Tesco plc trading as Tesco, is a British multinational groceries and general merchandise retailer with headquarters in Welwyn Garden City, England, United Kingdom. It is the third-largest retailer in the world measured by gross revenues and ninth-largest retailer in the world measured by revenues, it has shops in seven countries across Asia and Europe, is the market leader of groceries in the UK, Ireland and Thailand. Tesco was founded in 1919 by Jack Cohen as a group of market stalls; the Tesco name first appeared in 1924, after Cohen purchased a shipment of tea from T. E. Stockwell and combined those initials with the first two letters of his surname, the first Tesco shop opened in 1931 in Burnt Oak, Barnet, his business expanded and by 1939 he had over 100 Tesco shops across the country. A UK grocer, Tesco has expanded globally since the early 1990s, with operations in 11 other countries in the world; the company pulled out of the USA in 2013, but as of 2018 continues to see growth elsewhere.
Since the 1960s, Tesco has diversified into areas such as the retailing of books, electronics, toys, software, financial services and internet services. In the 1990s Tesco repositioned itself from being a down-market high-volume low-cost retailer, to one designed to attract a range of social groups by offering products ranging from low-cost "Tesco Value" items to its "Tesco Finest" range; this broadening of its appeal was successful and saw the chain grow from 500 shops in the mid-1990s to 2,500 shops fifteen years later. Tesco is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index, it had a market capitalization of £18.1 billion as of 22 April 2015, the 28th-largest of any company with a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange. Jack Cohen, the son of Jewish migrants from Poland, founded Tesco in 1919 when he began to sell war-surplus groceries from a stall at Well Street Market, Hackney, in the East End of London; the Tesco brand first appeared in 1924. The name came about, he made new labels using the initials of the supplier's name, the first two letters of his surname, forming the word TESCO.
After experimenting with his first permanent indoor market stall at Tooting in November 1930, Jack Cohen opened the first Tesco shop in September 1931 at 54 Watling Street, Burnt Oak, Middlesex. Tesco was floated on the London Stock Exchange in 1947 as Tesco Stores Limited; the first self-service shop opened in St Albans in 1956, the first supermarket in Maldon in 1956. In 1961 Tesco Leicester made an appearance in the Guinness Book of Records as the largest shop in Europe. During the 1950s and 1960s, Tesco grew organically, through acquisitions, until it owned more than 800 shops; the company purchased 70 Williamson's shops, 200 Harrow Stores outlets, 212 Irwins shops, 97 Charles Phillips shops and the Victor Value chain. Jack Cohen's business motto was "pile it high and sell it cheap", to which he added an internal motto of "YCDBSOYA" which he used to motivate his sales force. In May 1987, Tesco completed its hostile takeover of the Hillards chain of 40 supermarkets in the North of England for £220 million.
In 1994, the company took over the supermarket chain William Low after fighting off Sainsbury's for control of the Dundee-based firm, which operated 57 shops. This paved the way for Tesco to expand its presence in Scotland, in which its presence was weaker than in England. Tesco introduced a loyalty card, branded'Clubcard' in 1995, an Internet shopping service. In 1996 the typeface of the logo was changed to the current version with stripe reflections underneath, whilst the corporate font used for shop signage was changed from the familiar "typewriter" font, used since the 1970s. Overseas operations were introduced the same year. Terry Leahy assumed the role of Chief Executive on 21 February 1997, the appointment having been announced on 21 November 1995. On 21 March 1997, Tesco announced the purchase of the retail arm of Associated British Foods, which consisted of the Quinnsworth and Crazy Prices chains in Ireland and Northern Ireland, associated businesses, for £640 million; the deal was approved by the European Commission on 6 May 1997.
The company was the subject of a letter bomb campaign lasting five months from August 2000 to February 2001 as a bomber calling himself "Sally" sent letter bombs to Tesco customers and demanded Clubcards modified to withdraw money from cash machines. The company started to expand the range of products it sold during the 1960s to include household goods and clothing under the Delamare brand, in 1974 opened its first petrol station. In July 2001, Tesco became involved in internet groceries retailing in the USA when it obtained a 35% stake in GroceryWorks. In 2002, Tesco purchased 13 HIT hypermarkets in Poland, it made a major move into the UK's convenience shop market with its purchase of T & S Stores, owner of 870 convenience shops in the One Stop and Day & Nite chains in the UK. In June 2003, Tesco purchased the C Two-Network in Japan, it acquired a majority stake in Turkish supermarket chain Kipa. In January 2004, Tesco acquired Adminstore, owner of 45 Cullens and Harts convenience shops, in and around London.
In Thailand, Tesco Lotus was a joint venture of the Charoen Pokphand Group and Tesco, but faci
The River Ouzel known as the River Lovat, is a river in England, a tributary of the River Great Ouse. It flows 20 miles north to join the Ouse at Newport Pagnell, it is called the River Ouzel, except near Newport Pagnell where both names are used. The name Lovat was recorded in the thirteenth century, a map of 1724 marks the river as "Lowsel R", a map surveyed in 1765 shows it as "Ouzel River"; the modern Ordnance Survey uses only the name Ouzel, except north of Willen Lake where it is marked as "River Ouzel or Lovat". From springs just north of Dagnall, the river forms the boundary between Bedfordshire and Buckinghamshire, it is joined by the Ouzel Brook from Houghton Regis, by Whistle Brook from Pitstone. Near Grove Lock, just south of Leighton Buzzard, it was once joined by Ledburn Brook, which has since been diverted into the Grand Junction Canal. At Leighton Buzzard, the river is joined by Clipstone Brook from Milton Bryan via Hockliffe and Clipstone, to the north of the town the excess water from the canal is released into the river at the Twelve Arches.
The river flows through Milton Keynes, where it is joined by Water Eaton Brook, as it exits the town it is joined by Crawley Brook from Husborne Crawley. The river flows through Newport Pagnell to its junction with the Great Ouse
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom provide emergency care to people with acute illness or injury and are predominantly provided free at the point of use by the four National Health Services of England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Emergency care including ambulance and emergency department treatment is free to everyone, regardless of immigration or visitor status; the NHS commissions most emergency medical services through the 14 NHS organisations with ambulance responsibility across the UK. As with other emergency services, the public access emergency medical services through one of the valid emergency telephone numbers. In addition to ambulance services provided by NHS organisations, there are some private and volunteer emergency medical services arrangements in place in the UK, the use of private or volunteer ambulances at public events or large private sites, as part of community provision of services such as community first responders. Air ambulance services in the UK are not part of the NHS and are funded through charitable donations.
Paramedics are seconded from a local NHS ambulance service, with the exception of Great North Air Ambulance Service who employ their own paramedics. Doctors are provided by their home hospital and spend no more than 40% of their time with an air ambulance service. Public ambulance services across the UK are required by law to respond to four types of requests for care, which are: Emergency calls Doctor's urgent admission requests High dependency and urgent inter-hospital transfers Major incidentsAmbulance trusts and services may undertake non-urgent patient transport services on a commercial arrangement with their local hospital trusts or health boards, or in some cases on directly funded government contracts, although these contracts are fulfilled by private and voluntary providers; the National Health Service Act 1946 gave county and borough councils a statutory responsibility to provide an emergency ambulance service, although they could contract a voluntary ambulance service to provide this, with many contracting the British Red Cross, St John Ambulance or another local provider.
The last St John Division, to be so contracted is reputed to have been at Whittlesey in Cambridgeshire, where the two-bay ambulance garage can still be seen at the branch headquarters. The Regional Ambulance Officers’ Committee reported in 1979 that “There was considerable local variation in the quality of the service provided in relation to vehicles and equipment. Most Services were administered by Local Authorities through their Medical Officer of Health and his Ambulance Officer, a few were under the aegis of the Fire Service, whilst others relied upon agency methods for the provision of part or all of their services.” The 142 existing ambulance services were transferred by the National Health Service Reorganisation Act 1973 from local authority to central government control in 1974, consolidated into 53 services under regional or area health authorities. This led to the formation of predominantly county based ambulance services, which merged up and changed responsibilities until 2006, when there were 31 NHS ambulance trusts in England.
The June 2005 report "Taking healthcare to the Patient", authored by Peter Bradley, Chief Executive of the London Ambulance Service, for the Department of Health led to the merging of the 31 trusts into 13 organisations in England, plus one organisation each in Wales and Northern Ireland. Following further changes as part of the NHS foundation trust pathway, this has further reduced to 10 ambulance service trusts in England, plus the Isle of Wight which has its own provision. Following the passage of the Health and Social Care Act 2012, commissioning of the ambulance services in each area passed from central government control into the hands of regional clinical commissioning groups; the commissioners in each region are responsible for contracting with a suitable organisation to provide ambulance services within their geographical territory. The primary provider for each area is held by a public NHS body, of which there are 11 in England, 1 each in the other three countries. In England there are now ten NHS ambulance trusts, as well as an ambulance service on the Isle of Wight, run directly by Isle of Wight NHS Trust, with boundaries following those of the former regional government offices.
The ten trusts are: East Midlands Ambulance Service NHS Trust East of England Ambulance Service NHS Trust London Ambulance Service NHS Trust North East Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust North West Ambulance Service NHS Trust South Central Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South East Coast Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South Western Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust West Midlands Ambulance Service University NHS Foundation Trust Yorkshire Ambulance Service NHS TrustThe English ambulance trusts are represented by the Association of Ambulance Chief Executives, with the Scottish and Northern Irish providers all associate members. On the 14 November 2018 West Midlands Ambulance Service became the UK's first university-ambulance trust; the service was operated before reorganisation in 1974 by the St Andrews’ Ambulance Association under contract to the Secretary of State for Scotland. The Scottish Ambulance Service is a Special Health Board that provides ambulance services throughout whole of Scotland, on behalf of the Health and Social Care Directorates of the Scottish Government.
Due to the remote nature of many areas of Scotland compared to the other Home Nations, the Scottish Ambulance Service has Britain's only publi
Thames Valley Police
Thames Valley Police known as Thames Valley Constabulary, is the territorial police force responsible for policing the Thames Valley area covered by the counties of Berkshire and Oxfordshire. It is one of the largest territorial police forces in England covering 2,200 square miles and a population of over 2.1 million people. The police force consists of 4,244 constables, 506 special constables, 466 Police Community Support Officers and 2,576 police staff. Policing in Thames Valley dates back to 1773 when Newbury Borough Police were operating as a small police force; the force was one of around twenty borough forces. These were Buckinghamshire Constabulary, Oxfordshire Constabulary, Berkshire Constabulary, Reading Borough Police and Oxford City Police founded in 1857, 1857, 1856, 1836 and 1868 respectively. Under the Police Act 1964 these five forces were amalgamated on 1 April 1968 to form Thames Valley Constabulary. Thomas Charles Birkett Hodgson, David Holdsworth Peter Imbert Colin Smith Sir Charles Pollard Peter Neyroud Sara Thornton Francis Habgood John Campbell Thames Valley Police is overseen by a locally elected Thames Valley Police and Crime Commissioner.
The incumbent commissioner is Anthony Stansfeld, a Conservative Party candidate elected with 34.7% of the votes in the first round of voting and 57.2% of the votes after the second round. The police and crime commissioner is scrutinised by the Thames Valley Crime Panel. Thames Valley was overseen by a police authority consisting of 19 members, made up of councillors, members from unitary authorities, independents and a magistrate. In April 2011, the force adopted a Local Policing Model; as a result, the force is now split into each led by a superintendent. These consist of two local authority areas; these are in turn split into a number of neighbourhoods which are based off ward and parish boundaries. This alignment is to ensure. Aylesbury Bracknell and Wokingham* Cherwell and West Oxfordshire Chiltern and South Bucks Milton Keynes Oxford Reading South Oxfordshire and Vale of White Horse Slough West Berkshire Windsor and Maidenhead Wycombe Each area is responsible for delivering response policing, neighborhood policing teams and a local priority crime and Criminal Investigation Department.
Other functions that used to be held at Basic Command Unit level are now delivered at Force Headquarters level using a shared service approach. A number of teams are run from Force Headquarters with their staff deployed at various locations around the Force area: Major Investigation Team Control and Communications Police Dog Section Counter Terrorism Squad Intelligence Agency Thames Valley Police has a local policing team working from every police station; these teams consist of officers, community support, special constables and police staff who work to patrol and attend local incidents. They use marked vans which read neighbourhood policing on the side rear panel under the Thames Valley Police corporate logo; these officers will be unarmed and carry taser weapons. The neighbourhood police vans double up as prisoner transport vans. However, most LPA police vehicles are available to this unit. LPA Response units work out of most major stations in the force area and are tasked with patrolling and responding to 999 calls.
These officers are constables issued with Taser weapons. These officers may be tasked to patrol high crime areas for an increased police presence or to conduct follow up investigations. Both the Neighbourhood Policing Group and Incident Response Unit units all share the LPA standard Vauxhall Astra police car; some rural police offices make use of Mitsubishi L200's as a more effective vehicle. Thames Valley Police have 52 operational police dogs; the dogs are donated from the RSPCA or public, are trained at the force headquarters. They serve until they are 8 years old, receiving refresher training every year, living with their handler after retirement, they are part of the Joint Operations Unit with Hampshire Police. The dog section operates with marked and unmarked Mitsubishi Outlanders as well as Ford Mondeo estates. Thames Valley Police patrols 196 miles of motorways including the M1, M4, M40, A329, A404 and M25, as well as many other'A' route roads including the busy A43; the Unit Mainly uses Marked Volvo V70s and New BMW 530d touring's, Unmarked BMW 330ds and Volvo V80's along with some Marked BMW X5s and Mitsubishi Shoguns.
These units are based at 6 geographical traffic bases. Roads Policing in Thames Valley is part of the Joint Operations Unit which works together with Hampshire Constabulary's Roads Policing Unit. Thames Valley Police's Armed Response Unit is a 24/7 unit that responds to major and serious crimes where firearms may be involved; this unit is shared with Hampshire Police as part of the Joint Operations Unit. The training facility is at Sulhamstead with a state of the art firearms range; the unit uses the traffic bases within the force basing themselves out of Three Mile Cross, Milton Keynes, Bicester. This unit can be identified by the red asterisk on the marked patrol cars they use, which includes the Volvo XC70 and BMW X5; the unit use
South Central Ambulance Service
South Central Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust is the ambulance service for the counties of Buckinghamshire, Oxfordshire and Hampshire. It is a foundation trust of the National Health Service, one of 10 NHS ambulance trusts in England; as an ambulance service, SCAS responds to emergency 999 calls, in addition to calls from the NHS non-emergency number. These services are provided in an area that covers the counties of Buckinghamshire, Oxfordshire and Hampshire; the exceptions are North East Hampshire, served by South East Coast Ambulance Service and the Shrivenham area of Oxfordshire, served by South Western Ambulance Service. The service provides an emergency transport service for patients in life-threatening condition and a Non-Emergency Patient Transport Service; the NEPTS transports patients unable to use public transport due to their medical conditions, patients using outpatient clinics and patients being admitted or discharged from hospital. The Trust has a commercial division, which provides first aid training to members of the public, a community equipment service and logistic services.
Since 2017, SCAS has run the NEPTS in Sussex and Surrey, within the South East Coast ambulance area. It has a resilience and specialist operations department which plans for major or hazardous incidents; this includes a Hazardous Area Response Team, which responds to emergencies involving chemical, radiological or nuclear materials, as well as major incidents. The Trust trains and supports volunteer community first responders, it is the only NHS ambulance organisation in the UK to be supported by its own League of Friends, a registered charity. The South Central Ambulance League of Friends raises funds that are used to enhance the standard of care for patients, provide additional benefits for service personnel, encourage the acquisition of essential life-support skills among the public, support the deployment of volunteer community first responders; this group had been founded in 1982 to raise funds for the former Oxfordshire Ambulance NHS Trust. South Central Ambulance Service NHS Trust was formed on 1 July 2006, following the merger of the Royal Berkshire Ambulance Service NHS Trust, the Hampshire Ambulance Service NHS Trust, the Oxfordshire Ambulance NHS Trust, part of the Two Shires Ambulance NHS Trust.
The Trust achieved Foundation status on 1 March 2012, becoming known as South Central Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust. In June 2011 it was named England's top performing ambulance service, managing to respond to 77.5% of Cat A calls within the 8 minute target time, compared to the national average of 74.9%. In October 2011 the BBC discovered that SCAS spent more on private ambulance services to cover 999 calls than any other service in the country. On 1 March 2012, the Trust became an NHS Foundation Trust. In October 2013 the Trust accidentally published on its website a document listing the age and religion of all its 2,826 staff members. SCAS took over patient transport services in Hampshire in October 2014. In 2014 the trust held a recruitment drive in Poland to help fill vacancies. On 1 November 2016, it was announced that the trust would take over the running of NEPTS in the south-east of England from April 2017; the service had been run by South East Coast Ambulance Service until 1 April 2016, when it had been taken over by Coperforma, a private-sector provider, unable to provide a satisfactory level of service.
In 2015 the trust established a subsidiary company, South Central Fleet Services Ltd, to which 41 estates and facilities staff were transferred. The intention was to achieve VAT benefits, as well as pay bill savings, by recruiting new staff on less expensive non-NHS contracts. VAT benefits arise because NHS trusts can only claim VAT back on a small subset of goods and services they buy; the Value Added Tax Act 1994 provides a mechanism through which NHS trusts can qualify for refunds on contracted out services. Performance of SCAS is provided by national NHS England Ambulance Quality Indicators. In February 2016: The Trust managed to respond to 70% of Red 1 calls within 8 minutes 68% of Red 2 calls were responded to within 8 minutes 93% of Red 19 calls were responded to within 19 minutes Cardiac arrest survival rates were 16% 53% of stroke patients arrived at a thrombolysis centre within 60 minutes of their calls The average time to answer 999 calls was 43 seconds There were 21,024 incidents requiring patients being taken to an A&E department 42% of 999 patients were treated by paramedic crews only.
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom NHS ambulance services prior to 2006 Hampshire & Isle of Wight Air Ambulance South Central Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South Central Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South Central Ambulance League of Friends
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Central Milton Keynes
Central Milton Keynes is the central business district of Milton Keynes, England and a civil parish in its own right, designated as a town council. The district is 2.5 km long by 1 km wide and occupies some of the highest land in Milton Keynes. It contains the historic site of the moot hill for Secklow Hundred, it contains the central retail, law enforcement and governmental districts, Milton Keynes Central railway station and around 2,000 residential dwellings. This area is known locally as "the city centre". Occupying 238 hectares, the area lies between Portway to the north, the West Coast Main Line and A5 to the west, Childs Way to the south and the Grand Union Canal to the east, it is crossed from north to south by Grafton Gate, Witan Gate, Saxon Gate and Secklow Gate, Marlborough Street. It is crossed from west to east by Midsummer Boulevard and Avebury Boulevard. Midsummer Boulevard is the primary spine. Campbell Park, stretching from Marlborough Street down to the Grand Union Canal, is part of the parish.
While still on the drawing board, planners noticed that the main streets near the proposed city centre would frame the rising sun on Midsummer's Day. They consulted Greenwich Observatory to obtain the exact angle required at the latitude of CMK, persuaded the engineers to shift the grid of roads a few degrees in response; this area is the highest point of Milton Keynes and includes the site of the moot mound for the Anglo-Saxon Secklow Hundred just behind the library. The area is defined by the Marlborough Street to the north-east, the Saxon Gate to the south-west, Portway to the north-west and Childs Way to the south-east; the core retail district is further delimited by Silbury and Avebury Boulevards, with civic and office developments outside the Boulevards. The retail district includes thecentre: Intu Milton Keynes; the Central Library, Milton Keynes Council civic offices and other commercial offices are on the north side of the shops. Xscape is the main leisure complex in Central Milton Keynes consisting of SnoZone, a real snow indoor ski slope, climbing wall and a multiscreen cinema, a number of shops and night clubs.
At the rear of the site is iFly, the first publicly available indoor skydiving column in the UK. The 1,400 seat Milton Keynes theatre/concert hall has an unusual feature: the ceiling can be lowered closing off the third tier to create a more intimate space for smaller scale productions, it is the most successful regional theatre in the UK outside of London and operated by the Ambassador Theatre Group. Milton Keynes Gallery does not have a permanent collection; this allows it to host edgy shows to critical acclaim. This area is delimited by Portway and Childs Way. Saxon Gate separates it from the north-east area and Grafton Gate marks its south-western edge; the domed Church of Christ the Cornerstone, law courts and police station are in the business district, which has a number of notable buildings including CBX, The Hub:MK and the purpose-built Indian restaurant called Jaipur beside the small linear Grafton Park that provides its core. This ecumenical church, the first such in the United Kingdom, is shared by the major Christian denominations to serve the office workers and the small resident population..
The Hub:MK is a 2006-built development between the station and the church, consisting of towers ranging between 10 and 14 storeys. The complex includes two high-rise hotels and a number of residential and office towers set around a central piazza; the site controversially involves the closure of one of the original pedestrian underpasses and is built right up to the edge of the adjacent boulevard, the first of several proposals that would have changed the unique character of Milton Keynes Development Corporation's original design for Central Milton Keynes. The work is part of the'densification' plan that central government, through its agency English Partnerships, had ordained for Milton Keynes, its height a major departure from the original low-rise design, makes it the third tallest building in Milton Keynes, beaten only by the 14-storey Xscape and the 18-storey Mellish Court in Bletchley. To the south of the Hub lies a similar development named Vizion; this is similar in height and layout to the Hub but features a large Sainsburys supermarket taking up the lower two floors with a rooftop garden above it.
Vizion was completed in 2009, whilst the following year saw the completion of the 9-storey Pinnacle office development further west along Midsummer Boulevard from the Hub, closer to the railway station. The latter is distinctive for the slanted roof on its tallest section; this district is defined by Saxon Gate to the north-east, the West Coast Main Line to the south-west, Portway to the north-west and Childs Way to the south-east. The core retail district is further delimited by Silbury and Avebury Boulevards, with civic and office developments outside the Boulevards; the main feature of the district is the Milton Keynes Central railway station, one of the five stations serving Milt