Sierra de Cádiz
Sierra de Cádiz is a comarca province of Cádiz. Most of the comarca's territory falls within a protected area; the Sierra de Cádiz comarca includes the following municipalities: Alcalá del Valle Algar Algodonales Arcos de la Frontera Benaocaz Bornos El Bosque El Gastor Espera Grazalema Olvera Prado del Rey Puerto Serrano Setenil de las Bodegas Torre Alháquime Ubrique Villaluenga del Rosario Villamartín Zahara de la Sierra El portal de la Sierra de Cádiz en internet
Province of Almería
Almería is a province of the Autonomous Community of Andalusia, Spain. It is bordered by the provinces of Granada and the Mediterranean Sea, its capital is the homonymous city of Almería. Almería has an area of 8,774 km². With 701,688 inhabitants, its population density is 79.96/km² lower than the Spanish average. It is divided in 102 municipalities; the highest mountain range in the Province of Almería is the 50 km long Sierra de Los Filabres. Europe's driest area is part of the Cabo de Gata-Níjar Natural Park; the arid landscape and climate of the province have made it an ideal setting for Western films during the 1960s. Because of the demand for these locations, quite a number of Western towns were built near the Tabernas Desert. Films such as A Fistful of Dollars, For a Few Dollars More, The Good, The Bad, The Ugly were shot here. Years the film of 800 Bullets was filmed in the same place. Large sections of Conan the Barbarian, Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, Lawrence of Arabia and Patton were shot there as well.
The main river is the Andarax River, located near Granada in the Alpujarras. The Beninar Reservoir, located near Darrical, provides part of the water needed in the production in greenhouses. Interesting and unique species of animals native to the Alto Almanzora are in the process of extinction; the most important economic activity is greenhouse farming. Millions of tons of vegetables are exported to other European countries and other parts of the world each year. See Intensive farming in Almería Tourism is a key sector of the economy, due to the sunny weather and attractive areas such as Roquetas de Mar, Almerimar, Vera or Cabo de Gata; the principal industrial activity is in the Macael canteras marble quarrying area in the Sierra de los Filabres region from Macael Viejo to Chercos and Cobdar which produce in excess of 1.3 million tons. The Cantoria, Olula del Rio and Purchena area of the Alto Almanzora valley is fast becoming the regional megalopolis through high imports and exports and employment in local and international marble processing.
All the tourist accommodations and construction throughout coastal Spain has driven high demand and brought huge modernisation. Small pueblos of agriculturalists have given rise to computerised machining factories; the German-Spanish Calar Alto Observatory is one of the most important observatories of Spain. In Tabernas there is the Plataforma Solar de Almería. France's Michelin operates an industrial research centre in Cabo de Gata; the Paleolithic Age of Almería was characterized by small hunter-gatherer groups. The oldest Paleolithic site is Zájara Cave I in the Caves of the Almanzora; the first villages and spaces dedicated to burials appear by the Neolithic Age, before the Upper Paleolithic Age. The cave paintings of the Cave of the Signs and twenty other caves and shelters of Los Vélez are dated to this era, were designated a World Heritage site by Unesco in 1989. In one of the shelters of the first settlers of the peninsula, the Coat of the Beehives, there remains a human figure with arms outstretched holding an arc above its head.
According to legend, this picture represents a covenant made by prehistoric man with the gods to prevent future floods. It is the earliest depiction of the Almerían Indalo, named in memory of Saint Indaletius, means Indal Eccius in the Iberian language. Over the years, the Indalo has become the best known symbol of Almería; some see this figure as a man holding a rainbow, but it might be an archer pointing a bow towards the sky. The Indalo lent its name to the artistic and intellectual movement of the Indalianos led by Jesús de Perceval and Eugenio d'Ors, a movement of nostalgic attraction by the people of Mojácar; the people of Mojácar painted Indalos with chalk on the walls of their houses to guard against storms and the Evil Eye. It was Luis Siret y Cels, an eminent Belgium archaeologist, that described the rich prehistoric wealth of Almería that of the Metal Age. Siret said that Almería was like "an open-air museum". Indeed, Almería is home to two of the most important cultures of the Metal Age in the peninsula: Los Millares and El Argar.
The earliest known city, Los Millares, dates to the Copper Age and is strategically located on a spur of rock between the Andarax River and the Huéchar Ravine, in the southern part of the province. It was a down of more than a thousand inhabitants, protected by three lines of walls and towers, had an economy based on copper metallurgy, animal husbandry, hunting on a moderate scale. Furthermore, they constructed a large necropolis and exported metal figures and pottery to a large part of the peninsula; the influential culture of El Argar appeared during the Bronze Age. They developed a characteristic form of pottery, the vaso campaniforme that spread throughout all of Northern Spain, their cemeteries were more advanced with respect to the culture of Los Millares and they had diverse agricultural production and animal husbandry. The rich customs and Fiestas of the denizens retain links deep into the past, unto the Moors, the Romans, the Greeks, the Phoenicians. During the taifa era, it was ruled by the Moor Banu al-Amiri from 1012 to 1038 annexed by Valencia given by Zaragoza to the Banu Sumadih dynasty until its conquest by the Almoravids in 1091.
Some centuries it became part of the kingdom of Granada. List of municipalitie
Córdoba spelled Cordova in English, is a city in Andalusia, southern Spain, the capital of the province of Córdoba. It was a Roman settlement, taken over by the Visigoths, followed by the Umayyad Caliphate in the eighth century, it became the capital of a Muslim emirate, the Caliphate of Córdoba, which encompassed most of the Iberian Peninsula. During this period, it became a centre of education and learning, by the 10th century had grown to be the largest city in Europe, it was recaptured by Christian forces during the so-called Reconquista. Today, Córdoba is still home to many notable pieces of Moorish architecture such as the Mezquita, named as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1984, is in use as a Cathedral; the UNESCO status has since been expanded to encompass the whole historic centre of Córdoba. Much of this architecture, such as the Alcázar and the Roman bridge has been reworked or reconstructed by the city's successive inhabitants. Córdoba has the highest summer temperatures in Spain and Europe, with average high temperatures around 37 °C in July and August.
The first traces of human presence in the area are remains of a Neanderthal Man, dating to c. 42,000 to 35,000 BC. Pre-urban settlements around the mouth of the Guadalquivir river are known to have existed from the 8th century BC; the population learned copper and silver metallurgy. The first historical mention of a settlement dates to the Carthaginian expansion across the Guadalquivir, when general Hamilcar Barca renamed it Kartuba, from Kart-Juba, meaning "the City of Juba", a Numidian commander who had died in a battle nearby. Córdoba was named as Corduba. In 169 Roman consul M. Claudius Marcellus, grandson of Marcus Claudius Marcellus, who had governed both Further and Hither Spain, founded a Latin colony alongside the pre-existing Iberian settlement. Between 143 and 141 BC. A Roman forum is known to have existed in the city in 113 BC; the famous Cordoba Treasure, with mixed local and Roman artistic traditions, was buried in the city at this time. It became a colonia with the title Patricia, between 46 and 45 BC.
It was sacked by Caesar in 45 due to its Pompeian allegiance, settled with veterans by Augustus. It had a colonial and provincial forum and many temples, it was the chief center of Roman intellectual life in Hispania Ulterior. Its republican poets were succeeded by Lucan. At the time of Julius Caesar, Córdoba was the capital of the Roman province of Hispania Baetica; the great Roman philosopher Seneca the Younger, his father, the orator Seneca the Elder, his nephew, the poet Lucan came from Roman Cordoba. In the late Roman period, its bishop Hosius was the dominant figure of the western Church throughout the earlier 4th cent, it occupied an important place in the Provincia Hispaniae of the Byzantine Empire and under the Visigoths, who conquered it in the late 6th century. Córdoba was captured in 711 by the Umayyad army. Unlike other Iberian towns, no capitulation was signed and the position was taken by storm. Córdoba was in turn governed by direct Umayyad rule; the new Umayyad commanders established themselves within the city and in 716 it became a provincial capital, subordinate to the Caliphate of Damascus.
Different areas were allocated for services in the Saint Vincent Church shared by Christians and Muslims, until construction of the Córdoba Mosque started on the same spot under Abd-ar-Rahman I. Abd al-Rahman allowed the Christians to rebuild their ruined churches and purchased the Christian half of the church of St Vincent. In May 766 Córdoba was chosen as the capital of the independent Umayyad emirate caliphate, of al-Andalus. By 800 the megacity of Cordoba supported over 200,000 residents, 0.1 per cent of the global population. During the apogee of the caliphate, Córdoba had a population of about 400,000 inhabitants, with estimates ranging from 100,000 to an unlikely 1,000,000. In the 10th and 11th centuries Córdoba was one of the most advanced cities in the world, a great cultural, political and economic centre; the Great Mosque of Córdoba dates back to this time. After a change of rulers the situation changed quickly; the vizier al-Mansur–the unofficial ruler of al-Andalus from 976 to 1002—burned most of the books on philosophy to please the Moorish clergy.
Córdoba had a prosperous economy, with manufactured goods including leather, metal work, glazed tiles and textiles, agricultural produce including a range of fruits, vegetables and spices, materials such as cotton and silk. It was famous as a centre of learning, home to over 80 libraries and institutions of learning, with knowledge of medicine, astronomy, botany far exceeding the rest of Europe at the time. In 1002 Al-Mansur was returning to Córdoba from an expedition in the area of Rioja, his death was the beginning of the end of Córdoba. Abd al-Malik al-Muzaffar, al-Mansur's older son, succeeded to his father’s authority, but he died in 1008 assassinated. Sanchuelo, Abd al-Malik’s younger brother succeeded him. While Sanchuelo was away fighting Alfonso V of Leon, a revolution made Mohammed II al-Mahdi the Caliph. Sanchuelo sued for pardon but he was killed when he returned to Cardova; the slaves revolted against Mahdi, killed him in 1009, replaced him with Hisham II in 1010. Hisham II was forced out of office.
In 1012 the Berbers "sacked Cardova." In 1016 th
Alpujarra Granadina is a Spanish comarca in the Province of Granada. Along with Alpujarra Almeriense, is part of the region of the Alpujarras. Located in the west of the Alpujarras, it borders the Granadan comarcas of Accitania to the north, the Vega de Granada to the northwest, the Valle de Lecrín to the west, the Costa Tropical to the south, as well as with the Almerían comarcas of Poniente Almeriense to the southeast and the Alpujarra Almeriense to the east; the comarca is divided into 25 municipalities.: Almegíjar Alpujarra de la Sierra Bérchules Bubión Busquístar Cádiar Cáñar Capileira Carataunas Cástaras Juviles Lanjarón Lobras Murtas Nevada Órgiva Pampaneira Pórtugos Soportújar La Taha Torvizcón Trevélez Turón Ugíjar Válor Alpujarra Almeriense Morisco Revolt Sierra Nevada Visit Alpujarras: your holiday quide, travel information and rural accommodation Touristic website of Alpujarra Granadina History and infos about the Alpujarras
Provinces of Spain
Spain and its autonomous communities are divided into fifty provinces. Spain's provincial system was recognized in its 1978 constitution but its origin dates back to 1833. Ceuta and the Plazas de soberanía are not part of any provinces; the layout of Spain's provinces follows the pattern of the territorial division of the country carried out in 1833. The only major change of provincial borders since that time has been the subdivision of the Canary Islands into two provinces rather than one; the provinces served as transmission belts for policies enacted in Madrid, as Spain was a centralised state for most of its modern history. The importance of the provinces has declined since the adoption of the system of autonomous communities in the period of the Spanish transition to democracy, they remain electoral districts for national elections and as geographical references: for instance in postal addresses and telephone codes. A small town would be identified as being in, Valladolid province rather than the autonomous community of Castile and León.
The provinces were the "building-blocks". No province is divided between more than one of these communities. Most of the provinces—with the exception of Álava, Biscay, Guipúzcoa, Balearic Islands, La Rioja, Navarra — are named after their principal town. Only two capitals of autonomous communities — Mérida in Extremadura and Santiago de Compostela in Galicia — are not the capitals of provinces. Seven of the autonomous communities comprise no more than one province each: Asturias, Balearic Islands, Cantabria, La Rioja, Madrid and Navarra; these are sometimes referred to as "uniprovincial" communities. The table below lists the provinces of Spain. For each, the capital city is given, together with an indication of the autonomous community to which it belongs and a link to a list of municipalities in the province; the names of the provinces and their capitals are ordered alphabetically according to the form in which they appear in the main Wikipedia articles describing them. Unless otherwise indicated, their Spanish language names are the same.
List of Spanish provinces by population List of Spanish provinces by area Spanish Federation of Municipalities and Provinces Autonomous communities of Spain Comarcas of Spain ISO 3166-2:ESGeneral: Political divisions of Spain Maps of the provinces of Spain Maps of Spain's Provinces List of municipalities of Spain listed by province from the Spanish INE
Montilla is a town and municipality in southern Spain, in the province of Córdoba, 32 miles south of the provincial capital, Córdoba. As of 2017, the town had a population of 23,209; the olive oil of the district is abundant and good, it is the peculiar flavour of the pale dry light wine of Montilla that gives its name to the sherry known as Amontillado. Montilla is the largest component of the Montilla-Moriles designated wine region; the large wineries Alvear and Gran Barquero are located in Montilla, which has an annual vendimia festival. Local folkloric figures are the witches "las Camachas", mentioned by Cervantes in the "Dialogue of the Dogs"; the central portion of that work is set in a convent. Montilla was the birthplace of "The Great Captain," Gonzalo or Gonsalvo of Córdoba, contains the ruined castle of his father, Pedro Fernández de Córdoba. El Inca Garcilaso de la Vega lived thirty years in Montilla, the future saint Juan de Ávila lived for the last fifteen years of his life in Montilla, where he is buried.
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Montilla". Encyclopædia Britannica. 18. Cambridge University Press. P. 786. Media related to Montilla at Wikimedia Commons
Andalusia is an autonomous community in southern Spain. It is the most populous, the second largest autonomous community in the country; the Andalusian autonomous community is recognised as a "historical nationality". The territory is divided into eight provinces: Almería, Cádiz, Córdoba, Huelva, Jaén, Málaga and Seville, its capital is the city of Seville. Andalusia is located in the south of the Iberian peninsula, in south-western Europe south of the autonomous communities of Extremadura and Castilla-La Mancha. Andalusia is the only European region with both Atlantic coastlines; the small British overseas territory of Gibraltar shares a three-quarter-mile land border with the Andalusian province of Cádiz at the eastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar. The main mountain ranges of Andalusia are the Sierra Morena and the Baetic System, consisting of the Subbaetic and Penibaetic Mountains, separated by the Intrabaetic Basin. In the north, the Sierra Morena separates Andalusia from the plains of Extremadura and Castile–La Mancha on Spain's Meseta Central.
To the south the geographic subregion of Upper Andalusia lies within the Baetic System, while Lower Andalusia is in the Baetic Depression of the valley of the Guadalquivir. The name "Andalusia" is derived from the Arabic word Al-Andalus; the toponym al-Andalus is first attested by inscriptions on coins minted in 716 by the new Muslim government of Iberia. These coins, called dinars, were inscribed in both Arabic; the etymology of the name "al-Andalus" has traditionally been derived from the name of the Vandals. Halm in 1989 derived the name from a Gothic term, *landahlauts, in 2002, Bossong suggested its derivation from a pre-Roman substrate; the region's history and culture have been influenced by the native Iberians, Carthaginians, Romans, Visigoths, Jews, Muslim Moors and the Castilian and other Christian North Iberian nationalities who reconquered and settled the area in the latter phases of the Reconquista. Andalusia has been a agricultural region, compared to the rest of Spain and the rest of Europe.
However, the growth of the community in the sectors of industry and services was above average in Spain and higher than many communities in the Eurozone. The region has a strong identity. Many cultural phenomena that are seen internationally as distinctively Spanish are or Andalusian in origin; these include flamenco and, to a lesser extent and Hispano-Moorish architectural styles, both of which are prevalent in other regions of Spain. Andalusia's hinterland is the hottest area of Europe, with cities like Córdoba and Seville averaging above 36 °C in summer high temperatures. Late evening temperatures can sometimes stay around 35 °C until close to midnight, with daytime highs of over 40 °C common. Seville has the highest average annual temperature in mainland Spain and mainland Europe followed by Almería, its present form is derived from the Arabic name for Muslim Iberia, "Al-Andalus". However, the etymology of the name "Al-Andalus" is disputed, the extent of Iberian territory encompassed by the name has changed over the centuries.
The Spanish place name Andalucía was introduced into the Spanish languages in the 13th century under the form el Andalucía. The name was adopted to refer to those territories still under Moorish rule, south of Castilla Nueva and Valencia, corresponding with the former Roman province hitherto called Baetica in Latin sources; this was a Castilianization of Al-Andalusiya, the adjectival form of the Arabic language al-Andalus, the name given by the Arabs to all of the Iberian territories under Muslim rule from 711 to 1492. The etymology of al-Andalus is itself somewhat debated, but in fact it entered the Arabic language before this area came under Muslim rule. Like the Arabic term al-Andalus, in historical contexts the Spanish term Andalucía or the English term Andalusia do not refer to the exact territory designated by these terms today; the term referred to territories under Muslim control. In the Estoria de España of Alfonso X of Castile, written in the second half of the 13th century, the term Andalucía is used with three different meanings: As a literal translation of the Arabic al-Ándalus when Arabic texts are quoted.
To designate the territories the Christians had regained by that time in the Guadalquivir valley and in the Kingdoms of Granada and Murcia. In a document from 1253, Alfonso X styled himself León y de toda Andalucía. To designate the territories the Christians had regained by that time in the Guadalquivir valley but not the Kingdom of Granada; this was the most common significance in Early modern period. From an administrative point of view, Granada remained separate for many years after the completion of the Reconquista due, above all, to its emblematic character as the last territory regained, as the seat of the important Real Chancillería de Granada, a court of last resort. Stil