Government of Georgia (U.S. state)
The state government of Georgia is the U. S. state governmental body established by the Georgia State Constitution. It is a republican form of government with three branches: the legislature and judiciary. Through a system of separation of powers or "checks and balances", each of these branches has some authority to act on its own, some authority to regulate the other two branches, has some of its own authority, in turn, regulated by the other branches; the seat of government for Georgia is located in Atlanta. The current statewide elected officials are as follows: The main executive official in Georgia is the Governor, they are elected by the voters of the state for a term of four years. No person may hold the office more than twice consecutively; the governor thus possesses great power over all state finances. Additionally, the governor is responsible for the nomination of over a thousand officials to a variety of positions in state government, one of the largest rosters of any U. S. state. Those nominated must be approved by the state legislature.
Regulations are codified in the Regulations of the State of Georgia. There are several departments and other entities within the government, including the: Georgia Department of Administrative Services Georgia Department of Agriculture Georgia Department of Audits and Accounts Georgia Department of Banking and Finance Georgia Department of Behavioral Health and Developmental Disabilities Georgia Bureau of Investigation Georgia Department of Community Affairs Georgia Department of Community Health Georgia Department of Community Supervision Georgia Department of Corrections Georgia Department of Defense Georgia Development Authority Georgia Department of Driver Services Georgia Department of Early Care and Learning Georgia Department of Economic Development Georgia Department of Education Georgia Department of Human Services Georgia Department of Insurance Georgia Department of Juvenile Justice Georgia Department of Labor Georgia Department of Natural Resources Georgia Department of Public Health Georgia Department of Public Safety Georgia Public Service Commission Georgia Department of Revenue Georgia Department of Transportation Georgia Department of Veterans Service The legislature of Georgia is the General Assembly, a bicameral body consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives.
The Senate has 56 members and the House has 180 members. Each member of the legislature represents geographically distinct districts from which each voter may give support to one candidate for each body. For most of its history, the state used an unusual county unit system by which districts were drawn such that each had the same area. However, population growth in cities across the state led to the rural population, in relative decline, having disproportionate power in government. After the U. S. Supreme Court declared such unequal representation to be unconstitutional in Gray v. Sanders in 1963, state officials began to redefine legislative districts so that each had a sized population. Both senators and representatives have terms of two years. There are no limits on the number of terms, its legislative acts, generically called "chapter laws" or "slip laws" when printed separately, are published in the official Georgia Laws and are called "session laws". These in turn have been codified in the Official Code of Georgia Annotated.
The highest judiciary power in Georgia is the Supreme Court, composed of nine judges. The state has a Court of Appeals made of 12 judges. Georgia is divided into 49 judicial circuits, each of which has a Superior Court consisting of local judges numbering between two and 19 depending on the circuit population. Under the 1983 Constitution, Georgia has magistrate courts, probate courts, juvenile courts, state courts. Other courts, including county recorder's courts, civil courts and other agencies in existence on June 30, 1983, may continue with the same jurisdiction until otherwise provided by law; each county in Georgia has at least one superior court, magistrate court, probate court, where needed a state court and a juvenile court. All serving judges are elected by popular vote either from the entire state in the cases of the Supreme Court and the Court of Appeals or from a given circuit in the case of Superior Courts. Judges of the Supreme Court and the Court of Appeals serve for terms of six years.
Judges of other courts serve for terms of four years. The Georgia Constitution grants counties a significant amount of home rule authority. Georgia is divided into 159 counties, more than any other U. S. state except Texas. Among all counties, 149 of them are governed by a committee made of between three and eleven commissioners; the other 10 counties are overseen by a single commissioner. All commissioners are elected by the voters of their county for terms that range between two and six years with most counties having terms lasting four years. Serving members wield both legislative power in their county. Most of the 536 cities in Georgia are governed by a mayor-council system. All municipalities in the state are considered cities. Most basic public services rendered. Elections in Georgia Politics of Georgia Law of Georgia List of state government committees of Georgia GeorgiaGov Georgia General Assembly Georgia Supreme Court
Douglas County, Georgia
Douglas County is a county located in the north central portion of the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 132,403, nearly double that in 1990; the county seat is Douglasville. Douglas County is included in GA Metropolitan Statistical Area, it has attracted new residents. NameThe county was created during Reconstruction after the US Civil War when many African Americans were serving in the Georgia legislature, was named Douglass County after the abolitionist Frederick Douglass, but the name was soon changed when Confederate Democrats regained power and expelled the reconsructionists, they renamed it Douglas County after Stephen A. Douglas, an Illinois senator and the Democratic opponent of Abraham Lincoln in the presidential election of 1860; the existing historical marker makes no mention of the original name and says: This county, created by Act of the Legislature October 1, 1870, was named for Stephen A. Douglas, the "Little Giant," a Vermonter, Congressman from Illinois 1843 to'47, Senator from'47 to'61, Democratic candidate for President in 1860 on the ticket with gov.
Herschel V. Johnson, of Georgia, for Vice President. Among the first County Officers were: sheriff T. H. Sellman, Clerk of Superior Court A. L. Gorman, Ordinary Wm. Hindman, Tax Receiver Jno. M. James, Tax Collector M. D. Watkins, Treasurer C. P. Bower, Surveyor John M. Hughey; the county was created from the part of Campbell county, northwest of the Chattahoochee River. The remainder of Campbell became southwest Fulton at the beginning of 1932. County seatThe act creating Douglas County provided that in November 1870, voters of the new county would elect county officers, vote to select the site of the county seat. In the election, some voters chose a site near the center of the county, but a larger number voted for the settlement known as "Skinned Chestnut" or "Skin Chestnut," based on a Creek Indian landmark tree; the courthouse commissioners chose this site as county seat and proceeded to sell lots and build a courthouse. It changed its name to Douglasville. A group of citizens filed suit against the commissioners.
The case went to the Supreme Court of Georgia, which ruled against the commissioners. Both sides agreed to postpone further action until the route of the Georgia Western Railroad through Douglas County was determined; the General Assembly enacted legislation on Feb. 28, 1874, directing that an election be held on Apr. 7, 1874, to determine the location of the county seat—but with the provision that the site be located on the Georgia Western Railroad. In the election, voters confirmed Douglasville as the county seat. On Feb. 25, 1875, the General Assembly incorporated Douglasville. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 201 square miles, of which 200 square miles is land and 1.0 square mile is water. Douglas County's elevation above sea level ranges as low as 740 feet at the Chattahoochee River to as high as 1,340 feet. Andy Mountain, between Villa Rica and Winston – west of Douglasville along Bankhead Highway, has the highest elevation in Douglas County. Two other elevated summits are located in the county, known as Cedar Mountain at 1,257 feet, Pine Mountain at 1,180 feet.
Douglas County sits in Georgia's Piedmont region, which makes its elevation vary due to many rolling hills that Douglas County sits on near the tail end of the Appalachian Mountains. There are no high mountain peaks in Douglas County, just a range of ridges and valleys; the entirety of Douglas County is located in the Middle Chattahoochee River-Lake Harding sub-basin of the ACF River Basin. The Chattahoochee River borders the county to southeast. Sweetwater Creek runs in the eastern side of the county in the Lithia Springs area; the USGS stream gauge at Lithia Springs is considered to be "near Austell" by the National Weather Service, however though that city is further away and in Cobb and not Douglas. George Sparks Reservoir makes its home at Sweetwater Creek State Park; the Dog River is a small creek like river in the western side of Douglas county and travels south and eastward until it ends at the Dog River Reservoir in the southern part of the county. The Dog River Reservoir is Douglas County's main source of drinking water, serves as a recreational lake for residents of the county.
All of these had massive flooding during the 2009 Atlanta floods. Douglas County has been experiencing numerous natural disasters over the most recent decades. Being located in the South Eastern United States the county experiences strong storms and tornadoes because of its location in Dixie Alley. A tornado touched down in the city of Douglasville on March 7, 2008 damaging many homes and ripping one home in half in the Brookmont subdivision on Chapel Hill Road. Arbor Place Mall reported broken windows from the storm; the tornado damaged the Chapel Hill Kroger grocery store and threw a heavy air conditioning unit onto cars below. There was only one injury reported from the storm. Another tornado touched down in Douglas County on May 11, 2008, known as the "Mother's Day Tornado"; the EF2 tornado caused damage all over the county. The tornado moved through the rest of the county; the tornado packing wind speeds up to 110 mph downed many trees and damaged many homes in the county. A gas station in Douglasville was destroyed by the storm, with the large roof being thrown onto the street.
No injuries or deaths were reported. The gov
Elections in Georgia (U.S. state)
Elections in Georgia are held to fill various state and federal seats. Georgia regular elections are held every year; the positions being decided each year varies. Special elections are held to fill vacated offices. Georgia is one of seven states that require a run-off election if no candidate receives a majority of the vote in a primary election. Uniquely, Georgia requires a run-off election if no candidates wins a majority of the vote in a general election. Following the end of martial law and readmission to the Union during Reconstruction, Georgia was overwhelmingly dominated by the Democratic Party for a hundred years as did many other states of the Confederacy. White voters perceived the Republican Party as the party of the North standing for Yankee values, growing industrialisation, an excessively powerful and interfering federal government all arrayed against their localized agricultural society; the abolition of slavery by amendment to the U. S. Constitution and the legacy of an economy damaged by war and social upheaval led many to bitterly oppose a wide variety of national policies.
Elections to the U. S. Congress during this period saw exclusively Democratic senators and either or almost-totally Democratic House rule. From 1872 to 2002, Georgia voters elected Democrats as governor and Democratic majorities to the state legislature. Like many other Southern states, the Democratic-controlled legislature established run-off elections for primaries in which no candidate receives more than 50% of the vote. Elections at all levels of government in the U. S. state of Georgia was dominated by conservative white Democrats in the period between Reconstruction and the end of the New Deal Coalition. For decades, Republicans were a tiny minority associated with Union military victory at the end of the Civil War. Indeed, for several years, the Republicans did not field a candidate for governor or any other statewide elected office. Beginning in the 1950s, the credible enforcement of new laws inspired by the Civil Rights Movement began to erode the preponderance of Democrats in elective office in Georgia.
The repeal of Jim Crow laws allowed disenfranchised African Americans to vote in elections and be active in politics. As many of these people joined with some white Democrats to work for more immediate liberal and pluralistic policies, a growing number of conservative white Democrats who supported either gradual change or none at all either began splitting their tickets at the national level or switching outright to the GOP; the strong showing in Georgia by Republican President Dwight D. Eisenhower in the 1956 presidential race proved to be a turning point. Georgia would remain competitive at the national level for most of the rest of the 20th century; the Republican Party appeared positioned to gain more ground in the coming years. The Democratic Party did not carry the state from the 1960 election until Jimmy Carter ran for the White House 16 years later. Beginning with Barry Goldwater's presidential bid in 1964, the Republican Party began making inroads in Georgia; the state swung over to support Goldwater—the first time it had gone Republican in a presidential election in American history.
In time, the Republican Party of Georgia would field competitive candidates and win races for seats in the U. S. Senate and U. S. House of Representatives. Republicans began making gains at the state level in the Atlanta suburbs. However, conservative Democrats continued to hold most offices at the local level well into the 1990s. In presidential races, Georgia has given its electoral college votes to the Republican candidate all but four times since 1964: in 1968, segregationist George Wallace won a plurality of Georgia's votes on the American Independent Party ticket. Republican George W. Bush won Georgia by double digits in 2000 and 2004, with 54.67% and 57.97% of the vote, making him the only Republican presidential candidate to carry Georgia twice. In 2008, John McCain won the state by a narrower margin of only 5 points, winning 52% to Democrat Barack Obama's 47%. In 2012, Mitt Romney won the state with 53% to Obama's 45%. In 2016, Donald Trump won the state with 51% to Hillary Clinton's 46%.
By 2007, conservative Republicans had become the dominant force in state elections, with Republicans holding the offices of governor and lieutenant governor and significant majorities in both houses of the state General Assembly. As in many states, Democratic strongholds in Georgia include minority-dominated areas. Democrats fare well in cities such as Atlanta and Columbus, which have large minority populations, as well as Athens, home of the University of Georgia; the Republican Party dominates state elections through its hold on rural south Georgia, with a notable exception in the southwestern part of the state. Former Speaker of the United States House of Representatives Newt Gingrich, co-author of the Contract with America and architect of the 1994 "Republican Revolution," represented a district in Cobb County, a conservative suburban Atlanta county; the current Governor of Georgia is Brian Kemp, elected as a Republican in 2018. The Lieutenant Governor is Geoff Duncan. Other elected state executive officials include Secretary of State Brad Raffensperger, Attorney Gen
Music of Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia's musical history is diverse and substantial. The music of Athens, Georgia is well known for a kind of quirky college rock that has included such well-known bands as R. E. M; the B-52's, Pylon. The state's official music museum is the Georgia Music Hall of Fame, located in Macon, Georgia from 1996 until it closed in 2011. Colleges such as the University of Georgia and Columbus State University have extensive music departments. Georgia's folk musical traditions include important contributions to the Piedmont blues, shape note singing, African-American music; the "ring shout" is an African American musical and dance tradition, among the oldest surviving African American performance styles in North America. The ring shout tradition is rare in the modern Southern United States, but it still found in McIntosh County, where black communities have kept the style alive; the McIntosh County ring shout is a counterclockwise ring dance featuring clapping and stick-beating percussion with call-and-response vocals.
The ring shout tradition is strongest in Boldon, where it is traditionally performed on New Year's Eve. The Georgia Sea Island Singers are an important group in modern African American folk music in Georgia, they perform worldwide the Gullah/Geechee music of the Georgia coast and Sea Islands, have been touring since the early 1900s. The Georgia Sea Island Singers have included Bessie Jones, Emma Ramsey, John Davis, Mayble Hillery, Peter Davis. Fife and drum blues has been documented in west central Georgia; the Freedom Singers are a group that formed in 1962 in Albany to educate communities about issues related to the Civil Rights Movement through song. Multi-instrumentalist Abner Jay, born in Fitzgerald, performed eccentric blues-infused folk music as a one-man band; the Sacred Harp, first published in 1844, was compiled and produced by Georgians Benjamin Franklin White and Elisha J. King, they helped establish a singing tradition known as Sacred Harp, fasola, or shape note singing. The Sacred Harp system use notes represented by different shapes according to scale degree, intended to make it easy for people to learn to sight-read music and perform complex pieces without a lot of training.
Established in 1933, the Sacred Harp Publishing Company, located in Carrollton, publishes the most used 1991 edition of The Sacred Harp. Hugh McGraw of Bremen, served as the company's executive secretary from 1958–2002 and helped encourage Sacred Harp's recent resurgence in popularity. A Georgia-based music label, Bibletone Records, has reissued a 28-cut CD of Sacred Harp music released as LPs by the publishing company. Folksinger/songwriter Hedy West, active in the American folk music revival and famous for her song "500 Miles", was born in Cartersville. On June 14, 1923, the country music recording industry was launched in Atlanta when Fiddlin' John Carson made his first phonograph record for Okeh Records Company representative Polk C. Brockman. Carson's recordings of "The Little Old Log Cabin in the Lane" and "The Old Hen Cackled and the Rooster's Going to Crow" sold over 500,0000 copies and opened the eyes of record company executives to the market for "old-time" country music. Along with Carson, Gid Tanner and His Skillet Lickers and Georgia Yellow Hammers made Atlanta and North Georgia an early center of old-time string band music.
In the 1960s, guitarist Chet Atkins, born in Luttrell, Tennessee but raised in Hamilton, drew on jazz and pop music to help create the smoother country music style known as the Nashville Sound, expanding country music's appeal to adult pop fans. Country music superstars Alan Jackson, Trisha Yearwood, Travis Tritt are natives of Georgia. Other successful country music acts from Georgia include Norman Blake, Jerry Reed, Brenda Lee, Billy Currington, Cyndi Thomson, Jennifer Nettles of Sugarland, Daryle Singletary, Doug Stone, John Berry, Rhett Akins, Mark Wills, the Zac Brown Band, Lady Antebellum, as well as up and coming stars Jason Aldean, Brantley Gilbert, Luke Bryan, Thomas Rhett, Cole Swindell (attended Georgia Southern University, Kip Moore, Lauren Alaina, Jessie James. Other notable country musicians from Georgia include Corey Smith and Tabby Crabb from Sumter Co. who worked with the original Urban Cowboy Band, Randy Howard, Hank Cochran, Keith Urban, many others in Nashville. Georgia country music superstars with a #1 album on the Billboard 200 chart include Atlanta-area musicians Alan Jackson with 3 #1 albums like Drive in 2002, Zac Brown Band with 3 like You Get What You Give in 2010.
Ma Rainey, from Columbus, was among the earliest professional blues singers and one of the first generation of such singers to record. Piedmont blues artist Blind Willie McTell was born in Thomson. Country blues singer and guitarist Peg Leg Howell was born in Eatonton. Singer Ida Cox was from Toccoa. Singer and guitarist Kokomo Arnold was born in Lovejoy's Station. Singer Lucille Hegamin was born in Macon. Singer Trixie Smith was born
Fayette County, Georgia
Fayette County is a county located in the north central portion of the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 106,567. Fayette County was established in 1821; the county seat, was established in 1823. Much of Fayette County is bordered on the east side by the Flint River. Fayette County was organized in 1821 after the United States signed a treaty at Indian Springs, Georgia with the Creek people for cession of a large portion of their land; the county and its seat, were both named in honor of the French aristocrat the Marquis de Lafayette, who aided General George Washington in the American Revolutionary War. Since the late 20th century, Fayette County has been part of the Greater Atlanta Metropolitan Area, it is located south of Atlanta, based in Fulton County. Fayette County is minutes from Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport; as a suburb of Atlanta, Fayette County has increased in population and development since the late 20th century, nearly doubling its population since 1990.
Both the county commission and the school board were elected members at-large from the county. The school board was one of only 20 boards, out of 180 in Georgia. Plaintiffs from the NAACP filed suit in 2011, charging that the system diluted their voting power, preventing the minority, who comprise 20% of the population, from electing candidates of their choice; the judge ruled in their favor and in 2013, a system of single-member voting was established, which the county and school board appealed. In 2014 the first African Americans were elected to the county school board. In January 2016, the county and school board voted to settle the suit, as supported by the Chamber of Commerce, they have negotiated a system of four seats to be elected by single-member districts, with one at-large seat. Fayette County has five incorporated municipalities within its borders. Inman was a municipality, but gave up its charter years ago. In 2015 Fayetteville, a majority-white city, elected Ed Johnson. In 2011 he had been the first African American elected to its city council and only the second African American elected to any office in the history of Fayette County.
Fayette County was created on May 15, 1821, from territory ceded to the United States by the Creek people, who had inhabited the area. It was named for French hero of the American Revolutionary War. Located in the Piedmont, the county was developed by planters for cotton cultivation, using enslaved labor for this commodity crop. Agriculture continued to be important into the early 20th century. In the years following World War II, the county developed suburban residential communities, with many workers commuting to Atlanta. Peachtree City was chartered in 1959, it was developed as the only planned community in the Southeast. The county population has increased during the late twentieth century with the growth of Atlanta, it has benefited from a reverse migration of African Americans to the South, as new residents are attracted to jobs and opportunities. Significant growth and development continues. In 2002 Charles "Chuck" Floyd was appointed to the position of Chief Magistrate Judge of the county.
In 2004 and 2008, he was elected to the position in his own right, the first African American elected to any office in the county. Fayette County's local government is led by a board of five county commissioners, known as the governing authority of Fayette County. Since March 2016, four seats are to be filled by election from single-member districts and one at-large from the county; until 2013, the county was divided into three "county commission districts." Three of the members of the board of commissioners were required to live inside one of the designated districts. The remaining two commissioners could live anywhere in the county. All members of the county commission were elected "at-large," which meant that each candidate had to attract the majority of votes across the county in order to win. Since 1982, more than 100 cases of such at-large voting systems in Georgia have been replaced by single-member districts; the five members of the school board were elected at-large. In the early 21st century, Fayette County was one of only 20 school boards among 180 in the state of Georgia to maintain at-large voting to elect members of these boards.
The practical effect was the exclusion of African Americans from these positions. The county has been majority-Republican since the late 20th century. Neither Republican nor Democratic African-American candidates had any electoral success. In 2011 the NAACP and several African-American county residents filed suit against the county and the board for the at-large voting system. In May 2013, the federal district court ordered the county and school board to change their systems of at-large voting, finding that it violated the Voting Rights Act of 1965 by diluting the voting power of the minority. African Americans make up 20% of the county population but were unable to elect candidates of their choice, as every commission and school board seat required a majority of county voters; the county has a majority-Republican population. Under the federal ruling, five districts were established so that members of both the school board and county commission are elected from single-member districts; this broadened representation on the boards.
Voters of each district elect a commissioner living within its boundaries. In 2014 Democrat Pota E. Coston was elected as the first black county commissioner in the 194-year history of the county. Leonard Presberg was first appointed and th
Georgia Land Lotteries
The Georgia land lotteries were an early nineteenth century system of land redistribution in Georgia. Under this system, qualifying citizens could register for a chance to win lots of land, occupied by the Creek Indians and the Cherokee Nation; the lottery system was utilized by the State of Georgia between the years 1805 and 1833. Although some other states used land lotteries, none were implemented at the scale of the Georgia contests. Land lots were surveyed in five different sizes based on the perceived quality of the land. In 1805, land lots were 202.5 acres and 490 acres. In 1807, land lots were 202.5 acres. In 1820, land lots were 490 acres. In 1821, land lots were 202.5 acres. In the 1832 Land Lottery area, land lots were 160 acres, while in the 1832 Gold Lottery area, land lots were 40 acres. Prior to 1803, Georgia distributed land via a headright system. Though designed to prohibit corruption, the system encouraged it. During early administration, the government abused this system and created what today is known as the Yazoo land scandal.
The much-abused "headright" system resulted in the adoption of the lottery system in May 1803, under governor John Milledge. The first lottery occurred in 1805. For each person subscribing to a lottery, a ticket was placed in the wheel. Since each lottery was over-subscribed, tickets were added to compensate for the over-subscription. In October 1831, Georgia voters went to the polls to vote between Governor George Gilmer who wished to reserve the Cherokee land, which contained several gold mines, for the State of Georgia, in order to pay for government projects and reduce taxes, Wilson Lumpkin, who supported giving away the lands. In an effort to keep their lands, certain Cherokees —including John Ross, Samuel Worcester and Major Ridge—took their fight against the State of Georgia to the United States Supreme Court. There were two major cases heard by the Court during the years of 1831 through 1832: Cherokee Nation v. Georgia and Worcester v. Georgia. Although the U. S. Supreme Court ruled against the sovereignty of the Cherokee Nation in Cherokee Nation v. Georgia, the U.
S. Supreme granted sovereignty in Worcester v. Georgia, resulting in the invalidation of the Indian Removal Act; the U. S. President Andrew Jackson and the State of Georgia chose instead to ignore the Supreme Court ruling. Georgia continued its surveying and division of the Cherokee lands through the final "1832 Land and Gold Lotteries". President Jackson utilized the U. S. Army, forcing the "removal of the Cherokees. Land speculation in the lotteries were common, many lots were sold sight-unseen by the winners for other lots or for gold. Real estate agents, individual citizens and unscrupulous lottery officials attempted to secure promising gold belt lots or valuable Cherokee plantation lots. During the 1832 Lottery alone, some 85,000 people competed for 18,309 land lots to be given away, at least 133,000 people competed for 35,000 gold belt lots to be given away. During the 28 years that the State of Georgia used the lottery system, the rules and the methods of the system remained unchanged. Lottery fees depended on the winning ticket and the size of the lot won, but in general, they only covered the cost of running the lottery.
The State did not directly profit from allocating these lands. Fractional lots were sold in each of the lotteries, some lands those near major rivers, were exempt from the lottery; these were distributed by the State at public auctions. 1805 Land Lottery — This encompassed Creek Indian lands just west of the Oconee River ceded to the state in 1802 and a small strip of land in the southeast section of the state. 1807 Land Lottery — Included additional Creek lands. 1820 Land Lottery — After the Creek War, President Jackson demanded from the Creeks an immense area of land which would become the southern third of the entire state of Georgia. A second section of land in northeast Georgia was included; this other, smaller section defined the eastern end of the Cherokee Nation for 12 years. 1821 Land Lottery — Further Creek cessions which included the future site of Atlanta. 1827 Land Lottery — Signaled the end of the Creek Indians in Georgia. 1832 Land Lottery — This lottery, along with the 1832 Gold Lottery, gave the Cherokee Nation to Georgia settlers.
Sparked the "Trail of Tears." 1832 Gold Lottery — By the time of the gold lottery the Georgia Gold Rush was beginning to wind down. The state did not guarantee. 1833 Fractions Lottery — The State of Georgia held one final land lottery in December, 1833, to distribute fractions from the Cherokee territory and other remaining lots not drawn in previous lotteries. Georgia Land Lotteries from the state of Georgia Archives 1805 Georgia Land Lottery from 1805georgialandlottery.com 1807 Georgia Land Lottery from 1807georgialandlottery.com Georgia Land Lottery from ngeorgia.com Land Lottery Records from rootsweb.com/~usgenweb Land Lottery Records from georgiagenealogy.org
DeKalb County, Georgia
DeKalb County is a county in the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 691,893, its county seat is Decatur. DeKalb County is included in GA Metropolitan Statistical Area, it contains 10% of the city of Atlanta. It is Georgia's most diverse county. DeKalb is a suburban county, is the second-most-affluent county with an African-American majority in the United States, behind Prince George's County, Maryland, in suburban Washington, D. C. In 2009, DeKalb earned the Atlanta Regional Commission's "Green Communities" designation for its efforts in conserving energy and fuel. In recent years, some communities in North DeKalb have incorporated, following a trend in other suburban areas around Metro Atlanta. Dunwoody and Brookhaven are now the largest cities within the county. DeKalb County, formed in 1822 from Henry and Fayette counties, took its name from Baron Johann de Kalb, a Bavarian-born former officer in the French Army, who fought for the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War.
The oldest existing house in the county is the 1831 Goodwin House along Peachtree Road in Brookhaven. In 1853, Fulton County formed from the western half of DeKalb, divided along a straight and due north/south line down the middle; until this time, the growing city of Atlanta had been inside DeKalb. Atlanta grew because the city of Decatur did not want to become the railroad terminus in the 1830s, thus a spot at the Thrasherville encampment in western DeKalb was picked to become Terminus and Marthasville, before becoming Atlanta a few years after its founding. North and southwest Fulton came from two other counties: Milton and southeast Campbell, respectively. DeKalb once extended further north to the Chattahoochee River, but this strip was given to Milton, is now the panhandle of Sandy Springs. During the Civil War, much of the Battle of Atlanta took place in DeKalb; until the 1960s, DeKalb was a agricultural county, but as the sprawl of the metropolitan Atlanta region expanded, DeKalb became urbanized.
Finished in 1969, the eastern half of the Interstate 285 beltway, called "the Perimeter", ringed the northeastern and southern edges of the county, placing most of it "inside the Perimeter" along with nearly all of Atlanta. Interstate 675 and Georgia 400 were planned to connect inside the Perimeter, along with the Stone Mountain Freeway connecting with the Downtown Connector near Moreland Avenue, destroying many neighborhoods in western DeKalb, but community opposition in the early 1970s spared them this fate of urbanization, although part of the proposed Stone Mountain Tollway became the Freedom Parkway. Only Interstate 20 and Interstate 85 were built through the county. DeKalb became one of only two counties to approve MARTA rapid transit in the 1970s. In April 2018, more than 350 bus drivers for DeKalb County School District went on strike over low pay and poor working conditions, resulting in seven bus drivers being fired. In recent years, along with many other counties in the Atlanta area, DeKalb County has voted Democratic in presidential elections, while in the past it was more of a swing county, voting Democratic and Republican an equal number of times from 1960 until 1988.
In the wake of the United States elections, 2018, it no longer has any Republican representatives in the state legislature or United States House of Representatives, for the first time since the breakdown of the old Solid South. The current Chief Executive Officer of DeKalb County is Michael Thurmond, he took office on January 1, 2017. Current County Commissioners as of January 2019: Unincorporated DeKalb County is policed by the DeKalb County Police Department, the DeKalb Sheriff's Office, responsible for serving criminal warrants and securing the courts and county jail, the DeKalb Marshal's Office, which serves civil processes issued through state court, such as evictions. Fire services are provided throughout the county by Rescue. DeKalb County Fire and Rescue provided emergency medical services throughout the county; the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is based in the Druid Hills CDP in an unincorporated area in the county. The Federal Bureau of Investigation Atlanta Field Office is located in Chamblee.
The Georgia Department of Juvenile Justice has its headquarters near Decatur. The Georgia Bureau of Investigation has its headquarters near Decatur, in an unincorporated area; the Metro State Prison of the Georgia Department of Corrections was located in an unincorporated area in DeKalb County. Female death row inmates resided in the Metro State Prison; the prison was closed in 2011. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 271 square miles, of which 268 square miles is land and 3.6 square miles is water. The county is crossed by the South River and numerous creeks, including Nancy Creek, Snapfinger Creek and two forks of Peachtree Creek. Peachtree Creek and Nancy Creek drain into the Chattahoochee River and to the Gulf of Mexico. South River drains into the Ocmulgee River and into the Atl