This article presents common techniques and facts regarding the cultivation of the flowering plant Cannabis for the production and consumption of cannabis flowers. Cultivation techniques for other purposes differ. Cannabis belongs to the genus Cannabis in the family Cannabaceae and may include three species, C. sativa, C. indica, C. ruderalis, or one variable species. It is a dioecious annual plant. C. Sativa and C. indica grow tall, with some varieties reaching 4 metres, or 13 feet. Female plants produce tetrahydrocannabinol as the season changes from summer to autumn. C. ruderalis is short, produces only trace amounts of THC, but is rich in cannabidiol, which may be 40% of the cannabinoids in a plant and is an antagonist to THC, it flowers independently of the photoperiod and according to age. However, commercial cross-bred hybrids containing both ruderalis, indica and/or sativa genes exist. Cannabis needs certain conditions to flourish. Soil is required, except for cannabis grown with hydroponics or aeroponics Sufficient nutrients—commercial potting soils indicate this as "N-P-K = x%-y%-z%" the percentages of the fundamental nutritional elements, i.e. nitrogen and potassium.
Nutrients are provided to the soil via fertilizers but such practice requires caution. PH between 5.8 and 6.5. This value can be adjusted – see soil pH. Commercial fertilizers tend to make the soil more acidic; the optimal day temperature range for cannabis is 24 to 30 °C. Temperatures above 31 °C and below 15.5 °C seem to decrease THC slow growth. At 13 °C the plant undergoes a mild shock. Light can be artificial. Under artificial light, the plant remains under a regime of 16–24 hours of light and 0–8 hours of darkness from the germination until flowering, with longer light periods being conducive to vegetative growth, longer dark periods being conducive to flowering; however Cannabis only requires thirteen hours of continuous light to remain in the vegetative stage. The'Gas Lantern Routine' is an alternate lighting schedule that has proven to be successful for growing Cannabis, while saving a significant amount of energy. For optimal health, Cannabis plants require a period of dark, it has been suggested that, when subjected to a regimen of constant light without a dark period, cannabis begins to show signs of decreased photosynthetic response, lack of vigor, an overall decrease in vascular development.
Flowering is induced by providing at least 12 hours per day of complete darkness. Flowering in cannabis is triggered by a hormonal reaction within the plant, initiated by an increase in length of its dark cycle, i.e. the plant needs sufficient prolonged darkness for bract/bracteole to begin. Some Indica varieties require as little as 8 hours of dark to begin flowering, whereas some Sativa varieties require up to 13 hours. Watering frequency and amount is determined by many factors, including temperature and light, the age and stage of growth of the plant and the medium's ability to retain water. A conspicuous sign of water problems is the wilting of leaves. Giving too much water can kill cannabis plants if the growing medium gets over-saturated; this is due to oxygen not being able to enter the root system. Anaerobic bacteria start to accumulate due to stale conditions, they begin to consume beneficial bacteria, as well as nutrients and fertilizer. When using soil as a growth medium, the soil should be allowed to dry adequately before re-watering.
Humidity is an important part of plant growth. Dry conditions slow the rate of photosynthesis. Ideal levels of humidity for optimal growth are forty to sixty percent. Nutrients are taken up from the soil by roots. Nutrient soil amendments are added. Fertilizers can be chemical or organic, liquid or powder, contain a mixture of ingredients. Commercial fertilizers indicate the levels of NPK. In general, cannabis needs more N than K during all life phases; the presence of secondary nutrients is recommended. Micro nutrients manifest as deficiencies; because Cannabis' nutrient needs vary depending on the variety, they are determined by trial and error and fertilizers are applied sparingly to avoid burning the plant. Germination is the process in which the seeds sprout and the root emerges. In Cannabis, it takes from 12 hours to 8 days. Warmth and moisture initiate metabolic processes such as the activation of hormones that trigger the expansion of the embryo within the seed; the seed coat cracks open and a small embryonic root emerges and begins growing downward, if placed in a proper growing medium.
Soon the root is anchored and two circular embryonic leaves emerge in search of light and the remains of the seed shell are pushed away. This marks the beginning of the seedling stage. Germination is initiated by soaking seeds either between wet paper towels, in a cup of water at room temperature, in wet peat pellets, or directly in potting soil. Peat pellets are used as a germinating medium because the saturated pellets with their seedlings can be planted directly into the intended growing medium with a minimum of shock to the plant; the seedling stage begins when the see
War on drugs
The war on drugs is a campaign, led by the U. S. federal government, of drug prohibition, military aid, military intervention, with the stated aim being to reduce the illegal drug trade in the United States. The initiative includes a set of drug policies that are intended to discourage the production and consumption of psychoactive drugs that the participating governments and the UN have made illegal; the term was popularized by the media shortly after a press conference given on June 18, 1971, by President Richard Nixon—the day after publication of a special message from President Nixon to the Congress on Drug Abuse Prevention and Control—during which he declared drug abuse "public enemy number one". That message to the Congress included text about devoting more federal resources to the "prevention of new addicts, the rehabilitation of those who are addicted", but that part did not receive the same public attention as the term "war on drugs". However, two years prior to this, Nixon had formally declared a "war on drugs" that would be directed toward eradication and incarceration.
Today, the Drug Policy Alliance, which advocates for an end to the War on Drugs, estimates that the United States spends $51 billion annually on these initiatives. On May 13, 2009, Gil Kerlikowske—the Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy —signaled that the Obama administration did not plan to alter drug enforcement policy, but that the administration would not use the term "War on Drugs", because Kerlikowske considers the term to be "counter-productive". ONDCP's view is that "drug addiction is a disease that can be prevented and treated... making drugs more available will make it harder to keep our communities healthy and safe". In June 2011, the Global Commission on Drug Policy released a critical report on the War on Drugs, declaring: "The global war on drugs has failed, with devastating consequences for individuals and societies around the world. Fifty years after the initiation of the UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, years after President Nixon launched the US government's war on drugs, fundamental reforms in national and global drug control policies are urgently needed."
The report was criticized by organizations. Morphine was isolated in 1805. Hypodermic syringes were first constructed in 1851. During the Civil War, wounded soldiers were treated with morphine; as a result, after the war, there were many addicted veterans. Until 1912, there had been products sold over-the-counter, such as heroin cough syrup, heroin cough syrup for children, stronger. Doctors prescribed heroin for irritable babies, insomnia, "nervous conditions," hysteria, menstrual cramps, "vapors." Millions of people became addicted. Laudanum, an opiod, was a common part of the home medicine cabinet. In fiction, Conan Doyle portrayed Sherlock Holmes, as a cocaine addict, he is rebuked by his physician. Citizens did not reach a consensus on dealing with the long-term affects of hard drug usage until towards the end of the 19th century; the first U. S. law that restricted the distribution and use of certain drugs was the Harrison Narcotics Tax Act of 1914. The first local laws came as early as 1860. In 1919, the United States passed the 18th Amendment, prohibiting the sale and transportation of alcohol, with exceptions for religious and medical use.
In 1920, the United States passed the National Prohibition Act, enacted to carry out the provisions in law of the 18th Amendment. During World War I many soldiers became addicts; the Federal Bureau of Narcotics was established in the United States Department of the Treasury by an act of June 14, 1930. In 1933, the federal prohibition for alcohol was repealed by passage of the 21st Amendment. In 1935, President Franklin D. Roosevelt publicly supported the adoption of the Uniform State Narcotic Drug Act; the New York Times used the headline "Roosevelt Asks Narcotic War Aid". In 1937, the Marihuana Tax Act of 1937 was passed. Several scholars have claimed that the goal was to destroy the hemp industry as an effort of businessmen Andrew Mellon, Randolph Hearst, the Du Pont family; these scholars argue that with the invention of the decorticator, hemp became a cheap substitute for the paper pulp, used in the newspaper industry. These scholars believe. Mellon, United States Secretary of the Treasury and the wealthiest man in America, had invested in the DuPont's new synthetic fiber and considered its success to depend on its replacement of the traditional resource, hemp.
However, there were circumstances. One reason for doubts about those claims is that the new decorticators did not perform satisfactorily in commercial production. To produce fiber from hemp was a labor-intensive process if you include harvest and processing. Technological developments decreased the labor with hemp but not sufficient to eliminate this disadvantage. On October 27, 1970, Congress passed the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970, among other things, categorized controlled substances based on their medicinal use and potential for addiction. In 1971, two congressmen released a report on the growing heroin epidemic among U. S. servicemen in Vietnam. Although Nixon declared "drug abuse" to be public enemy number one in 1971, the policies that his administration implemented as part of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 were a co
Drug Enforcement Administration
The Drug Enforcement Administration is a United States federal law enforcement agency under the United States Department of Justice, tasked with combating drug smuggling and distribution within the United States. The DEA is the lead agency for domestic enforcement of the Controlled Substances Act, sharing concurrent jurisdiction with the Federal Bureau of Investigation and Customs Enforcement, U. S. Customs and Border Protection, the Department of Homeland Security, it has sole responsibility for coordinating and pursuing US drug investigations both domestic and abroad. The Drug Enforcement Administration was established on July 1, 1973, by Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1973, signed by President Richard Nixon on July 28. It proposed the creation of a single federal agency to enforce the federal drug laws as well as consolidate and coordinate the government's drug control activities. Congress accepted the proposal; as a result, the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs, the Office of Drug Abuse Law Enforcement.
From the early 1970s, DEA headquarters was located at 1405 I Street NW in downtown Washington, D. C. With the overall growth of the agency in the 1980s and a concurrent growth in the headquarters staff, DEA began to search for a new headquarters location. However, then-Attorney General Edwin Meese determined that the headquarters had to be located in close proximity to the Attorney General's office. Thus, in 1989, the headquarters relocated to 600–700 Army-Navy Drive in the Pentagon City area of Arlington, near the Metro station with the same name. On April 19, 1995, Timothy McVeigh attacked the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City because it housed regional offices for the FBI, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Explosives, DEA, all of which had carried out raids that he viewed as unjustified intrusions on the rights of the people. Subsequently, the DEA headquarters complex was classified as a Level IV installation under United States federal building security standards, meaning it was to be considered a high-risk law enforcement target for terrorists.
Security measures include hydraulic steel roadplates to enforce standoff distance from the building, metal detectors, guard stations. In February 2003, the DEA established a Digital Evidence Laboratory within its Office of Forensic Sciences; the DEA is headed by an Administrator of Drug Enforcement appointed by the President of the United States and confirmed by the U. S. Senate; the Administrator reports to the Attorney General through the Deputy Attorney General. The Administrator is assisted by a Deputy Administrator, the Chief of Operations, the Chief Inspector, three Assistant Administrators. Other senior staff include the Chief Counsel; the Administrator and Deputy Administrator are the only presidentially-appointed personnel in the DEA. DEA's headquarters is located in Virginia across from the Pentagon, it maintains its own DEA Academy located on the Marine Corps Base Quantico at Quantico, Virginia along with the FBI Academy. It maintains 21 domestic field divisions with 221 field offices and 92 foreign offices in 70 countries.
With a budget exceeding $2 billion, DEA employs over 10,800 people, including over 4,600 Special Agents and 800 Intelligence Analysts. Becoming a Special Agent or Intelligence Analyst with the DEA is a competitive process. Administrator Deputy Administrator Human Resource Division Career Board Board of Professional Conduct Office of Training Operations Division Aviation Division Office of Operations Management Special Operations Division Office of Diversion Control Office of Global Enforcement Office of Financial Operations Intelligence Division Office of National Security Intelligence Office of Strategic Intelligence Office of Special Intelligence El Paso Intelligence Center OCDETF Fusion Center Financial Management Division Office of Acquisition and Relocation Management Office of Finance Office of Resource Management Operational Support Division Office of Administration Office of Information System Office of Forensic Science Office of Investigative Technology Inspection Division Office of Inspections Office of Professional Responsibility Office of Security Programs Field Divisions and Offices As of 2017 there were 4,650 special agents employed by the Drug Enforcement Administration.
DEA agents' starting salary is $49,746–$55,483. After four years working as an agent, the salary jumps to above $92,592. After receiving a conditional offer of employment, recruits must complete a 18-week rigorous training which includes lessons in firearms proficiency, weapons safety, tactical shooting, deadly-force decision training. In order to graduate, students must maintain an academic average of 80 percent on academic examinations, pass the firearms-qualification test demonstrate leadership and sound decision-making in practical scenarios, pass rigorous physical-task tests. Upon graduation, recruits earn the title of DEA Special Agent; the DEA excludes from consideration job applicants who have a history of any use of narcotics or illicit drugs. Investigation incl
California National Guard
The California National Guard is a federally funded California military force, part of the National Guard of the United States. It comprises both Army and Air National Guard components and is the largest national guard force in the United States with a total authorized strength of over 23,000 soldiers and airmen; as of January 2012, California National Guardsmen have been deployed overseas 38 thousand times since 2001, of which twenty-nine have been killed in Iraq and two have died in Afghanistan. The Constitution of the United States charges the National Guard with dual federal and state missions; when under the control of its state governor, national guard functions range from limited actions during non-emergency situations to full scale law enforcement of martial law when local law enforcement officials can no longer maintain civil control. The National Guard may be called into federal service in response to a call by the President or Congress; when National Guard troops are called to federal service, the President serves as Commander-In-Chief.
The federal mission assigned to the National Guard is: "To provide properly trained and equipped units for prompt mobilization for war, National emergency or as otherwise needed." The Governor of California may call individuals or units of the California National Guard into state service during emergencies or to assist in special situations which lend themselves to use of the National Guard. The state mission assigned to the National Guard is: "To provide trained and disciplined forces for domestic emergencies or as otherwise provided by state law." California Army National Guard California Air National Guard Major General David S. Baldwin serves as the 46th Adjutant General of California since he was appointed by California governor Jerry Brown on 16 April 2011. Theron R. Perlee, April 12 – October 5, 1850 William H. Richardson, October 5, 1850 – May 2, 1852 William Chauncey Kibbe, May 2, 1852 – April 30, 1864 Robert Robinson, January 1, 1864 – May 1, 1864 George S. Evans, May 1, 1864 – May 1, 1868 James M. Allen, May 1, 1868 – Nov. 23, 1870 Thomas N. Cazneau, Nov. 23, 1870 – December 21, 1871 Lucius H. Foote, December 21, 1871 – December 13, 1875 Patrick F. Walsh, December 13, 1875 – January 9, 1880 Samuel W. Backus, January 9, 1880 – July 1, 1882 John F. Sheehan, July 1, 1892 – January 11, 1893 George B.
Crosby, January 11, 1883 – November 1, 1887 Richard H. Orton, November 1, 1887 – January 9, 1891 Charles Carroll Allen, January 9, 1891 – May 24, 1895 Andrew W. Bartlett, May 24, 1895 – December 23, 1898 Robert L. Peeler, December 23, 1898 – June 1, 1899 William H. Seamans, June 1, 1899 – January 3, 1902 George Stone, January 13, 1902 – February 15, 1904 Joseph B. Lauck, February 15, 1904 – January 7, 1911 Edwin A. Forbes, January 7, 1911 – June 18, 1915 Charles W. Thomas, Jr. June 19, 1915 – December 15, 1916 James J. Borree, December 16, 1916 – November 30, 1923 Richard E. Mittelstaedt, December 1, 1923 – January 5, 1931 Seth E. P. Howard, January 6, 1931 – June 26, 1935 Paul Arndt, June 27 – October 17, 1935 Harry H. Moorehead, October 18, 1935 – January 3, 1939 Patrick J. H. Farrell, January 4, 1939 – June 10, 1940 Richard E. Mittelstaedt, June 10, 1940 – March 3, 1941 Joseph O. Donovan, March 3, 1941 – July 10, 1942 Junnius Pierce, July 14, 1942 – January 13, 1943 Ray W. Hays, January 14, 1943 – November 30, 1944 Victor R. Hansen, December 27, 1944 – April 28, 1946 Curtis D. O'Sullivan, April 29, 1946 – July 15, 1951 Earl M. Jones, July 16, 1951 – December 31, 1960 Roderic L. Hill, January 1, 1961 – January 1, 1967 Glenn C.
Ames, March 22, 1967 – June 5, 1975 Frank J. Schober, June 6, 1975 – December 31, 1982 Willard A. Shank, January 3, 1983 – February 13, 1987 Robert C. Thrasher, February 14, 1987 – October 9, 1992 Robert W. Barrow, October 10 – December 31, 1992 Tandy K. Bozeman, January 1, 1993 – April 27, 1999 Paul D. Monroe, Jr. April 29, 1999 – March 2004 Thomas Eres, March 2004 – June 6, 2005 John Alexander, June 7 – August 1, 2005 William H. Wade II, September 1, 2005 – February 1, 2010 Mary J. Kight, February 2, 2010 – April 15, 2011 David Baldwin, April 16, 2011 – present The California Army National Guard maintains the California Military Academy at Camp San Luis Obispo for the use and training of members of California and other western state National Guard units, as well as for the use of the California State Military Reserve. List of California State Militia civil war units List of California State Militia Units 1850–60 California Military Department Bibliography of California Army National Guard History compiled by the United States Army Center of Military History Office of The Adjutant General California National Guard California State Military Reserve California Military Museum California National Guard Photograph Collection US Army Heritage and Education Center, Pennsylvania
In political science, an initiative is a means by which a petition signed by a certain minimum number of registered voters can force a public vote in parliament called an indirect initiative or via a direct initiative, the latter being dubbed a Popular initiated Referendum. The initiative can be rejected by the parliament, but it can be forced to see the proposition put to a referendum; the initiative may take the form of a direct initiative or an indirect initiative. In a direct initiative, a measure is put directly to a referendum after being submitted by a petition. In an indirect initiative, a measure is first referred to the legislature, put to a popular vote only if not enacted by the legislature; the vote may be on a proposed federal level, constitutional amendment, charter amendment or local ordinance, or to oblige the executive or legislature to consider the subject by submitting it to the order of the day. It is a form of direct democracy. A direct initiative is when an initiative measure, either an initiated state statute or initiated constitutional amendment, is placed directly on the ballot for voters to reject or pass.
The measure is not first submitted to the legislature. An indirect initiative refers to a process where after sufficient signatures are collected, the measure is voted on by a parliament. In Brazil, a popular law initiative requires two conditions be met before it is sent to the National Congress: signatures from at least 1% of national registered voters and at least 0.3% of the people allowed to vote from each of at least five of the 27 federal unities. If both conditions are met, Congress is obliged to vote on holding the initiative; the Canadian province of British Columbia has a citizen initiative law known as the Recall and Initiative Act. The original proposal was put to voters in a referendum held in October 1991 and was supported by over 83% of voters, it was subsequently put into force by the incoming NDP government. Since it came into force in 1995, several attempts have been made to hold an initiative, but until the fall of 2010, none had succeeded in reaching the first of the thresholds, securing signatures of 10% of registered voters in each riding throughout British Columbia.
The first referendum was held under this legislation on September 2011 on the subject of repealing the Harmonized Sales Tax. Details of its use in BC are available on the Elections BC website; the rejected Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe included a limited indirect initiative right. The proposal of introducing the European Citizens' Initiative was that 1,000,000 citizens, from minimal numbers of different member states, could invite the executive body of the European Union, the European Commission, to consider any proposal "on matters where citizens consider that a legal act of the Union is required for the purpose of implementing the Constitution." The precise mechanism had not been agreed upon. Critics underlined the weakness of this right of initiative, which did not entail any vote or referendum. A similar scheme under the same name, European Citizens' Initiative, has been put forward in the now ratified European Lisbon Treaty, enabling a limited indirect initiative right, it follows similar rules to the ones outlined in the European Constitution, requiring the signatures of 1,000 000 European Nationals.
These citizens would thereby obtain the same right to request the Commission to submit a legislative proposal as the Council has had since the establishment of the European Communities in 1957. This, does require that the signatures come from a "significant number" of Member States, it is suggested that this significant number will need to be around a quarter of member states, with at least 1/500 of the citizens in those member states supporting the initiative. With the variety of languages within the European Union, this creates a significant hurdle for people to navigate; the treaty makes it clear that right of initiative should not be confused with the right to petition since a petition is directed to Parliament while a citizens' initiative is directed to the Commission. In 2013 the subjects of ongoing open initiatives of the European Citizens' Initiative are e.g. about "water and sanitation as a human right", "30 km/h - making the streets liveable!", "Unconditional Basic Income", or to "End Ecocide in Europe".
It remains to be seen if the ECI evolves into a full initiative or remains in its present state of a de facto petition. Since March 1, 2012, groups of at least 50,000 Finnish citizens with suffrage have had the constitutional right to send a citizens' initiative to the Parliament of Finland. A limited, indirect form of local initiative was added to the French Constitution on 28 March 2003 as part of decentralization reforms. However, the only power these "local referendum initiatives" confer on citizens is the ability to add propositions to their local assembly's meeting agenda; the decision as to whether to submit citizen propositions to a popular vote rests with the local assembly. A citizens' initiative referendum was proposed by the yellow vests movement. All German states have the right to initiative
Office of National Drug Control Policy
The Office of National Drug Control Policy is a component of the Executive Office of the President of the United States. The Director of National Drug Control Policy, colloquially known as the Drug Czar, heads the office. "Drug Czar" was a term first used in the media by then-Senator Joe Biden in October 1982. In addition to running the ONDCP, the director evaluates and oversees both the international and domestic anti-drug efforts of executive branch agencies and ensures that such efforts sustain and complement State and local anti-drug activities; the Director advises the President regarding changes in the organization, management and personnel of federal agencies that affect U. S. anti-drug efforts. The most recent director is James. W. Carroll, who took over from former director Michael Botticelli; the Fiscal Year 2011 National Drug Control Budget proposed by the Obama Administration would devote significant new resources to the prevention and treatment of drug abuse. These resources are complemented by an aggressive effort to enhance domestic law enforcement and supply control programs.
New resources, $340 million, are added to the treatment of drug use. The programs directed by the ONDCP include: the High Intensity Drug Trafficking Areas program the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign, a current domestic government propaganda campaign in the US the Drug Free Communities Program Anti-Doping Activities World Anti-Doping Agency dues The Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988, which created the Office of National Drug Control Policy, was the product of bi-partisan support, it was co-sponsored in the House of Representatives by parties' leaders, Tom Foley and Robert Michel, it passed by margins of 346–11 and 87–3 in the House and Senate, respectively. Upon signing the law, Ronald Reagan said, "This bill is the product of a bipartisan effort." In September 2002, the Senate Appropriations Committee recommended that salaries and expenses at ONDCP be reduced from $26.6 million in fiscal 2006 to $11.5 million in fiscal 2007, to "more reflect actual performance." Committee members said they would request funding for a study of ONDCP by the National Academy of Public Administration.
They ordered a Government Accountability Office study on the distribution of grants. Plus, they directed the Director to provide quarterly updates on travel expenditures, staffing levels and plans for future hirings. In 2011, the ONDCP requested funding for 98 full-time employees, 64 of whom would be paid at either GS-15, GS-14, or SES pay grades, or more than $105,211.00 yearly, being adjusted for Washington, D. C. cost of living expenses. In 2005, the Bush Administration proposed transferring the $225 million High-Intensity Drug Trafficking Program from ONDCP to the Department of Justice; the program gives additional money to communities with chronic illicit drug sales. According to the Washington Post, "Many lawmakers oppose the transfer for fear the program would become less of a priority." By law, the drug czar must oppose any attempt to legalize the use of illicit drugs. According to the "Office of National Drug Control Policy Reauthorization Act of 1998" the director of the ONDCP shall ensure that no Federal funds appropriated to the Office of National Drug Control Policy shall be expended for any study or contract relating to the legalization of a substance listed in schedule I of section 202 of the Controlled Substances Act and take such actions as necessary to oppose any attempt to legalize the use of a substance that -- 1. is listed in schedule I of section 202 of the Controlled Substances Act.
The Deputy Director's statements reflect one perspective regarding marijuana - a perspective, disputed by others with different viewpoints. However, ONDCP is charged with the responsibility for "taking such actions as necessary to oppose any attempt to legalize the use" of certain controlled substances such as marijuana - a responsibility which logically could include the making of advocacy statements in opposition to legalization efforts; the Deputy Director's statements about marijuana are thus within the statutory role assigned to ONDCP. Given this role, we do not see a need to examine the accuracy of the Deputy Director's individual statements in detail. In September 2006, the office reported that the 2005 survey of 67,500 people found that 8.1 percent reported using an illicit drug in the 30 days prior to being asked about their drug use, which equates to 19.7 million people nationwide. The percentage was up compared to 2004. Youth drug use declined for the third year in a row. While the ONDCP measures their efficacy against prior use statistics within the U.
S. they do not publicize how these statistics compare against other countries at the time in their communications to the press. In 2008, ONDCP reported that actual youth drug use, as measured as the percent reporting past month use, has declined from 19.4% to 14.8% among middle and high school students between 2001 and 2007. In August 2001, the office told a Congressional committee that its N
Medical cannabis, or medical marijuana, is cannabis and cannabinoids that are prescribed by physicians for their patients. The use of cannabis as medicine has not been rigorously tested due to production and governmental restrictions, resulting in limited clinical research to define the safety and efficacy of using cannabis to treat diseases. Preliminary evidence suggests that cannabis can reduce nausea and vomiting during chemotherapy, improve appetite in people with HIV/AIDS, reduce chronic pain and muscle spasms. Short-term use increases the risk of major adverse effects. Common side effects include dizziness, feeling tired and hallucinations. Long-term effects of cannabis are not clear. Concerns include memory and cognition problems, risk of addiction, schizophrenia in young people, the risk of children taking it by accident; the Cannabis plant has a history of medicinal use dating back thousands of years in many cultures. Some medical organizations have requested removal of cannabis from the list of Schedule I controlled substances, followed by regulatory and scientific review.
Others oppose its legalization, such as the American Academy of Pediatrics. Medical cannabis can be administered through various methods, including capsules, tinctures, dermal patches, oral or dermal sprays, cannabis edibles, vaporizing or smoking dried buds. Synthetic cannabinoids are available for prescription use in some countries, such as dronabinol and nabilone. Countries that allow the medical use of whole-plant cannabis include Australia, Chile, Germany, Israel, the Netherlands, Poland and Uruguay. In the United States, 33 states and the District of Columbia have legalized cannabis for medical purposes, beginning with the passage of California's Proposition 215 in 1996. Although cannabis remains prohibited for any use at the federal level, the Rohrabacher–Farr amendment was enacted in December 2014, limiting the ability of federal law to be enforced in states where medical cannabis has been legalized. Many different cannabis strains are collectively called medical cannabis. Since many varieties of the cannabis plant and plant derivatives all share the same name, the term medical cannabis is ambiguous and can be misunderstood.
A Cannabis plant includes more than 400 different chemicals. In comparison, typical government-approved medications contain two chemicals; the number of active chemicals in cannabis is one reason why treatment with cannabis is difficult to classify and study. A 2014 review stated that the variations in ratio of CBD-to-THC in botanical and pharmaceutical preparations determines the therapeutic vs psychoactive effects of cannabis products. Medical cannabis has several potential beneficial effects. Evidence is moderate that it helps in chronic muscle spasms. Low quality evidence suggests its use for reducing nausea during chemotherapy, improving appetite in HIV/AIDS, improving sleep, improving tics in Tourette syndrome; when usual treatments are ineffective, cannabinoids have been recommended for anorexia, arthritis and glaucoma. It is recommended. Medical cannabis is somewhat effective in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and may be a reasonable option in those who do not improve following preferential treatment.
Comparative studies have found cannabinoids to be more effective than some conventional antiemetics such as prochlorperazine and metoclopramide in controlling CINV, but these are used less because of side effects including dizziness and hallucinations. Long-term cannabis use may cause nausea and vomiting, a condition known as cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome. A 2016 Cochrane review said that cannabinoids were "probably effective" in treating chemotherapy-induced nausea in children, but with a high side-effect profile. Less common side effects were "ocular problems, orthostatic hypotension, muscle twitching, vagueness, hallucinations and dry mouth". Evidence is lacking for both efficacy and safety of cannabis and cannabinoids in treating patients with HIV/AIDS or for anorexia associated with AIDS; as of 2013, current studies suffer from effects of bias, small sample size, lack of long-term data. A 2017 review found only limited evidence for the effectiveness of cannabis in relieving chronic pain in several conditions.
Another review found tentative evidence for use of cannabis in treating peripheral neuropathy, but little evidence of benefit for other types of long term pain. When cannabis is inhaled to relieve pain, blood levels of cannabinoids rise faster than when oral products are used, peaking within three minutes and attaining an analgesic effect in seven minutes. A 2014 review found limited and weak evidence that smoked cannabis was effective for chronic non-cancer pain. A 2015 meta-analysis found that inhaled medical cannabis was effective in reducing neuropathic pain in the short term for one in five to six patients. Another 2015 review found limited evidence that medical cannabis was effective for neuropathic pain when combined with traditional analgesics. A 2011 review considered cannabis to be safe, it appears safer than opioids in palliative care. Cannabis' efficacy is not clear in treating neurological problems, including multiple sclerosis and movement problems; the combination of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol extracts give subjective relief of spasticity, though objective post-treatment assessments do not reveal significant changes.
Evidence suggests that oral cannabis extract is effective for reducing patien