Union (American Civil War)
During the American Civil War, the Union known as the North, referred to the United States of America and to the national government of President Abraham Lincoln and the 20 free states, as well as 4 border and slave states that supported it. The Union was opposed by 11 southern slave states that formed the Confederate States of America known as "the Confederacy" or "the South". All of the Union's states provided soldiers for the United States Army, though the border areas sent tens of thousands of soldiers south into the Confederacy; the Border states were essential as a supply base for the Union invasion of the Confederacy, Lincoln realized he could not win the war without control of them Maryland, which lay north of the national capital of Washington, D. C.. The Northeast and upper Midwest provided the industrial resources for a mechanized war producing large quantities of munitions and supplies, as well as financing for the war; the Midwest provided soldiers, horses, financial support, training camps.
Army hospitals were set up across the Union. Most states had Republican Party governors who energetically supported the war effort and suppressed anti-war subversion in 1863–64; the Democratic Party supported the war at the beginning in 1861 but by 1862, was split between the War Democrats and the anti-war element led by the "Copperheads". The Democrats made major electoral gains in 1862 in state elections, most notably in New York, they lost ground in 1863 in Ohio. In 1864, the Republicans campaigned under the National Union Party banner, which attracted many War Democrats and soldiers and scored a landslide victory for Lincoln and his entire ticket against opposition candidate George B. McClellan, former General-in-Chief of the Union Army and its eastern Army of the Potomac; the war years were quite prosperous except where serious fighting and guerrilla warfare took place along the southern border. Prosperity was stimulated by heavy government spending and the creation of an new national banking system.
The Union states invested a great deal of money and effort in organizing psychological and social support for soldiers' wives and orphans, for the soldiers themselves. Most soldiers were volunteers, although after 1862 many volunteered in order to escape the draft and to take advantage of generous cash bounties on offer from states and localities. Draft resistance was notable in some larger cities New York City with its massive anti-draft riots of July 1863 and in some remote districts such as the coal mining areas of Pennsylvania. In the context of the American Civil War, the Union is sometimes referred to as "the North", both and now, as opposed to the Confederacy, "the South"; the Union never recognized the legitimacy of the Confederacy's secession and maintained at all times that it remained a part of the United States of America. In foreign affairs the Union was the only side recognized by all other nations, none of which recognized the Confederate government; the term "Union" occurs in the first governing document of the United States, the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union.
The subsequent Constitution of 1787 was issued and ratified in the name not of the states, but of "We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union...". Union, for the United States of America, is repeated in such clauses as the Admission to the Union clause in Article IV, Section 3. Before the war started, the phrase "preserve the Union" was commonplace, a "union of states" had been used to refer to the entire United States of America. Using the term "Union" to apply to the non-secessionist side carried a connotation of legitimacy as the continuation of the pre-existing political entity. Confederates saw the Union states as being opposed to slavery referring to them as abolitionists, as in reference to the U. S. Navy as the "Abolition fleet" and the U. S. Army as the "Abolition forces". Unlike the Confederacy, the Union had a large industrialized and urbanized area, more advanced commercial and financial systems than the rural South. Additionally, the Union states had a manpower advantage of 5 to 2 at the start of the war.
Year by year, the Confederacy shrank and lost control of increasing quantities of resources and population. Meanwhile, the Union turned its growing potential advantage into a much stronger military force. However, much of the Union strength had to be used to garrison conquered areas, to protect railroads and other vital points; the Union's great advantages in population and industry would prove to be vital long-term factors in its victory over the Confederacy, but it took the Union a long while to mobilize these resources. The attack on Fort Sumter rallied the North to the defense of American nationalism. Historian, Allan Nevins, says: The thunderclap of Sumter produced a startling crystallization of Northern sentiment... Anger swept the land. From every side came news of mass meetings, resolutions, tenders of business support, the muster of companies and regiments, the determined action of governors and legislatures. McClintock states: At the time, Northerners were right to wonder at the near unanimity that so followed long months of bitterness and discord.
It would not last throughout the protracted war to come – or through the year – but in that moment of unity was laid bare the common Northern nationalism hidden by the fierce battles more typical of the political arena." Historian Michael Smith, argues that, as the war grou
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Cove Lake State Park
Cove Lake State Park is a state park in Campbell County, Tennessee, in the southeastern United States. The park consists of 673 acres situated around Cove Lake, an impoundment of Cove Creek created by the completion of Caryville Dam in 1936; the park's location is adjacent to just west of Jacksboro. Cove Lake is an extension of the much larger Norris Reservoir, which extends across the lower 15 miles of Cove Creek downstream from Caryville Dam. Cove Lake State Park was one of several state and local parks developed in the 1930s as part of the Norris Dam Project; the park includes a large campground, several small walking trails, a wildlife observation area. A leg of the Cumberland Trail passes near the park's northern boundary, connecting the park to nearby mountaintops. Cove Lake State Park is located at the western end of Powell Valley, a 50-mile valley dividing the Cumberland Mountains to the north and west from the Appalachian Ridge-and-Valley range to south and east. Cross Mountain— which at 3,534 feet is the highest mountain in Tennessee west of the Blue Ridge Mountains— dominates the view to the west.
The southern tip of Fork Mountain overlooks the park to the north. Cumberland Mountain, a narrow ridge that spans the entire northern rim of Powell Valley, stretches nearly 40 miles between Bruce Gap and Cumberland Gap to the northeast. Cumberland Mountain's rocky western tip, known as Devil's Racetrack, is visible from most anywhere in the park. Cove Creek rises in the mountains to the northwest and flows southeastward for 25 miles before emptying into the Clinch River just north of Norris Dam. Caryville Dam spans the creek 16 miles upstream from the creek's mouth; the lake created by the dam spans a 2-mile stretch of Cove Creek upstream from the dam and a 1-mile stretch of the creek's Dog Creek tributary to form a U-shape around the park. The entire lake covers 210 acres. Interstate 75 passes along the western boundary of the park, connecting the area to Kentucky to the north and Knoxville to the south. U. S. Route 25W passes through the southern and eastern sections of the park, connecting it with Caryville to the west and the Norris Dam area to the east.
Archaeological excavations in the 1930s uncovered evidence of a Mississippian period Native American village near where US-25W now crosses Cove Lake, along the park's southern boundary. The site, known as the Irvin Mound Site, consisted of a large mound surrounded by a village that covered nearly 15 acres at its greatest extent. Researchers determined that houses in the village were made of small upright logs posted in trenches and lashed together using cane and grass. Several human burials, various pottery fragments, tools and weapons made from stone and bone were uncovered at the site. Euro-American settlers first arrived in Powell Valley in the early 19th century; the community of Wheelerville was established as a railroad stop in 1867, but by 1880 had changed its name to "Caryville" after a local family. Most of the early settlers were subsistence farmers, although large-scale logging operations moved into the area in the late 19th century. In the 1890s, coal mining operations sprang up along the base of Cross Mountain, namely at Coal Creek and Briceville a few miles to the south.
The Stone Mill, a gristmill and sawmill built by Joel Stone around 1900, served as a community center and base for local business until it was purchased as part of the Norris Project in 1934. In the 1920s, several groups began lobbying state and federal legislators for the construction of a dam at the confluence of the Clinch River and Cove Creek to control flooding and provide electricity to the area; the project was known as the "Cove Creek Project," but after the Tennessee Valley Authority assumed control of the project in 1933, it became known as the "Norris Project." The project was named for Nebraska senator George Norris, who had advocated the creation of TVA in the early 1930s. The construction of Norris Dam began in 1934 and the dam's gates were closed in 1936 creating the Norris Reservoir; the Tennessee Valley Authority constructed Caryville Dam to protect Caryville from the Norris Reservoir, which would extend for several miles up Cove Creek. Regardless, several of the town's structures were condemned or moved, two highways had to be rerouted.
TVA planned Cove Lake State Park as one of the Norris Project's three demonstration recreational areas, the other two being Norris Dam State Park and Big Ridge State Park along the main reservoir to the east. The Civilian Conservation Corps began work on Cove Lake State Park in 1937; the CCC built the park office, several stone cabins, a boat dock, park roads, shelters, of which the park office and part of the restaurant are still standing. In 1950, the park was deeded to the state of Tennessee, which has since added more modern facilities. Cove Lake State Park maintains a 106-site campground, an indoor pavilion, a restaurant, several athletic fields and courts. Several small walking trails meander through the park, including a 3.5-mile paved trail that follows the lakeshore and a trail that provides access to Wheeler Cemetery and Caryville Dam on the east side of US-25W. The park's wildlife observation area is located at the northwest section of the park and includes a 15-foot observation tower.
When completed, the Cumberland Trail will connect Cumberland Gap at the Tennessee-Virginia-Kentucky border with Prentice Cooper State Forest near the Tennessee-Georgia border. The first 47 miles of the trail, known as the Cumberland Moun
Scott County, Tennessee
Scott County is a county located in the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 22,228, its county seat is Huntsville. Scott County is known for having seceded from Tennessee in protest of the state's decision to join the Confederacy during the Civil War, subsequently forming The Free and Independent State of Scott. Scott County was formed in 1849 from portions of Anderson, Campbell and Morgan counties, it is named for U. S. Army General Winfield Scott, a hero of the Mexican War. During the Civil War, the county was a Southern Unionist bastion, voting against secession from the Union in Tennessee's June 1861 referendum by a higher percentage than in any other Tennessee county; this sentiment was encouraged by a June 4, 1861, speech in Huntsville by U. S. Senator Andrew Johnson. In 1861, the county assembly enacted a resolution seceding from the state of Tennessee, thus the Confederacy, forming the "Free and Independent State of Scott," known as the "State of Scott." The county remained a pro-Union enclave throughout the war.
The proclamation was repealed, over a hundred years by Scott County in 1986. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 533 square miles, of which 532 square miles is land and 0.9 square miles is water. The county is located in a hilly area atop the Cumberland Plateau. In the southwestern part of the county, the Clear Fork and New River converge to form the Big South Fork of the Cumberland River, a major tributary of the Cumberland River, the focus of a national river and recreation area. U. S. Route 27 is the county's primary north-south road. State Highway 63 connects Scott County with Campbell County to the east. State Highway 52 connects Scott County with the Fentress County area to the west. A portion of State Highway 297 connects Oneida with the Big South Fork Recreation Area. McCreary County, Kentucky Campbell County Anderson County Morgan County Fentress County Pickett County Wayne County, Kentucky Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area North Cumberland Wildlife Management Area Scott State Forest Twin Arches State Natural Area At the 2000 census, there were 21,127 people, 8,203 households and 6,012 families residing in the county.
The population density was 40 per square mile. There were 8,909 housing units at an average density of 17 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 98.53% White, 0.09% Black or African American, 0.25% Native American, 0.12% Asian, 0.10% from other races, 0.91% from two or more races. 0.57% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 8,203 households of which 35.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.20% were married couples living together, 11.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.70% were non-families. 24.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.02. 26.10% of the population were under the age of 18, 10.30% from 18 to 24, 28.70% from 25 to 44, 23.60% from 45 to 64, 11.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 97.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.00 males.
The median household income was $24,093 and the median family income was $28,595. Males had a median income of $24,721 compared with $19,451 for females; the per capita income for the county was $12,927. About 17.60% of families and 20.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.10% of those under age 18 and 17.10% of those age 65 or over. Scott County, a part of the Cumberland Plateau, includes the majority of the Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area. Scott County School District Burchfield Elementary School; the Independent Herald The Scott County News Hive 105, WBNT-FM Huntsville Oneida Winfield Elgin Helenwood Robbins National Register of Historic Places listings in Scott County, Tennessee Official website Scott County Chamber of Commerce Scott County at Curlie Scott Co, TN Genealogy Scott county Landforms
Tennessee's 2nd congressional district
The 2nd congressional district of Tennessee is a congressional district in East Tennessee. It has been represented by Republican Tim Burchett since January 2019; the district is located in East Tennessee and borders Kentucky to the north and North Carolina to the south. It is composed of the following counties: Blount, Grainger and Loudon, it contains a small piece of Campbell County and a large piece of Jefferson County. The district is based in Knoxville, is coextensive with that city's metropolitan area; the area is known for being the home of the flagship campus for the University of Tennessee, hosting the 1982 World's Fair, for being the headquarters for the Tennessee Valley Authority, Ruby Tuesday, Pilot Flying J. The 2nd is one of the safest districts in the nation for the Republican Party. No Democrat has represented the district since 1855, Republicans have held the district continuously since 1859; this district traditionally gives its congressmen long tenures in Washington. Since 1909, six men have served at least ten years in Congress, with three of those having served at least twenty years.
Although the district has taken many forms over the years, it has included Knoxville every year since 1853. During the Civil War era, the area was represented in Congress by Horace Maynard. Maynard switched parties many times, but was pro-Union, did not resign from Congress when Tennessee seceded. Maynard entered Congress in 1857, but did not leave until 1875. For a short period in the 1870s, the area was represented by Jacob M. Thornburgh. For the 44th United States Congress, Thornburgh was the only Republican in the Tennessee delegation. Following Thornburgh's retirement, the district chose former Union colonel Leonidas C. Houk, who served until his death in 1891, upon which he was succeed by his son John. In late 1893, John faced a primary challenge from Henry R. Gibson. Gibson was chosen following this narrow and divisive primary went on to serve in Congress for ten years. Gibson did not seek re-election in 1904 and was succeeded by Nathan W. Hale, who served only two terms. Similar in character to the Houk/Gibson primary in 1893, Hale faced a divisive primary with eventual winner Richard W. Austin in 1908.
Ten years Austin himself was defeated for the Republican nomination, being edged out by former state Republican chairman J. Will Taylor. Taylor managed to serve for twenty years until his death in 1939. In a special election to fill the vacancy left by Taylor's death, the district elected former judge John Jennings, Jr.. Jennings' tenure nearly coincided with the 1940s decade. In 1950, Jennings was defeated in primary by former district attorney Howard Baker, Sr.. Baker served for thirteen years until his death in 1964, where he was succeeded by his widow Irene who did not seek re-election. In the 1964 election, the district chose Knoxville mayor John Duncan, Sr.. Duncan served for 23 years before his death in summer 1988. Following Duncan's death, the district elected Jimmy; the younger Duncan served for just over thirty years from late 1988 until his successor was sworn in early January 2019. Upon Jimmy Duncan's retirement, the district chose outgoing Knox County mayor Tim Burchett, who has served since January 2019.
Tennessee's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
House of Burgesses
The House of Burgesses was the elected representative element of the Virginia General Assembly, the legislative body of the Colony of Virginia. With the creation of the House of Burgesses in 1642, the General Assembly, established in 1619, became a bicameral institution. From 1642 to 1776, the House of Burgesses was an instrument of government alongside the royally-appointed colonial governor and the upper-house Council of State in the General Assembly; when the Virginia colony declared its independence from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland at the Fifth Virginia Convention in 1776 and became the independent Commonwealth of Virginia, the House of Burgesses became the House of Delegates, which continues to serve as the lower house of the General Assembly. A synonym of burgher or bourgeois, the word "burgess" came to mean a borough representative in local or parliamentary government; the Colony of Virginia was founded by an English stock company, the Virginia Company, as a private venture, though under a royal charter.
Early governors provided the stern leadership and harsh judgments required for the colony to survive its early difficulties. As early crises with famine, Native American attempts to retake land, the need to establish cash crops, insufficient skilled or committed labor, the colony needed to attract enough new and responsible settlers if it were to grow and prosper. To encourage settlers to come to Virginia, in November, 1618 the Virginia Company's leaders gave instructions to the new Governor Sir George Yeardley, which became known as "the great charter." Emigrants who paid their own way to Virginia would receive fifty acres of land and not be mere tenants. Civil authority would control the military. In 1619, based on the instructions, Governor Yeardley initiated the election 22 burgesses by the settlements and Jamestown, together with the royally-appointed Governor and six-member Council of State, would form the first General Assembly as a unicameral body; the governor could veto its actions and the Company still maintained overall control of the venture, but the settlers would have a limited say in the management of their own affairs, including their finances.
A House of Assembly was created at the same time in Bermuda and held its first session in 1620. A handful of Polish craftsmen, brought to the colony to supply skill in the manufacture of pitch, tar and soap ash, were denied the political rights of English settlers, they downed tools in protest, but returned to work after being declared free and enfranchised by agreement with the Virginia Company. On July 30, 1619, Governor Yeardley convened the General Assembly as the first representative legislature in the Americas for a six-day meeting at the new brick church on Jamestown Island, Virginia; the unicameral Assembly was composed of the Governor, a Council of State appointed by the Virginia Company and the 22 locally elected representatives. The Assembly's first session of July 30, 1619, accomplished little, being cut short by an outbreak of malaria; the assembly had 22 members from the following constituencies: James City, Charles City, the City of Henricus, Martin-Brandon, Smythe's Hundred, Martin's Hundred, Argall's Gift Plantation, Flowerdew Hundred Plantation, Captain Lawne's Plantation, Captain Ward's Plantation.
After the massacre of 400 colonists on March 22, 1621/22 by Native Americans, epidemics in the winters before and after the massacre, the governor and council ruled arbitrarily, showing great contempt for the assembly and allowed no dissent. By 1624, the royal government in London had heard enough about the problems of the colony and revoked the charter of the Virginia Company. Virginia became the governor and council would be appointed by the king. Nonetheless, the Assembly maintained management of local affairs with some informal royal assent, although it was not royally confirmed until 1639. In 1634, the General Assembly divided the colony into eight shires for purposes of government and the judicial system. By 1643, the expanding colony had 15 counties. All of the county offices, including a board of commissioners, sheriff and clerks, were appointed positions. Only the burgesses were elected by a vote of the people. Women had no right to vote. Only free and white men were given the right to vote, by 1670 only property owners were allowed to vote.
In 1642, Governor William Berkeley urged creation of a bicameral legislature, which the Assembly promptly implemented. In 1652, the parliamentary forces of Oliver Cromwell forced the colony to submit to being taken over by the English government. Again, the colonists were able to retain the General Assembly as their governing body. Only taxes agreed to by the assembly were to be levied. Still, most Virginia colonists were loyal to Prince Charles, were pleased at his restoration as King Charles II in 1660, he went on directly or indirectly to restrict some of the liberties of the colonists, such as requiring tobacco t
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U. S. history. As a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States; the loyalists of the Union in the North proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, secessionist partisans in seven Southern slave states declared state secessions from the country and unveiled their defiant formation of a Confederate States of America in rebellion against the U. S. Constitutional government; the Confederacy grew to control over half the territory in eleven states, it claimed the additional states of Kentucky and Missouri by assertions from exiled native secessionists without territory or population.
These were given full representation in the Confederate Congress throughout the Civil War. The two remaining slave holding states of Delaware and Maryland were invited to join the Confederacy, but nothing substantial developed; the Confederate States was never diplomatically recognized by the government of the United States or by that of any foreign country. The states that remained loyal to the U. S. were known as the Union. The Union and the Confederacy raised volunteer and conscription armies that fought in the South over the course of four years. Intense combat left 620,000 to 750,000 people dead, more than the number of U. S. military deaths in all other wars combined. The war ended when General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the Battle of Appomattox Court House. Confederate generals throughout the southern states followed suit. Much of the South's infrastructure was destroyed the transportation systems; the Confederacy collapsed, slavery was abolished, four million black slaves were freed.
During the Reconstruction Era that followed the war, national unity was restored, the national government expanded its power, civil rights were granted to freed black slaves through amendments to the Constitution and federal legislation. In the 1860 presidential election, led by Abraham Lincoln, supported banning slavery in all the U. S. territories. The Southern states viewed this as a violation of their constitutional rights and as the first step in a grander Republican plan to abolish slavery; the three pro-Union candidates together received an overwhelming 82% majority of the votes cast nationally: Republican Lincoln's votes centered in the north, Democrat Stephen A. Douglas' votes were distributed nationally and Constitutional Unionist John Bell's votes centered in Tennessee and Virginia; the Republican Party, dominant in the North, secured a plurality of the popular votes and a majority of the electoral votes nationally. He was the first Republican Party candidate to win the presidency.
However, before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies declared secession and formed the Confederacy. The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, with an average of 49 percent. Of those states whose legislatures resolved for secession, the first seven voted with split majorities for unionist candidates Douglas and Bell, or with sizable minorities for those unionists. Of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession. Outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincoln's March 4, 1861, inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war. Speaking directly to the "Southern States", he attempted to calm their fears of any threats to slavery, reaffirming, "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists.
I believe I have no lawful right to do so, I have no inclination to do so." After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed and both sides prepared for war. The Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on "King Cotton" that they would intervene, but none did, none recognized the new Confederate States of America. Hostilities began on April 1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter. While in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive during 1861–1862. In September 1862, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy much of its western armies, seized New Orleans; the successful 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lee's Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg.
Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grant's command of all Union armies in 1864. Inflicting an ever-tightening naval blockade of Confederate ports, the Union marshaled the resources and manpower to attack the Confederacy from all directions, leading to the fall of Atlanta to William T. Sherman and his march to th