A. Davidson was toolroom foreman; this prototype machine was functional by September 8, 1904, when it competed in a Milwaukee motorcycle race held at State Fair Park. It was placed fourth; this is the first documented appearance of a Harley-Davidson motorcycle in the historical record.
In January 1905, small advertisements were placed in the Automobile and Cycle Trade Journal offering bare Harley-Davidson engines to the do-it-yourself trade. By April, complete motorcycles were in production on a limited basis; that year, the first Harley-Davidson dealer, Carl H. Lang of Chicago, sold three bikes from the five built in the Davidson backyard shed. Years the original shed was taken to the Juneau Avenue factory where it would stand for many decades as a tribute to the Motor Company's humble origins until it was accidentally destroyed by contractors cleaning the factory yard in the early 1970s. In 1906, Harley and the Davidson brothers built their first factory on Chestnut Street, at the current location of Harley-Davidson's corporate headquarters; the first Juneau Avenue plant was a 40 ft × 60 ft single-story wooden structure. The company produced about 50 motorcycles that year. In 1907, William S. Harley graduated from the University of Wisconsin–Madison with a degree in mechanical engineering.
That year additional factory expansion came with a second floor and with facings and additions of Milwaukee pale yellow brick. With the new facilities production increased to 150 motorcycles in 1907; the company was incorporated that September. They began selling their motorcycles to police departments around this time, a market, important to them since. In 1907 William A. Davidson, brother to Arthur and Walter Davidson, quit his job as tool foreman for the Milwaukee Road railroad and joined the Motor Company. Production in 1905 and 1906 were all single-cylinder models with 26.84 cubic inch engines. In February 1907 a prototype model with a 45-degree V-Twin engine was displayed at the Chicago Automobile Show. Although shown and advertised few V-Twin models were built between 1907 and 1910; these first V-Twins produced about 7 horsepower. This gave about double the power of the first singles. Top speed was about 60 mph. Production jumped from 450 motorcycles in 1908 to 1,149 machines in 1909. By 1911, some 150 makes of motorcycles had been built in the United States – although just a handful would survive the 1910s.
In 1911, an improved V-Twin model was introduced. The new engine had me
Boucherville is a city in the Montérégie region in Quebec, Canada. It is a suburb of Montreal on the South shore of the Saint Lawrence River. Boucherville is part of both the urban agglomeration of Longueuil and Montreal Metropolitan Community regional government. Boucherville was founded as a seigneurial parish in 1667 by Pierre Boucher, for whom the city was named. Pierre Boucher came from Mortagne-au-Perche, France. After having lived in Quebec City and Trois-Rivières, Boucher moved to the Percées Islands by the southern shores of Saint Lawrence River, where he founded Boucherville; the first Catholic church of the village of Boucherville was built in 1670. This church, made of wood, was replaced in 1712 by a building made of brick, it was replaced in 1801 by the current Sainte-Famille Church in 1801. Several families left Boucherville in the 18th century to found the communities of Sainte-Julie and Saint-Bruno-de-Montarville. In July 1843 fire destroyed much of the village. Sparks blowing from a steamer ignited a wooden building owned by Mr. Weilbrenner.
The fire spread and soon most of the village was on fire. In the end, the church, the chapel, two schools, 51 homes and pastures, 92 other buildings were destroyed; the village was progressively rebuilt. A new church was built on the site of the old one over the course of the following two years. Parts of the walls and front were reused. A stone school was built in 1851 at the intersection of Notre-Dame and Louis-Hippolyte-Lafontaine streets; the municipality of the parish Sainte-Famille de Boucherville was established in 1845. This large territory included the village of Boucherville. In 1856, Sainte-Famille de Boucherville was divided into two separate municipalities: the parish Sainte-Famille de Boucherville and the village of Boucherville. In 1854, seigneurial tenure was abolished. Pierre-Amable Boucher de Boucherville, last seigneur of Boucherville, died three years later; the village Boucherville was to become an important vacation resort by the end of the 19th century and early 20th century.
People from Montreal could access the village by ferry. Boucherville experienced significant growth after World War II; this expansion was confirmed by the construction of the Louis-Hippolyte Lafontaine Bridge-Tunnel. The parish Sainte-Famille de Boucherville ceded portions of its territory to Saint-Hubert in 1877, to Saint-Bruno-de-Montarville in 1950 and to the village of Boucherville in 1956; the village of Boucherville gained the status of city in 1957. In 1963, the city of Boucherville merged with the Sainte-Famille de Boucherville parish; this brought Boucherville to its current city limits. Boucherville opened a new'civic centre', including an indoor and outdoor pool, municipal offices and indoor arena in 1966; the centre was renamed in memory of the murdered cabinet minister Pierre Laporte. In August 2015, the Centre was closed as part of a three-year, $27 million refurbishment project; the shell of the old building will be blended into the new facility. Some of the equipment, such as the skating rink boards and glass will be reused in the Gilles-Chabot arena.
As part of the 2000–2006 municipal reorganization in Quebec, Boucherville ceased to exist as an independent city on January 1, 2002 and became a borough of Longueuil. However, after a 2004 referendum, it de-merged and was reconstituted as an independent city on January 1, 2006. However, it remains part of the urban agglomeration of Longueuil. Today, Boucherville is home to more than 40,000 a large industrial park. Founder Pierre Boucher is commemorated by a museum in his name at the Séminaire Saint-Joseph and a statue erected at the National Assembly of Quebec, in addition to a monument on the Boucherville's waterfront; the Harmonie neighbourhood is located between the boulevards de Mortagne, de Montarville, de Montbrun and de Normandie. Its development is recent and is residential with many upscale houses. Many park and green spaces decorate the neighbourhood; the multifunctional centre of Boucherville is there. The Quartier des villes et provinces de France neighbourhood is located between the streets de Normandie, Gay-Lussac, Ampère and boulevard Montarville.
All the streets and parks in this neighbourhood are named after provinces of France. The neighbourhood is composed of separate or semi-detached houses. Old Boucherville is the original section of the city that contains the former village and Sainte-Famille Church; the neighbourhood is located between Saint-Lawrence River, the boulevards du Fort Saint-Louis, de Montarville et de Montbrun. Many of the buildings there are classified as historic monuments; the industrial section of Boucherville covers the western part of the city. This section is divided into 3 industrial parks. Although these parks were inaugurated in the 1960s, it was during the last two decades that their expansion has been the greatest. In the early 1980s, they were little more 100 companies and 6 000 jobs scattered in the industrial section. Today, they are 15 000 jobs in various sectors. Additionally, the industrial section is home to 2 research centres; the Boisé du Tremblay Wildlife Reserve is located within this section. The Seigneurie is a residential neighbourhood.
It is located south of Fort Saint-Louis boulevard, north of de Mortagne boulevard, to the west of de Brouage street and east of the Industriel boulevard. The neighbourhood was built in the early 1960s; the Carrefour de la Seigneurie shopping mall acted as a commercial anchor to the area, hosting a Dominion supermarket, a branch of the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce, a convenience store, a pharmacy and a medical clinic. A Texaco gas station stood in its parking lot. All these businesses have since mo
Zero Motorcycles Inc. is an American manufacturer of electric motorcycles. Called Electricross, it was started in 2006 by Neal Saiki, a former NASA engineer, in Santa Cruz, California; the company is now located nearby in Scotts Valley. Zero makes a line of 100% electric motorcycles including the Zero S, SR, FXS, the Zero DS DSR, FX, the new for 2020 SR/F; the Zero S began shipping in volume in 2010, the first model year to include the Agni Motor, at which time the DS, a dual-sport model based on the S chassis became available. The XU, a smaller street bike with a removable battery, based on the same chassis as the Zero dirtbikes was produced from 2011 to 2013. In 2012, Zero introduced the ZF9 Power Pack with the Zero S & DS models making them the first production electric motorcycles that can exceed an EPA-estimated 100 miles on a single charge. In 2013 the Zero S and DS were redesigned; the battery capacity was increased to 11.4kWh, a new brushless permanent magnet AC motor was introduced. In 2013 the Zero FX dual-sport model with modular removable power packs was introduced.
CHAdeMO fast charging was available on 2013 models. In 2014 the optional 2.8kWh "Power Tank" became available. 2014 saw the addition of the Zero SR to the range, a higher performance version of the Zero S, incorporating more powerful controller electrics and a motor with higher temperature magnets. The 2015 models had battery pack size increased to 12.5kWh, for a total possible maximum capacity of 15.3kWh including the optional Power Tank. Introduced in 2015 were standard ABS brakes and Showa suspension. CHAdeMO fast charging was eliminated as an option, leaving instead an optional quick charger accessory at added cost. In 2016, Zero announced the FXS models; the DSR is based on the DS, but with the more powerful motor from the SR. The FXS is a supermoto version of the FX. Additional changes for the model year include the availability of a "Charge Tank" accessory, an on-board Level 2 charging system compatible with the J1772 plug. Battery pack size improved again to 13.0kWh, for a total possible maximum capacity of 15.9kWh including the optional Power Tank.
The air-cooled motors on the SR, DSR, FXS were revised to reduce heat produced during high output. For 2017, all models have the interior-permanent-magnet motor. All models received a larger capacity controller which provides an increase in maximum torque and horsepower output, up to 116 ft/lbs on the SR and DSR models. All models but the S ZF13.0 receive a wider, high-torque carbon. Other changes for 2017 include a locking tank box and more durable paint on S/DS/SR/DSR models, the ability for owners to update their bike's firmware through the mobile app. For 2018 Zero introduced the ZF14.4 battery, available for the S and D models and the SR and DSR models. Until the introduction of the 2020 SR/F, traction control was absent across the lineup. Zero Motorcycles produces a line of electric motorcycles for police and military use; the fleet motorcycles are based upon the company’s standard models but outfitted with equipment such as police lights, crash bars, storage accessories. The company published a history on its website to celebrate its 10th anniversary.
Zero's Lithium-ion power packs and motors were developed in-house, are branded under the names "Z-Force" and "ZF". The power pack uses a cell configuration; the motorcycles' propulsion is provided by a single electric, air-cooled, permanent-magnet 3-phase AC motor. The motor is directly coupled to the rear wheel by a belt or – optionally on the Zero FX – a chain. A controller manages the power delivery and comes in 420-amp, 550-amp, 660-amp, 775-amp sizes depending on the year and model. Zero Motorcycles has had success racing at Pikes Peak. Zero has won the production electric motorcycle class in 2013, 2014, 2015. In 2014 a Zero FX was the first production electric motorcycle. In 2012, Brandon Miller set a Bonneville Land Speed Record on a Zero S ZF6 model, he achieved an average speed of 101.652 mph over a one-mile course. This beat the previous record for modified production motorcycles weighing less than 150 kilograms by over 23 mph. Zero Motorcycles hosted an endurance racing event for electric motorcycles on April 4–5, 2009, called the 24 Hours of Electricross.
This event was the largest electric motorcycle race to date. The 10 teams competed on Zero X electric motocross bikes. Team HotChalk set a Guinness world record for the furthest distance traveled on an all-electric off-road motorcycle in 24 hours at just over 500 miles. Racers have used Zero Motorcycles against gasoline motorcycles in a number of other forms of racing, including flat-track, hare scrambles and supercross. Zero's main competitors were the now defunct Victory Empulse, halted Alta Motors, but current and upcoming models from Evoke and Energica will compete with Zero's product lineup; some of the larger OEMs have released electric concepts and prototypes such as the Harley-Davidson LiveWire electric concept, Yamaha's PES1 and PED1. All Zero Motorcycles models had a large number of recalls compared to Zero Motorcycles volumes as well as many quality issues. Press articles mentioned service issues and management turnover, as well as injuries leading to lawsuits. While there have been a limited number of press article
The Aero 3s is a re-bodied and more aerodynamic version of the Campagna T-Rex. It was introduced by Anibal Automotive Design of Canada in 2006; the new body incorporates some features not seen on the T-Rex, such as Lamborghini-style opening scissor doors, side windows, "an array of phantasmogorical spoilers". The full fibreglass body kit retails at $8,500 USD as of 2018, to which must be added the cost of the host T-Rex; the body was designed by Hani Harouche, who explains that "I called it the Aero 3S, aero for the more aerodynamic shape, 3S for the three seasons you can drive it." Official web site Walkaround video of the Aero 3S
A corporation is an organization a group of people or a company, authorized to act as a single entity and recognized as such in law. Early incorporated entities were established by charter. Most jurisdictions now allow the creation of new corporations through registration. Corporations come in many different types but are divided by the law of the jurisdiction where they are chartered into two kinds: by whether they can issue stock or not, or by whether they are formed to make a profit or not. Corporations can be divided by the number of owners: corporation corporation sole; the subject of this article is a corporation aggregate. A corporation sole is a legal entity consisting of a single incorporated office, occupied by a single natural person. Where local law distinguishes corporations by the ability to issue stock, corporations allowed to do so are referred to as "stock corporations", ownership of the corporation is through stock, owners of stock are referred to as "stockholders" or "shareholders".
Corporations not allowed to issue stock are referred to as "non-stock" corporations. Corporations chartered in regions where they are distinguished by whether they are allowed to be for profit or not are referred to as "for profit" and "not-for-profit" corporations, respectively. There is some overlap between stock/non-stock and for-profit/not-for-profit in that not-for-profit corporations are always non-stock as well. A for-profit corporation is always a stock corporation, but some for-profit corporations may choose to be non-stock. To simplify the explanation, whenever "Stockholder" or "shareholder" is used in the rest of this article to refer to a stock corporation, it is presumed to mean the same as "member" for a non-profit corporation or for a profit, non-stock corporation. Registered corporations have legal personality and their shares are owned by shareholders whose liability is limited to their investment. Shareholders do not actively manage a corporation. In most circumstances, a shareholder may serve as a director or officer of a corporation.
In American English, the word corporation is most used to describe large business corporations. In British English and in the Commonwealth countries, the term company is more used to describe the same sort of entity while the word corporation encompasses all incorporated entities. In American English, the word company can include entities such as partnerships that would not be referred to as companies in British English as they are not a separate legal entity. Late in the 19th century, a new form of company having the limited liability protections of a corporation, the more favorable tax treatment of either a sole proprietorship or partnership was developed. While not a corporation, this new type of entity became attractive as an alternative for corporations not needing to issue stock. In Germany, the organization was referred to as Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung or GmbH. In the last quarter of the 20th Century this new form of non-corporate organization became available in the United States and other countries, was known as the limited liability company or LLC.
Since the GmbH and LLC forms of organization are technically not corporations, they will not be discussed in this article. The word "corporation" derives from corpus, the Latin word for body, or a "body of people". By the time of Justinian, Roman law recognized a range of corporate entities under the names universitas, corpus or collegium; these included the state itself and such private associations as sponsors of a religious cult, burial clubs, political groups, guilds of craftsmen or traders. Such bodies had the right to own property and make contracts, to receive gifts and legacies, to sue and be sued, and, in general, to perform legal acts through representatives. Private associations were granted designated liberties by the emperor. Entities which carried on business and were the subjects of legal rights were found in ancient Rome, the Maurya Empire in ancient India. In medieval Europe, churches became incorporated, as did local governments, such as the Pope and the City of London Corporation.
The point was that the incorporation would survive longer than the lives of any particular member, existing in perpetuity. The alleged oldest commercial corporation in the world, the Stora Kopparberg mining community in Falun, obtained a charter from King Magnus Eriksson in 1347. In medieval times, traders would do business through common law constructs, such as partnerships. Whenever people acted together with a view to profit, the law deemed. Early guilds and livery companies were often involved in the regulation of competition between traders. Dutch and English chartered companies, such as the Dutch East India Company and the Hudson's Bay Company, were created to lead the colonial ventures of European nations in the 17th century. Acting under a charter sanctioned by the Dutch government, the Dutch East India Company defeated Portuguese forces and established itself in the Moluccan Islands in order to profit from the European demand for spices. Investors in the VOC were issued paper certificates as proof of share ownership, were able to trade their shares on the original Amsterdam
Quebec is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is bordered to the west by the province of Ontario and the bodies of water James Bay and Hudson Bay. S. states of Maine, New Hampshire and New York. It shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia. Quebec is Canada's largest province by its second-largest administrative division, it is and politically considered to be part of Central Canada. Quebec is the second-most populous province of Canada, after Ontario, it is the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole provincial official language. Most inhabitants live in urban areas near the Saint Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec City, the capital. Half of Quebec residents live in the Greater Montreal Area, including the Island of Montreal. English-speaking communities and English-language institutions are concentrated in the west of the island of Montreal but are significantly present in the Outaouais, Eastern Townships, Gaspé regions.
The Nord-du-Québec region, occupying the northern half of the province, is sparsely populated and inhabited by Aboriginal peoples. The climate around the major cities is four-seasons continental with cold and snowy winters combined with warm to hot humid summers, but farther north long winter seasons dominate and as a result the northern areas of the province are marked by tundra conditions. In central Quebec, at comparatively southerly latitudes, winters are severe in inland areas. Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics of the province. Parti Québécois governments held referendums on sovereignty in 1980 and 1995. Although neither passed, the 1995 referendum saw the highest voter turnout in Quebec history, at over 93%, only failed by less than 1%. In 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the "Québécois as a nation within a united Canada". While the province's substantial natural resources have long been the mainstay of its economy, sectors of the knowledge economy such as aerospace and communication technologies and the pharmaceutical industry play leading roles.
These many industries have all contributed to helping Quebec become an economically influential province within Canada, second only to Ontario in economic output. The name "Québec", which comes from the Algonquin word kébec meaning "where the river narrows" referred to the area around Quebec City where the Saint Lawrence River narrows to a cliff-lined gap. Early variations in the spelling of the name included Kébec. French explorer Samuel de Champlain chose the name Québec in 1608 for the colonial outpost he would use as the administrative seat for the French colony of New France; the province is sometimes referred to as "La belle province". The Province of Quebec was founded in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the Treaty of Paris formally transferred the French colony of Canada to Britain after the Seven Years' War; the proclamation restricted the province to an area along the banks of the Saint Lawrence River. The Quebec Act of 1774 expanded the territory of the province to include the Great Lakes and the Ohio River Valley and south of Rupert's Land, more or less restoring the borders existing under French rule before the Conquest of 1760.
The Treaty of Paris ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States. After the Constitutional Act of 1791, the territory was divided between Lower Canada and Upper Canada, with each being granted an elected legislative assembly. In 1840, these become Canada East and Canada West after the British Parliament unified Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada; this territory was redivided into the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario at Confederation in 1867. Each became one of the first four provinces. In 1870, Canada purchased Rupert's Land from the Hudson's Bay Company and over the next few decades the Parliament of Canada transferred to Quebec portions of this territory that would more than triple the size of the province. In 1898, the Canadian Parliament passed the first Quebec Boundary Extension Act that expanded the provincial boundaries northward to include the lands of the local aboriginal peoples; this was followed by the addition of the District of Ungava through the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act of 1912 that added the northernmost lands of the Inuit to create the modern Province of Quebec.
In 1927, the border between Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador was established by the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Quebec disputes this boundary. Located in the eastern part of Canada, part of Central Canada, Quebec occupies a territory nearly three times the size of France or Texas, most of, sparsely populated, its topography is different from one region to another due to the varying composition of the ground, the climate, the proximity to water. The Saint Lawrence Lowland and the Appalachians are the two main topographic regions in southern Quebec, while the Canadian Shield occupies most of central and northern Quebec. Quebec has one of the world's largest reserves of fresh water, occupying 12% of its surface, it has 3 % of the world's renewable fresh water. Mor