North American Aerospace Defense Command
North American Aerospace Defense Command, known until March 1981 as the North American Air Defense Command, is a combined organization of the United States and Canada that provides aerospace warning, air sovereignty, protection for Northern America. Headquarters for NORAD and the NORAD/United States Northern Command center are located at Peterson Air Force Base in El Paso County, near Colorado Springs, Colorado; the nearby Cheyenne Mountain Complex has the Alternate Command Center. The NORAD commander and deputy commander are a United States four-star general or equivalent and a Canadian three-star general or equivalent. CINCNORAD maintains the NORAD headquarters at Peterson Air Force Base near Colorado Springs, Colorado; the NORAD and USNORTHCOM Command Center at Peterson AFB serves as a central collection and coordination facility for a worldwide system of sensors designed to provide the commander and the leadership of Canada and the U. S. with an accurate picture of any aerospace or maritime threat.
NORAD has administratively divided the North American landmass into three regions: Alaska NORAD Region - Eleventh Air Force Canadian NORAD Region - 1 Canadian Air Division Continental U. S. Region - First Air Force Both the CONR and CANR regions are divided into eastern and western sectors; the Alaskan NORAD Region maintains continuous capability to detect and warn off any atmospheric threat in its area of operations from its Regional Operations Control Center at Joint Base Elmendorf–Richardson, Alaska. ANR maintains the readiness to conduct a continuum of aerospace control missions, which include daily air sovereignty in peacetime and deterrence in time of tension, active air defense against manned and unmanned air-breathing atmospheric vehicles in times of crisis. ANR is supported by reserve units. Active duty forces are provided by 11 AF and the Canadian Armed Forces, reserve forces provided by the Alaska Air National Guard. Both 11 AF and the CAF provide active duty personnel to the ROCC to maintain continuous surveillance of Alaskan airspace.
Canadian NORAD Region Headquarters is at Manitoba. It was established on 22 April 1983, it is responsible for providing control of Canadian airspace. The Royal Canadian Air Force provides alert assets to NORAD. CANR is divided into two sectors, which are designated as the Canada East Sector and Canada West Sector. Both Sector Operations Control Centers are co-located at CFB North Bay Ontario; the routine operation of the SOCCs includes reporting track data, sensor status and aircraft alert status to NORAD headquarters. In 1996 CANR was moved to CFB Winnipeg. Canadian air defense forces assigned to NORAD include 409 Tactical Fighter Squadron at CFB Cold Lake, Alberta and 425 Tactical Fighter Squadron at CFB Bagotville, Quebec. All squadrons fly the McDonnell Douglas CF-18 Hornet fighter aircraft. To monitor for drug trafficking, in cooperation with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and the United States drug law enforcement agencies, the Canadian NORAD Region monitors all air traffic approaching the coast of Canada.
Any aircraft that has not filed a flight plan may be directed to land and be inspected by RCMP and Canada Border Services Agency. The Continental NORAD Region is the component of NORAD that provides airspace surveillance and control and directs air sovereignty activities for the Contiguous United States. CONR is the NORAD designation of the United States Air Force First Air Force/AFNORTH, its headquarters is located at Florida. The First Air Force became responsible for the USAF air defense mission on 30 September 1990. AFNORTH is the United States Air Force component of United States Northern Command. 1 AF/CONR-AFNORTH comprises Air National Guard Fighter Wings assigned an air defense mission to 1 AF/CONR-AFNORTH on federal orders, made up of citizen Airmen. The primary weapons systems are the McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle and General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon aircraft, it plans, controls and ensures air sovereignty and provides for the unilateral defense of the United States. It is organized with a combined First Air Force command post at Tyndall Air Force Base and two Sector Operations Control Centers at Rome, New York for the US East ROCC and McChord Field, Washington for the US West ROCC manned by active duty personnel to maintain continuous surveillance of CONUS airspace.
In its role as the CONUS NORAD Region, 1 AF/CONR-AFNORTH performs counter-drug surveillance operations. The United States Pacific Command would make the determination that an inbound missile is a threat to the United States in the Pacific Region. Hawaii is the only state in the United States with a pre-programmed Wireless Emergency Alert that can be sent to wireless devices if a ballistic missile is heading toward Hawaii. If the missile is fired from North Korea, the missile would take 20 minutes to reach Hawaii. PACOM would take less than 5 minutes to make a determination that the missile could strike Hawaii and would notify the Hawaii Emergency Management Agency. HI-EMA would issue the Civil Defense Warning that an inbound missile could strike Hawaii and that people should Shelter-in-Place: Get Inside, Stay Inside, Stay Tuned. People in Hawaii would have 12 to 15 minutes before impact. Federal Emergency Management Agency (F
Mount Frissell, 2,454 feet, located on the border of southwest Massachusetts and northwest Connecticut, is a prominent peak of the Taconic Range. The peak and northern part of the mountain are located within Massachusetts, while the southern slope of Mount Frissell is located within Connecticut and rises to the highest elevation within that state, 2,379 feet; the high-point marker for Connecticut is on the border with Massachusetts at 42.049633°N 73.483042°W / 42.049633. Bear Mountain, located 1.3 miles to the east, is the highest mountain summit in Connecticut. Most hikers reach the state high point by a rather short route starting high up in the col between Mt. Frissell and Bear Mountain, at an elevation of around 1,800 feet; the mountain is located within the towns of Mount Washington and Salisbury, Connecticut. The south side of Mount Frissell drains into Riga Lake and South Pond into Wachocostinook Brook, Salmon Creek, the Housatonic River, Long Island Sound; the northwest side drains into Ashley Hill Brook, thence Bash Bish Brook, the Roeliff Jansen Kill, the Hudson River, Upper New York Bay.
The northeast side drains into Sages Ravine, thence into Schenob Brook, the Hubbard Brook, the Housatonic River, Long Island Sound. Mount Frissell is bordered by Round Mountain to the southeast, Mount Ashley to the north, Brace Mountain to the west. Mount Frissell is traversed by the Mount Frissell Trail which connects with the South Taconic Trail to the west and the Appalachian Trail to the east. Outline of Connecticut Index of Connecticut-related articles List of U. S. states by elevation Mountain peaks of North America Mountain peaks of the United States "Mount Frissell". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2008-11-28. "Mount Frissell". ListsOfJohn.com. "Mount Frissell". SummitPost.org. Mount Frissell on Peakery.com
Mad River (Ohio)
The Mad River is a stream located in the west central part of the U. S. state of Ohio. It flows 66 miles from Logan County to downtown Dayton; the stream flows southwest from its source near Campbell Hill through West Liberty, along U. S. Route 68 west of Urbana, past Springfield along Ohio State Route 4 into Dayton; the stream's confluence with the Great Miami River is in Deeds Park. The Mad River was one of the Great Miami River tributaries that flooded during the Great Dayton Flood of 1913, resulting in the creation of the Miami Conservancy District; the river derives its name from its mad and rapid current. The stream has been known by the names Mad Creek and Tiber River as well as by the Croatian name Fiume Mad; the first road between Cincinnati and Dayton that opened up the "Mad River Country" to European settlement was the Mad River Road, cut in 1797. Today, a ski resort named. Mad River is the largest coldwater fishery in Ohio; the Ohio Department of Natural Resources's Division of Wildlife periodically stocked Mad River with rainbow trout from 1931 until 1984, when the organization began stocking the stream with brown trout instead.
The trout population suffers low reproduction rates due to sedimentation from channelization, extensive agricultural runoff, diminishing habitat. Origin of the name is associated to Irish immigration, from The Mad River in County Sligo, flowing from the Ox Mountains to join the Moy just beside the Village of Cloonacool, with an estuary in Atlantic in the other side of the Ox Mountains close to the coastal town of Enniscrone. List of rivers of Ohio Fishing in Ohio Water pollution
United States Department of the Interior
The United States Department of the Interior is the United States federal executive department of the U. S. government responsible for the management and conservation of most federal lands and natural resources, the administration of programs relating to Native Americans, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians, territorial affairs, insular areas of the United States. About 75% of federal public land is managed by the department, with most of the remainder managed by the United States Department of Agriculture's United States Forest Service; the department is administered by the United States Secretary of the Interior, a member of the Cabinet of the President. The current Secretary is David Bernhardt, who serves in an acting capacity, concurrently serves in the Department as Deputy Secretary; the Inspector General position is vacant, with Mary Kendall serving as acting Inspector General. Despite its name, the Department of the Interior has a different role from that of the interior ministries of other nations, which are responsible for police matters and internal security.
In the United States, national security and immigration functions are performed by the Department of Homeland Security and the Department of Justice secondarily. The Department of the Interior has been humorously called "The Department of Everything Else" because of its broad range of responsibilities. A department for domestic concern was first considered by the 1st United States Congress in 1789, but those duties were placed in the Department of State; the idea of a separate domestic department continued to percolate for a half-century and was supported by Presidents from James Madison to James Polk. The 1846–48 Mexican–American War gave the proposal new steam as the responsibilities of the federal government grew. Polk's Secretary of the Treasury, Robert J. Walker, became a vocal champion of creating the new department. In 1849, Walker stated in his annual report that several federal offices were placed in departments with which they had little to do, he noted that the General Land Office had little to do with the Treasury and highlighted the Indian Affairs office, part of the Department of War, the Patent Office, part of the Department of State.
Walker argued that these and other bureaus should be brought together in a new Department of the Interior. A bill authorizing its creation of the department passed the House of Representatives on February 15, 1849, spent just over two weeks in the Senate; the department was established on March 3, 1849, the eve of President Zachary Taylor's inauguration, when the Senate voted 31 to 25 to create the department. Its passage was delayed by Democrats in Congress who were reluctant to create more patronage posts for the incoming Whig administration to fill; the first Secretary of the Interior was Thomas Ewing. Many of the domestic concerns the department dealt with were transferred to other departments. For example, the Department of Interior was responsible for water pollution control prior to the creation of the EPA. Other agencies became separate departments, such as the Bureau of Agriculture, which became the Department of Agriculture; however and natural resource management, American Indian affairs, wildlife conservation, territorial affairs remain the responsibilities of the Department of the Interior.
As of mid-2004, the department managed 507 million acres of surface land, or about one-fifth of the land in the United States. It manages 476 dams and 348 reservoirs through the Bureau of Reclamation, 410 national parks, seashore sites, etc. through the National Park Service, 544 national wildlife refuges through the Fish and Wildlife Service. Within the Interior Department, the Bureau of Indian Affairs handles some federal relations with Native Americans, while others are handled by the Office of Special Trustee; the current acting Assistant Secretary for Indian Affairs is Lawrence S. Roberts, an enrolled member of the Oneida Tribe in Wisconsin; the department has been the subject of disputes over proper accounting for Native American Trusts set up to track the income and distribution of monies that are generated by the Trust and specific Native American lands, which the government leases for fees to companies that extract oil, timber and other resources. Several cases have sought an accounting of such funds from departments within the Interior and Treasury, in what has been a 15-year-old lawsuit.
Some Native American nations have sued the government over water-rights issues and their treaties with the US. In 2010 Congress passed the Claims Settlement Act of 2010, which provided $3.4 billion for the settlement of the Cobell v. Salazar class-action trust case and four Native American water rights cases; the $3.4 billion will be placed in a still-to-be-selected bank and $1.4 billion will go to individuals in the form of checks ranging from $500 to $1,500. A small group, such as members of the Osage tribe who benefit from huge Oklahoma oil revenues, will get far more, based on a formula incorporating their 10 highest years of income between 1985 and 2009; as important, $2 billion will be used to buy trust land from Native American owners at fair market prices, with the government returning the land to tribes. Nobody can be forced to sell. Assistant Secretary for Policy and Budget Deputy Assistant Secretary for Policy and International Affairs Office of Environmental Policy and Compliance Office of International Affairs Office of Native Hawaiian Relations Office of Restoration and Damage Assessment Office of Policy Analysis National Invasive Species Council Deputy Assistant Secretary for Budget, Finance and Acquisiti
Logan County, Ohio
Logan County is a county in the U. S. state of Ohio. As of the 2010 census, the population was 45,858; the county seat is Bellefontaine. The county is named for Benjamin Logan. Logan County comprises the Bellefontaine, OH Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Columbus-Marion-Zanesville, OH Combined Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 467 square miles, of which 458 square miles is land and 8.3 square miles is water. Campbell Hill, the highest natural point in Ohio at 1,549 feet, is located northeast of Bellefontaine. Hardin County Union County Champaign County Shelby County Auglaize County U. S. Route 33 U. S. Route 68 State Route 47 State Route 117 State Route 235 State Route 245 State Route 273 State Route 274 State Route 287 State Route 292 State Route 347 State Route 365 State Route 366 State Route 368 State Route 508 State Route 533 State Route 540 State Route 559 State Route 706 State Route 708 State Route 720 As of the census of 2000, there were 46,005 people, 17,956 households, 12,730 families residing in the county.
The population density was 100 people per square mile. There were 21,571 housing units at an average density of 47 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 96.15% White, 1.71% Black or African American, 0.20% Native American, 0.40% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.27% from other races, 1.24% from two or more races. 0.72% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 96.8% spoke English, 1.0% German and 1.0% Spanish as their first language. There were 17,956 households out of which 33.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.00% were married couples living together, 9.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.10% were non-families. 24.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.01. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.70% under the age of 18, 8.20% from 18 to 24, 27.90% from 25 to 44, 23.30% from 45 to 64, 13.90% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 96.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $41,479, the median income for a family was $47,516. Males had a median income of $37,134 versus $24,739 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,984. About 7.10% of families and 9.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.80% of those under age 18 and 8.50% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 45,858 people, 18,111 households, 12,569 families residing in the county; the population density was 100.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 23,181 housing units at an average density of 50.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 95.3% white, 1.6% black or African American, 0.5% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 0.3% from other races, 1.9% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.2% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 30.9% were German, 13.5% were Irish, 11.5% were American, 9.1% were English.
Of the 18,111 households, 32.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.9% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.6% were non-families, 25.5% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 2.98. The median age was 39.9 years. The median income for a household in the county was $46,493 and the median income for a family was $53,601. Males had a median income of $42,702 versus $29,537 for females; the per capita income for the county was $22,974. About 11.0% of families and 14.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.3% of those under age 18 and 7.1% of those age 65 or over. Logan County is a Republican county, having only backed Democratic Party presidential candidates twice from 1872 onward in 1912 & 1964. Commissioners: John F. Bayliss, Dustin A. Wickersham, Anthony E. Core Auditor: Jack Reser Clerk of Courts: Barb McDonald Recorder: Pat Myers Treasurer: Dara J. Wren Prosecuting Attorney: Eric Stewart Sheriff: Randall J. Dodds Engineer: Scott Coleman Coroner: Michael E. Failor D.
O. Judge Court of Common Pleas: William T. Goslee Judge Court of Common Pleas Probate/Juvenile Division: Kim Kellogg-Martin Judge Court of Common Pleas Domestic Relations-Juv.-Probate Division: Dan W. Bratka Judge Municipal Court: Ann E. Beck Bellefontaine https://web.archive.org/web/20160715023447/http://www.ohiotownships.org/township-websites Chippewa Park East Liberty Lewistown George Bartholomew - inventor of concrete pavement Blue Jacket - Shawnee chief Bethany Dillon - singer. Born in Columbus but grew up in Logan County near Belle Center. Edward D. Jones - investment banker Austin Eldon Knowlton - architect William Lawrence - Republican politician involved with the attempt to impeach Andrew Johnson, creating the United States Department of Justice, helping to create the American Red Cross, ratifying the Geneva Convention The Mills Bro
The Ebright Azimuth is the point with the highest benchmark monument elevation in the U. S. state of Delaware. It has an elevation of 447.85 feet above sea level. The only state high-point with a lower elevation is Britton Hill in the state of Florida at 345 feet above sea level; the Ebright Azimuth is located about 6.5 miles north of downtown Wilmington, Delaware, in far northern New Castle County, within a few feet of the Pennsylvania state line. It is near Concord High School, to the north of Naamans Road, at the middle of the intersection of Ebright Road and Ramblewood Drive; this is an entrance to the Dartmouth Woods development. Surveying by Delaware Geological Survey personnel indicates that the mobile home park just west of Ebright Road is at least 2 feet higher than the benchmark."Ebright Azimuth" is not a person's first and last name. James and Grant Ebright owned the property. Since the schematic photograph was taken the blue and yellow monument sign has been moved across the street closer to the geodetic marker.
A curb extension has been installed and the area around the sign has been modestly landscaped. The self-supporting radio tower just south of the benchmark was constructed in 1947 by Western Union as part of an historic C-band microwave radio relay system that linked New York City and Washington, D. C; this site was assigned the name "Brandywine" in recognition of Brandywine Creek located several kilometers to the west and was licensed with the call sign KGB29. Western Union's engineers specified a heavy-duty prefabricated fire tower structure, which allowed the microwave transmitters and receivers to be installed inside the cab. "Dish" antennas, mounted behind the window openings, were aimed towards the adjacent relay stations at Mt. Laurel, New Jersey, 33.8 miles to the northeast, Elk Neck near Elkton, Maryland, 30.5 miles to the southwest. Like most of their early microwave relay sites, Western Union decommissioned the Brandywine installation near Ebright Azimuth as more-reliable broadband fiber systems were developed.
The structure now supports UHF land mobile radio antennas. Geography portal Delaware portal Mountains portal List of U. S. states by elevation "Historic Markers with Google Maps". State of Delaware. Retrieved 2008-12-17
The Hocking Hills is a dissected area of the Allegheny Plateau in Ohio in Hocking County, that features cliffs, rock shelters, waterfalls. The extreme topography in this area is due to the Blackhand Sandstone, a particular formation, thick and weather-resistant, so forms high cliffs and narrow, deep gorges. Most of the more scenic areas of the region are under state ownership, including: Hocking Hills State Park Hocking State Forest Conkle's Hollow State Nature Preserve Sheick Hollow State Nature Preserve Little Rocky Hollow State Nature Preserve Kessler Swamp State Nature Preserve Lake Logan State Park Wayne National Forest Rockbridge State Nature PreserveThe core area includes two owned preserves, Crane Hollow and Camp Oty-Okwa; the geological series that forms the Hocking Hills extends south and west diminishing but still forming impressive bluffs and gorges in: Clear Creek Metro Park, part of the Columbus and Franklin County Metropolitan Park District Rising Park in Lancaster Wahkeena Memorial State Nature Preserve in Fairfield County Christmas Rocks State Nature Preserve in Fairfield County Rhododendron Cove State Nature Preserve in Fairfield County Shallenberger State Nature Preserve in Fairfield County Saltpetre Cave State Nature Preserve in Hocking County Boch Hollow State Nature Preserve in Hocking County Lake Katharine State Nature Preserve in Jackson County Blackhand Gorge State Nature Preserve in Licking County Liberty Wildlife Area in Jackson CountyThe Buckeye Trail, along with the North Country Trail and the American Discovery Trail, passes through the Hocking Hills region.
Nearby are: Lake Hope State Park Zaleski State Forest Camp Wyandot Tar Hollow State Park Tar Hollow State Forest Camp Akita The region has mild weather with an average rainfall of 40.3 inches per year and an average of about 175 sunny days per year. The average July high is 84.8 degrees Fahrenheit and the average January low is 19.3 degrees Fahrenheit. The region was first settled by Christian Eby and was named from a shortened version of the Hockhocking River by the Shawnee Indian tribe. "Hockhocking", in the Delaware tongue, signifies a bottle. The Shawnee people thought that a narrow and straight creek above the waterfall on the Hockhocking River resembled a bottle's neck. Other notable settlers were Moses Dolson; the first election on county matters was held in Eby’s mill near Queer Creek. The first post office in the area was called the "Rockhouse" and was located in Herschel Badford’s home. Hocking County was formed on March 1, 1818, from Ross, Athens and Logan; the county's boundaries and townships have not been altered since 1851.
Due to its natural surroundings, it has become a tourist attraction. Visitors can experience Hocking Hills through outdoor activities year round, including farmers' markets, wine tastings and train rides. Activities include: Athens Farmers Market Earth, Rock: Outdoor Adventures Hocking Hills Canopy Tours Happy Hills Fun Park Hocking Hills Gem Mine Hocking Hills Marina at Lake Logan Hocking Hills Primal Trek Hocking Hills Adventures Hocking Peaks Hocking Valley Scenic Railway Hunting at Hocking Hills Cabins Shade Winery Sharp Farms Pumpkins & Corn Maze The Buckeye Trail Touch the Earth Adventures Valley Zipline Tours Walker Farm Wayne National Forest Nelsonville's Historic Public Square Hocking County offers miles of trails that vary in length and difficulty depending on location; some trails are pet friendly. Old Man's Cave: 1 mile Ash Cave Gorge: ¼ mile, wheelchair accessible Ash Cave Rim: ½ mile Cedar Falls: ½ mile Rock House: 1 mile Cantwell Cliffs: various trails, around 3 miles Conkle’s Hollow: 1 mile, wheelchair accessible Conkle’s Hollow Rim: 2½ miles Buckeye Trail: Cedar Falls – Ash Cave: 3 miles, Old Man’s Cave – Cedar Falls: 3 mile.
The Hocking Hills area harbors a number of rare plants, including Huperzia porophila, the rock firmoss. Appalachian Ohio Ohio public lands Hocking Hills at American Byways Hocking Hills State Park Hocking Hills Tourism Association Hocking Hills Tourism Website Hocking Hills tourist information and maps