Binomial nomenclature called binominal nomenclature or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a binomen, binominal name or a scientific name; the first part of the name – the generic name – identifies the genus to which the species belongs, while the second part – the specific name or specific epithet – identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong within this genus to the species Homo sapiens. Tyrannosaurus rex is the most known binomial; the formal introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus beginning with his work Species Plantarum in 1753. But Gaspard Bauhin, in as early as 1623, had introduced in his book Pinax theatri botanici many names of genera that were adopted by Linnaeus; the application of binomial nomenclature is now governed by various internationally agreed codes of rules, of which the two most important are the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature for animals and the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants.
Although the general principles underlying binomial nomenclature are common to these two codes, there are some differences, both in the terminology they use and in their precise rules. In modern usage, the first letter of the first part of the name, the genus, is always capitalized in writing, while that of the second part is not when derived from a proper noun such as the name of a person or place. Both parts are italicized when a binomial name occurs in normal text, thus the binomial name of the annual phlox is now written as Phlox drummondii. In scientific works, the authority for a binomial name is given, at least when it is first mentioned, the date of publication may be specified. In zoology "Patella vulgata Linnaeus, 1758"; the name "Linnaeus" tells the reader who it was that first published a description and name for this species of limpet. "Passer domesticus". The original name given by Linnaeus was Fringilla domestica; the ICZN does not require that the name of the person who changed the genus be given, nor the date on which the change was made, although nomenclatorial catalogs include such information.
In botany "Amaranthus retroflexus L." – "L." is the standard abbreviation used in botany for "Linnaeus". "Hyacinthoides italica Rothm. – Linnaeus first named this bluebell species Scilla italica. The name is composed of two word-forming elements: "bi", a Latin prefix for two, "-nomial", relating to a term or terms; the word "binomium" was used in Medieval Latin to mean a two-term expression in mathematics. Prior to the adoption of the modern binomial system of naming species, a scientific name consisted of a generic name combined with a specific name, from one to several words long. Together they formed a system of polynomial nomenclature; these names had two separate functions. First, to designate or label the species, second, to be a diagnosis or description. In a simple genus, containing only two species, it was easy to tell them apart with a one-word genus and a one-word specific name; such "polynomial names" may sometimes look like binomials, but are different. For example, Gerard's herbal describes various kinds of spiderwort: "The first is called Phalangium ramosum, Branched Spiderwort.
The other... is aptly termed Phalangium Ephemerum Virginianum, Soon-Fading Spiderwort of Virginia". The Latin phrases are short descriptions, rather than identifying labels; the Bauhins, in particular Caspar Bauhin, took some important steps towards the binomial system, by pruning the Latin descriptions, in many cases to two words. The adoption by biologists of a system of binomial nomenclature is due to Swedish botanist and physician Carl von Linné, more known by his Latinized name Carl Linnaeus, it was in his 1753 Species Plantarum that he first began using a one-word "trivial name" together with a generic name in a system of binomial nomenclature. This trivial name is what is now known as specific name; the Bauhins' genus names were retained in many of these, but the descriptive part was reduced to a single word. Linnaeus's trivial names introduced an important new idea, namely that the function of a name could be to give a species a unique label; this meant. Thus Gerard's Phalangium ephemerum virginianum became Tradescantia virgi
The family Stylidiaceae is a taxon of dicotyledonous flowering plants. It consists of five genera with over 240 species, most of which are endemic to Australia and New Zealand. Members of Stylidiaceae are grass-like herbs or small shrubs and can be perennials or annuals. Most species are free self-supporting, though a few can be climbing or scrambling; the pollination mechanisms of Stylidium and Levenhookia are as follows: In Stylidium the floral column, which consists of the fused stamen and style, springs violently from one side when triggered. This deposits the pollen on a visiting insect. In Levenhookia, the column is immobile, but the hooded labellum is triggered and sheds pollen. In 1981, only about 155 species were known in the family; the current number of species by genus is as follows: Forstera - 5, Levenhookia - 10, Oreostylidium - 1, Phyllachne - 4, Stylidium - 221. These numbers for Stylidium, are changing as new species are described. Stylidium rotundifolium appeared in Joseph Banks' Florilegium, drawn from a specimen collected at Endeavour River, Australia in 1770.
The genus Donatia is sometimes included in Stylidiaceae in the monogeneric subfamily Donatioideae. The APG II system recommends its inclusion in Stylidiaceae but allows for the optional recognition of the family Donatiaceae. Molecular and phylogenetic analysis have determined that Donatia is a sister-group to Stylidiaceae and therefore placing Donatia in its own family has been recommended by several authorities. Including Donatia within the Stylidiaceae would endanger its status as a monophyletic group. Donatioideae and Stylidioideae were described by Johannes Mildbraed in his 1908 taxonomic monograph of the family; the subfamilies were created to distinguish the difference between the five typical genera of the Stylidiaceae from the single genus Donatia, which Mildbraed placed in Donatioideae. The subfamily taxonomy represents the taxonomic uncertainty of Donatia, placed in its own family, Donatiaceae, or other families such as the Saxifragaceae. Mildbraed's classification included two tribes: Phyllachneae, which included the genera Forstera and Phyllachne, Stylidieae, which included Levenhookia and Stylidium.
This level of infraspecific taxonomy is not used in recent research, but the groupings are supported by molecular data that suggest Forstera and Phyllachne are related but distinct from the other three. APG II places Donatiaceae in the Asterales; the Cronquist system placed both families in the Campanulales. The Takhtajan and Reveal systems place both families in the order Stylidiales; the Dahlgren system uses the same Stylidiales order. The Thorne system shifts Stylidiaceae into the Saxifragales order. Stylidiaceae Family Description
APG II system
The APG II system of plant classification is the second, now obsolete, version of a modern molecular-based, system of plant taxonomy, published in April 2003 by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. It was a revision of the first APG system, published in 1998, was superseded in 2009 by a further revision, the APG III system. APG II was published as: Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141: 399-436; each of the APG systems represents the broad consensus of a number of systematic botanists, united in the APG, working at several institutions worldwide. The APG II system recognized 45 orders, five more than the APG system; the new orders were Austrobaileyales, Gunnerales and Crossosomatales, all of which were families unplaced as to order, although contained in supra-ordinal clades, in the APG system. APG II recognized five fewer than the APG system. Thirty-nine of the APG II families were not placed in any order, but 36 of the 39 were placed in a supra-ordinal clade within the angiosperms.
Fifty-five of the families came to be known as "bracketed families". They were optional segregates of families; the APG II system was adopted in whole or in part in a number of references. It was superseded 6½ years by the APG III system, published in October 2009. Main groups in the system: angiosperms: magnoliids monocots commelinids eudicots core eudicots rosids eurosids I eurosids II asterids euasterids I euasterids IIShown below is the classification in full detail, except for the fifteen genera and three families that were unplaced in APG II; the unplaced taxa were listed at the end of the appendix in a section entitled "Taxa of Uncertain Position". Under some of the clades are listed the families that were placed incertae sedis in that clade. Thirty-six families were so placed; this means. Paraphyletic grade basal angiosperms family Amborellaceae family Chloranthaceae family Nymphaeaceae order Austrobaileyales order Ceratophyllales clade magnoliids order Canellales order Laurales order Magnoliales order Piperales clade monocots family Petrosaviaceae order Acorales order Alismatales order Asparagales order Dioscoreales order Liliales order Pandanales clade commelinids family Dasypogonaceae order Arecales order Commelinales order Poales order Zingiberales clade eudicots family Buxaceae family Sabiaceae family Trochodendraceae order Proteales order Ranunculales clade core eudicots family Aextoxicaceae family Berberidopsidaceae family Dilleniaceae order Gunnerales order Caryophyllales order Santalales order Saxifragales clade rosids family Aphloiaceae family Geissolomataceae family Ixerbaceae family Picramniaceae family Strasburgeriaceae family Vitaceae order Crossosomatales order Geraniales order Myrtales clade eurosids I family Zygophyllaceae family Huaceae order Celastrales order Cucurbitales order Fabales order Fagales order Malpighiales order Oxalidales order Rosales clade eurosids II family Tapisciaceae order Brassicales order Malvales order Sapindales clade asterids order Cornales order Ericales clade euasterids I family Boraginaceae family Icacinaceae family Oncothecaceae family Vahliaceae order Garryales order Gentianales order Lamiales order Solanales clade euasterids II family Bruniaceae family Columelliaceae family Eremosynaceae family Escalloniaceae family Paracryphiaceae family Polyosmaceae family Sphenostemonaceae family Tribelaceae order Apiales order Aquifoliales order Asterales order DipsacalesNote: "+..." = optionally separate family, that may be split off from the preceding family.
Note: This is a selected list of the more influential systems. There are many other systems, for instance a review of earlier systems, published by Lindley in his 1853 edition, Dahlgren. Examples include the works of Scopoli and Grisebach
Asterales is an order of dicotyledonous flowering plants that includes the large family Asteraceae known for composite flowers made of florets, ten families related to the Asteraceae. The order is a cosmopolite, includes herbaceous species, although a small number of trees and shrubs are present. Asterales are organisms. Asterales share characteristics on biochemical levels. Synapomorphies include the presence in the plants of oligosaccharide inulin, a nutrient storage molecule used instead of starch; the stamens are found around the style, either aggregated densely or fused into a tube an adaptation in association with the plunger pollination, common among the families of the order, wherein pollen is collected and stored on the length of the pistil. The name and order Asterales is botanically venerable, dating back to at least 1926 in the Hutchinson system of plant taxonomy when it contained only five families, of which only two are retained in the APG III classification. Under the Cronquist system of taxonomic classification of flowering plants, Asteraceae was the only family in the group, but newer systems have expanded it to 11.
In the classification system of Dahlgren the Asterales were in the superorder Asteriflorae. The order Asterales includes 11 families, the largest of which are the Asteraceae, with about 25,000 species, the Campanulaceae, with about 2,000 species; the remaining families count together for less than 1500 species. The two large families are cosmopolitan, with many of their species found in the Northern Hemisphere, the smaller families are confined to Australia and the adjacent areas, or sometimes South America. Only the Asteraceae have composite flower heads; the phylogenetic tree according to APG III for the Campanulid clade is as below. The core Asterales are Stylidiaceae, APA clade, MGCA clade, Asteraceae. Other Asterales are Rousseaceae and Pentaphragmataceae. All Asterales families are represented in the Southern Hemisphere. Although most extant species of Asteraceae are herbaceous, the examination of the basal members in the family suggests that the common ancestor of the family was an arborescent plant, a tree or shrub adapted to dry conditions, radiating from South America.
Less can be said about the Asterales themselves with certainty, although since several families in Asterales contain trees, the ancestral member is most to have been a tree or shrub. Because all clades are represented in the southern hemisphere but many not in the northern hemisphere, it is natural to conjecture that there is a common southern origin to them. Asterales are angiosperms; the Asterales order originated in the Cretaceous on the supercontinent Gondwana which broke up from 184 – 80 Mya, forming the area, now Australia, South America, Africa and Antarctica. Asterales contain about 14% of eudicot diversity. From an analysis of relationships and diversities within the Asterales and with their superorders, estimates of the age of the beginning of the Asterales have been made, which range from 116 Mya to 82Mya; however few fossils have been found, of the Menyanthaceae-Asteraceae clade in the Oligocene, about 29 Mya. Fossil evidence of the Asterales is rare and belongs to rather recent epochs, so the precise estimation of the order's age is quite difficult.
An Oligocene pollen is known for Asteraceae and Goodeniaceae, seeds from Oligocene and Miocene are known for Menyanthaceae and Campanulaceae respectively. The Asterales, by dint of being a super-set of the family Asteraceae, include some species grown for food, including the sunflower and chicory. Many are used as spices and traditional medicines. Asterales have many known uses. For example, pyrethrum is a natural insecticide with minimal environmental impact. Wormwood, derived from a genus that includes the sagebrush, is used as a source of flavoring for absinthe, a bitter classical liquor of European origin. W. S. Judd, C. S. Campbell, E. A. Kellogg, P. F. Stevens, M. J. Donoghue. Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach, 2nd edition. Pp. 476–486. Sinauer Associates, Massachusetts. ISBN 0-87893-403-0. J. Lindley. Nixus Plantarum, 20. Londini. Smissen, R. D.. Asterales. In: Nature Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. Nature Publishing Group, London. "Asterales -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia." Encyclopedia - Britannica Online Encyclopedia.
Web. 19 Jan. 2012. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/39703/Asterales>. "Asterales - Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary." Dictionary and Thesaur
Magnoliopsida is a valid botanical name for a class of flowering plants. By definition the class will include the family Magnoliaceae, but its circumscription can otherwise vary, being more inclusive or less inclusive depending upon the classification system being discussed. In the Takhtajan system and the Cronquist system the name was used for the group known as dicotyledons; the Takhtajan system used this internal taxonomy: class Magnoliopsida subclass Magnoliidae subclass Nymphaeidae subclass Nelumbonidae subclass Ranunculidae subclass Caryophyllidae subclass Hamamelididae subclass Dilleniidae subclass Rosidae subclass Cornidae subclass Asteridae subclass Lamiidae The Cronquist system used this internal taxonomy: class Magnoliopsida subclass Magnoliidae subclass Hamamelidae subclass Caryophyllidae subclass Dilleniidae subclass Rosidae subclass Asteridae The Dahlgren system and the Thorne system used the name Magnoliopsida for the flowering plants. However, the Cronquist system has been popular and there have been many versions of the system published.
In some of these Cronquist-based systems the name Magnoliopsida refers to the flowering plants. Class Magnoliopsida subclass Magnoliidae subclass Liliidae The Reveal system used the name Magnoliopsida for a group of the primitive dicotyledons, corresponding to about half of the plants in the magnoliids: class 1. Magnoliopsida superorder 1. Magnolianae superorder 2. Lauranae In the APG and APG II systems botanical names are used only below. Above the rank of order, these systems use their own names, such as angiosperms, monocots, etc; these names refer to clades. This class Magnoliopsida is not defined; the idea that dicotyledons could be a taxonomic unit and get a formal name is rejected by the APG: the dicots are considered to be paraphyletic
Sphenoclea is a genus of succulent erect annual herbs. They occur in damp habitats throughout the tropics. There are S. zeylanica and S. pongatium. The genus is placed alone in family Sphenocleaceae; the position of the family is somewhat uncertain. Http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/Research/APweb/orders/solanalesweb.htm#Sphenocleaceae http://delta-intkey.com/angio/www/sphenocl.htm
Brunonia australis known as the blue pincushion or native cornflower, is a perennial or annual herb that grows across Australia. It is found in open forest and sand plains. In Cronquist's classification scheme it was the sole member of the monogeneric plant family Brunoniaceae; the APG II system moved it into Goodeniaceae, with which it shares the stylar pollen-cup, or indusium, a character confined to these taxa. Brunonia is unique among Goodeniaceae in its radially symmetric flowers, the superior ovary and the absence of endosperm in the seeds; the leaves form a basal rosette. Flowering is in spring, with dense hemispherical clusters of numerous, bright blue flowers developing on several stems up to 50 cm in height. Specimens of Brunonia were first collected by Robert Brown during the 1801–02 voyage of HMS Investigator under the command of Matthew Flinders; the genus had not been published by early 1810, when members of the Linnean Society of London sought to name a plant genus in Brown's honour.
This genus was settled upon because it was so difficult to classify: "The genus under consideration is... exceedingly interesting, on account of its apparent relationship to several different natural orders, the great difficulty of referring it to any one in particular." The name Brunonia was chosen because a genus had been named Brownea in honour of Patrick Browne, Brunonia was seen as a compromise, "preserving as much resemblance to his name as possible, while I avoid all ambiguity with the Brownea established."In February 1810, James Edward Smith read a formal description of Brunonia to the Linnean Society. Two species were given: Brunonia australis and Brunonia sericea; that year, Brown made use of Smith's names in his Prodromus florae Novae Hollandiae. However, Smith's speech did not go to print until 1811, so priority of publication of the genus belongs to Brown not Smith, thus Brown unwittingly violated a virtual botanical taboo, by naming a genus after himself. B. Sericea was reduced to a variety of B. australis in 1907, given synonymy with B. australis in 1992.
A number of other species and variety have been published, but to date none have survived as current taxa except B. australis. This plant is easy to propagate by dividing existing plants. However, they may die after a few years, they should be grown in full sun or partial shade. "Brunonia australis". Association of Societies for Growing Australian Plants. Archived from the original on 2008-06-14. Retrieved 2008-04-12. "Brunonia australis". FloraBase. Western Australian Government Department of Parks and Wildlife. Brunoniaceae in L. Watson and M. J. Dallwitz; the families of flowering plants: descriptions, identification, information retrieval. Https://web.archive.org/web/20070103200438/http://delta-intkey.com/