Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
Bedford is a home rule-class city in Trimble County, Kentucky, in the United States. The population was 677 at the 2000 census, it is the county seat of Trimble County. It is located at the junction of U. S. Routes 42 and 421, it was named for Bedford, former home of the first settler, Richard Bell, who built a house near what he called Bedford Spring in 1805. The town was founded in 1816 and first incorporated in 1850. Following its loss of city status, it was reïncorporated in 1946. Bedford is located at 38°35′31″N 85°19′02″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.4 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 677 people, 282 households, 183 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,690.3 people per square mile. There were 297 housing units at an average density of 741.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.93% White, 0.15% African American, 1.77% from other races, 0.15% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.36% of the population.
There were 282 households out of which 35.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.4% were married couples living together, 20.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.1% were non-families. 28.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.96. In the city, the population was spread out with 28.5% under the age of 18, 10.2% from 18 to 24, 30.9% from 25 to 44, 17.3% from 45 to 64, 13.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 74.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $31,528, the median income for a family was $36,250. Males had a median income of $30,341 versus $22,188 for females; the per capita income for the city was $14,818. About 12.9% of families and 15.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.3% of those under age 18 and 7.1% of those age 65 or over.
Historical Images and Texts of Trimble County, Kentucky
Kentucky the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States. Although styled as the "State of Kentucky" in the law creating it, Kentucky is one of four U. S. states constituted as a commonwealth. A part of Virginia, in 1792 Kentucky became the 15th state to join the Union. Kentucky is the 26th most populous of the 50 United States. Kentucky is known as the "Bluegrass State", a nickname based on the bluegrass found in many of its pastures due to the fertile soil. One of the major regions in Kentucky is the Bluegrass Region in central Kentucky, which houses two of its major cities and Lexington, it is a land with diverse environments and abundant resources, including the world's longest cave system, Mammoth Cave National Park, the greatest length of navigable waterways and streams in the contiguous United States, the two largest man-made lakes east of the Mississippi River. Kentucky is known for horse racing, bourbon distilleries, coal, the "My Old Kentucky Home" historic state park, automobile manufacturing, bluegrass music, college basketball, Kentucky Fried Chicken.
In 1776, the counties of Virginia beyond the Appalachian Mountains became known as Kentucky County, named for the Kentucky River. The precise etymology of the name is uncertain, but based on an Iroquoian name meaning " the meadow" or " the prairie". Others have put forth the possibility of Kenta Aki, which would come from Algonquian language and, would have derived from the Shawnees. Folk etymology states that this translates as "Land of Our Fathers." The closest approximation in another Algonquian language, Ojibwe translates it more-so to "Land of Our In-Laws", thus making a fairer English translation "The Land of Those Who Became Our Fathers." In any case, the word aki comes out as land in all Algonquian languages. Kentucky is situated in the Upland South. A significant portion of eastern Kentucky is part of Appalachia. Kentucky borders seven states, from the Southeast. West Virginia lies to the east, Virginia to the southeast, Tennessee to the south, Missouri to the west and Indiana to the northwest, Ohio to the north and northeast.
Only Missouri and Tennessee, both of which border eight states, touch more. Kentucky's northern border is formed by the Ohio River and its western border by the Mississippi River. However, the official border is based on the courses of the rivers as they existed when Kentucky became a state in 1792. For instance, northbound travelers on U. S. 41 from Henderson, after crossing the Ohio River, will be in Kentucky for about two miles. Ellis Park, a thoroughbred racetrack, is located in this small piece of Kentucky. Waterworks Road is part of the only land border between Kentucky. Kentucky has a non-contiguous part known at the far west corner of the state, it exists as an exclave surrounded by Missouri and Tennessee, is included in the boundaries of Fulton County. Road access to this small part of Kentucky on the Mississippi River requires a trip through Tennessee; the epicenter of the powerful 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes was near this area causing the river to flow backwards in some places. Though the series of quakes did change the area geologically and affect the inhabitants of the area at the time, the Kentucky Bend was formed because of a surveying error, not the New Madrid earthquake.
Kentucky can be divided into five primary regions: the Cumberland Plateau in the east, the north-central Bluegrass region, the south-central and western Pennyroyal Plateau, the Western Coal Fields and the far-west Jackson Purchase. The Bluegrass region is divided into two regions, the Inner Bluegrass—the encircling 90 miles around Lexington—and the Outer Bluegrass—the region that contains most of the northern portion of the state, above the Knobs. Much of the outer Bluegrass is in the Eden Shale Hills area, made up of short and narrow hills; the Jackson Purchase and western Pennyrile are home to several bald cypress/tupelo swamps. Located within the southeastern interior portion of North America, Kentucky has a climate that can best be described as a humid subtropical climate, only small higher areas of the southeast of the state has an oceanic climate influenced by the Appalachians. Temperatures in Kentucky range from daytime summer highs of 87 °F to the winter low of 23 °F; the average precipitation is 46 inches a year.
Kentucky experiences four distinct seasons, with substantial variations in the severity of summer and winter. The highest recorded temperature was 114 °F at Greensburg on July 28, 1930 while the lowest recorded temperature was −37 °F at Shelbyville on January 19, 1994, it has four distinct seasons, but experiences the extreme cold as far northern states, nor the high heat of the states in the Deep South. Temperatures seldom drop below 0 degrees or rise above 100 degrees. Rain and snowfall totals about 45 inches per year. There are big variations in climate within the state; the northern parts tend to be about 5 degrees cooler than those in western parts of the state. Somerset in the south-central part receives 10 more inches of rain per year than, for instance, Covington to the north. Average temperatures for the entire Commonwe
A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi
U.S. Route 421
U. S. Route 421 is a spur route of U. S. 21. It runs for 941 miles from Fort Fisher, North Carolina south of Wilmington to Michigan City, Indiana at U. S. 20. U. S. Route 421 begins at Fort Fisher, North Carolina, heads to the northwest to Michigan City, Indiana. Along the way, it passes through Bristol and Virginia, Lexington and Indianapolis, Indiana. US 421 heads through North Carolina's southeastern beaches to Wilmington, it heads in a northwest direction through Clinton, Lillington and Siler City to the Piedmont Triad region. Major highway junctures between north of Wilmington and Greensboro are NC 11, I-95, U. S. Route 401, US 1, US 64 and I-85. In Greensboro, it follows the Greensboro Urban Loop paired with Interstate 85 south of Greensboro and I-73 northwest of Greensboro, it connects to I-40 towards Forsyth County as it becomes its own freeway along the former Interstate 40 alignment known as Business 40. Major intersections are US 158 and US 52 between Greensboro and Winston-Salem. After Winston-Salem, it intersects I-40 once again but continues westerly passing through Lewisville, Yadkinville and Boone.
Major highway junctions between Winston-Salem and Boone are US 601, I-77, NC 16, Blue Ridge Parkway, US 221 and US 321. US 421 continues westerly into Tennessee towards Tennessee. US 421 is a limited access freeway through Siler City northward. US 421 is a divided highway from north of NC 49 all of the way to Wilkesboro. US Highway 421 enters Tennessee from North Carolina in Trade, it is the easternmost part of the state. The road "as the crow would fly" is a short distance in Volunteer State but traverses through two mountain ranges. After Trade, it ventures into Mountain City through a 40 mph zone while bypassing the downtown area. After Mountain City, begins the two mountain ranges and in between them is the area of Shady Valley. After the second mountain range, it flattens out after the South Fork Holston River heading towards Bristol. US 421 enters Virginia on the Old Dominion side of Bristol. Major highway junctions between the NC and VA state lines are SR-67 in Mountain City, SR-91 the new Mountain City bypass, SR-394, US 11E.
US 421 enters from Tennessee in Bristol and goes west to Weber City and Pennington Gap in Southwest Virginia. The route goes through the Cumberland and Powell Mountains, goes by Natural Tunnel State Park near Duffield. US 421 enters the Bluegrass State running 272.4 miles from the Pennington Gap area in Virginia into Harlan County. For the distance between the Virginia state line and closer to Hal Rogers Parkway, it is a major north-south two lane highway. However, its passing zones are limited to a stretch after the Virginia line, through Harlan and along US 119. US 421 crosses Pine Mountain and enters Leslie County, turning west at Hyden and paralleling the Hal Rogers Parkway. Between Manchester and McKee, US 421 functions as more of a local road with many curves; the roadway improves as it descends from the Cumberland Plateau into the Bluegrass Region at Big Hill in Madison County near Berea. It joins US 25 at the Blue Grass Army Depot south of Richmond and parallels I-75 towards Lexington.
Through Lexington, it is Main Street and Leestown Road. The segment between Lexington and Frankfort was once designated KY 50. US 62 runs with US 421 in this section. In Frankfort, US 421 runs with US 60 on the west side of town runs within the city's northern bypass joining US 127. US 421 traverses the hilly area northwest of Frankfort through Henry and Trimble counties, exiting the state at Milton, crossing the Ohio River into Madison, Indiana via the Milton–Madison Bridge. US 421 winds through the southern part of Indiana as it runs from Madison, in the southeastern part of the state, to Indianapolis. North of Greensburg, U. S. 421 intersects and merges through the Shelbyville area en route to Indianapolis. U. S. 421 followed Southeastern Ave. into downtown Indianapolis, where it merged with US 40 to West St. turned north, following West St. Northwestern Ave. and Michigan Rd. up to the northwest side of the city. US 421 went past an Indianapolis landmark. North of Indianapolis, U. S. 421 continues to the north-northwest, providing a direct highway link between Indianapolis and Michigan City.
U. S. 421 ends at its junction with US 20 on the south side of Michigan City. The highway's end was a few miles north at the junction with US 12 near the shores of Lake Michigan. US 421 will be a freeway in Indiana from Greensburg to Versailles. US 421 freeway will go near, or pass through Napoleon, Osgood. US 421 followed the same route between Clinton and Wilmington. However, there are several old alignments from Clinton to the Tennessee state line. US 421 bypasses Clinton, old alignment uses local streets. Between Dunn and Sanford, uses an old alignment connected. Between Goldston and Greensboro, uses several old alignments but not connected. Between Greensboro and Wilkesboro, uses multiple old alignments of different alignments. In *addition, they are no longer connected consistently. US 421 bypasses Wilkesboro, with a special US Business route. Between Deep Gap and Boone, uses an old aligmment. Between Vilas and the Tennessee state line, uses an old alignment. North Carolina Parking area in Federal Point US 117 in Wilmington US 76 in Wilmington.
The highways travel concurrently to Eagle Island. US 17 / US 74 / US 76 on Eagle Island. US 17/US 421 travels concurrently to west of Wrightsboro. US 74/US 421 travels concurrently to southwest of
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Eminence is a home rule-class city in Henry County, Kentucky, in the United States. The population was 2,498 at the 2010 census, up from 2,231 at the 2000 census. Eminence is the largest city in Henry County. Eminence is home to Eminence Speaker. Eminence is located in southern Henry County at 38°22′5″N 85°10′50″W, it is bordered to the south by Shelby County. Kentucky Route 55 is Main Street through Eminence. KY 55 leads north 4 miles to New Castle, the Henry County seat, south 12 miles to Shelbyville. U. S. Route 421 passes 2 miles east of Eminence. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city of Eminence has a total area of 2.9 square miles, of which 0.04 square miles, or 1.70%, is water. The city is located on high ground, with elevations up to 960 feet, where several watersheds converge; the source of the Little Kentucky River, a tributary of the Kentucky River, is just west of Eminence, while Town Creek to the north and Grennon Creek to the east rise in Eminence and flow north to the Kentucky River.
Fox Run rises in the southern part of Eminence and flows south via Bullskin Creek and Brashears Creek to the Salt River. The Kentucky and the Salt River are both tributaries of the Ohio River; the area post office, established in 1836, was moved to Eminence in 1850, named for its supposed location at the highest point on the railroad line between Louisville and Lexington. The city was formally incorporated in 1851; the Eminence Historic Commercial District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1979. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,231 people, 944 households, 623 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,039.2 people per square mile. There were 998 housing units at an average density of 464.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 83.59% White, 11.65% Black or African American, 0.31% Native American, 0.36% Asian, 2.11% from other races, 1.97% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.81% of the population. There were 944 households out of which 30.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.4% were married couples living together, 18.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.0% were non-families.
30.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.91. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.3% under the age of 18, 9.6% from 18 to 24, 28.2% from 25 to 44, 22.1% from 45 to 64, 14.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $30,323, the median income for a family was $36,053. Males had a median income of $30,893 versus $21,042 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,337. About 14.9% of families and 17.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.0% of those under age 18 and 21.5% of those age 65 or over. The city is home to the Highland Renaissance Festival. Eminence hosts a Celtic Fest in September. City of Eminence official website Eminence Independent School District