The euro is the official currency of 19 of the 28 member states of the European Union. This group of states is known as the eurozone or euro area, counts about 343 million citizens as of 2019; the euro is the second largest and second most traded currency in the foreign exchange market after the United States dollar. The euro is subdivided into 100 cents; the currency is used by the institutions of the European Union, by four European microstates that are not EU members, as well as unilaterally by Montenegro and Kosovo. Outside Europe, a number of special territories of EU members use the euro as their currency. Additionally, 240 million people worldwide as of 2018 use currencies pegged to the euro; the euro is the second largest reserve currency as well as the second most traded currency in the world after the United States dollar. As of August 2018, with more than €1.2 trillion in circulation, the euro has one of the highest combined values of banknotes and coins in circulation in the world, having surpassed the U.
S. dollar. The name euro was adopted on 16 December 1995 in Madrid; the euro was introduced to world financial markets as an accounting currency on 1 January 1999, replacing the former European Currency Unit at a ratio of 1:1. Physical euro coins and banknotes entered into circulation on 1 January 2002, making it the day-to-day operating currency of its original members, by March 2002 it had replaced the former currencies. While the euro dropped subsequently to US$0.83 within two years, it has traded above the U. S. dollar since the end of 2002, peaking at US$1.60 on 18 July 2008. In late 2009, the euro became immersed in the European sovereign-debt crisis, which led to the creation of the European Financial Stability Facility as well as other reforms aimed at stabilising and strengthening the currency; the euro is managed and administered by the Frankfurt-based European Central Bank and the Eurosystem. As an independent central bank, the ECB has sole authority to set monetary policy; the Eurosystem participates in the printing and distribution of notes and coins in all member states, the operation of the eurozone payment systems.
The 1992 Maastricht Treaty obliges most EU member states to adopt the euro upon meeting certain monetary and budgetary convergence criteria, although not all states have done so. The United Kingdom and Denmark negotiated exemptions, while Sweden turned down the euro in a 2003 referendum, has circumvented the obligation to adopt the euro by not meeting the monetary and budgetary requirements. All nations that have joined the EU since 1993 have pledged to adopt the euro in due course. Since 1 January 2002, the national central banks and the ECB have issued euro banknotes on a joint basis. Euro banknotes do not show. Eurosystem NCBs are required to accept euro banknotes put into circulation by other Eurosystem members and these banknotes are not repatriated; the ECB issues 8% of the total value of banknotes issued by the Eurosystem. In practice, the ECB's banknotes are put into circulation by the NCBs, thereby incurring matching liabilities vis-à-vis the ECB; these liabilities carry interest at the main refinancing rate of the ECB.
The other 92% of euro banknotes are issued by the NCBs in proportion to their respective shares of the ECB capital key, calculated using national share of European Union population and national share of EU GDP weighted. The euro is divided into 100 cents. In Community legislative acts the plural forms of euro and cent are spelled without the s, notwithstanding normal English usage. Otherwise, normal English plurals are sometimes used, with many local variations such as centime in France. All circulating coins have a common side showing the denomination or value, a map in the background. Due to the linguistic plurality in the European Union, the Latin alphabet version of euro is used and Arabic numerals. For the denominations except the 1-, 2- and 5-cent coins, the map only showed the 15 member states which were members when the euro was introduced. Beginning in 2007 or 2008 the old map is being replaced by a map of Europe showing countries outside the Union like Norway, Belarus, Russia or Turkey.
The 1-, 2- and 5-cent coins, keep their old design, showing a geographical map of Europe with the 15 member states of 2002 raised somewhat above the rest of the map. All common sides were designed by Luc Luycx; the coins have a national side showing an image chosen by the country that issued the coin. Euro coins from any member state may be used in any nation that has adopted the euro; the coins are issued in denominations of €2, €1, 50c, 20c, 10c, 5c, 2c, 1c. To avoid the use of the two smallest coins, some cash transactions are rounded to the nearest five cents in the Netherlands and Ireland and in Finland; this practice is discouraged by the Commission, as is the practice of certain shops of refusing to accept high-value euro notes. Commemorative coins with €2 face value have been issued with changes to the design of the national side of the coin; these include both issued coins, such as the €2 commemorative coin for the fiftieth anniversary of the signing of the Treaty of Rome, nationally i
Switzerland the Swiss Confederation, is a country situated in western and southern Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities; the sovereign state is a federal republic bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2. While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of 8.5 million people is concentrated on the plateau, where the largest cities are to be found: among them are the two global cities and economic centres Zürich and Geneva. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria and Burgundy. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648; the country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation.
It pursues an active foreign policy and is involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to numerous international organisations, including the second largest UN office. On the European level, it is a founding member of the European Free Trade Association, but notably not part of the European Union, the European Economic Area or the Eurozone. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties. Spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions: German, French and Romansh. Although the majority of the population are German-speaking, Swiss national identity is rooted in a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy, Alpine symbolism. Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz. On coins and stamps, the Latin name – shortened to "Helvetia" – is used instead of the four national languages.
Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Switzerland ranks at or near the top globally in several metrics of national performance, including government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic competitiveness and human development. Zürich and Basel have all three been ranked among the top ten cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the first ranked second globally, according to Mercer in 2018; the English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, an obsolete term for the Swiss, in use during the 16th to 19th centuries. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse in use since the 16th century; the name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, one of the Waldstätten cantons which formed the nucleus of the Old Swiss Confederacy. The Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for "Confederates", used since the 14th century.
The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes perhaps related to swedan ‘to burn’, referring to the area of forest, burned and cleared to build; the name was extended to the area dominated by the canton, after the Swabian War of 1499 came to be used for the entire Confederation. The Swiss German name of the country, Schwiiz, is homophonous to that of the canton and the settlement, but distinguished by the use of the definite article; the Latin name Confoederatio Helvetica was neologized and introduced after the formation of the federal state in 1848, harking back to the Napoleonic Helvetic Republic, appearing on coins from 1879, inscribed on the Federal Palace in 1902 and after 1948 used in the official seal.. Helvetica is derived from the Helvetii, a Gaulish tribe living on the Swiss plateau before the Roman era. Helvetia appears as a national personification of the Swiss confederacy in the 17th century with a 1672 play by Johann Caspar Weissenbach.
Switzerland has existed as a state in its present form since the adoption of the Swiss Federal Constitution in 1848. The precursors of Switzerland established a protective alliance at the end of the 13th century, forming a loose confederation of states which persisted for centuries; the oldest traces of hominid existence in Switzerland date back about 150,000 years. The oldest known farming settlements in Switzerland, which were found at Gächlingen, have been dated to around 5300 BC; the earliest known cultural tribes of the area were members of the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel. La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age from around 450 BC under some influence from the Gree
Province of Como
The Province of Como is a province in the north of the Lombardy region of Italy and borders the Swiss cantons of Ticino and Grigioni to the North, the Italian provinces of Sondrio and Lecco to the East, the Province of Monza and Brianza to the south and the Province of Varese to the West. The city of Como is its capital — other large towns, with more than 10,000 inhabitants, include Cantù, Mariano Comense and Olgiate Comasco. Campione d'Italia belongs to the province and is enclaved in the Swiss canton of Ticino; as of 31 December 2017, the main commune by population are: The Bergamo Alps and some hills cover the territory of the province, the most important body of water is the glacial Lake Como. Communes of the province of Como Giuseppe Terragni Antonio Sant'Elia Alessandro Volta Official website
Basilica of Sant'Ambrogio
The Basilica of Sant'Ambrogio is a church in Milan, northern Italy. One of the most ancient churches in Milan, it was built by St. Ambrose in 379–386, in an area where numerous martyrs of the Roman persecutions had been buried; the first name of the church was in fact Basilica Martyrum. When St. Ambrose arrived in Milan, the local churches were in conflict with each other over the conflict between Arianism and the Nicene Creed as well as numerous local issues, he was in support of the Nicene side of the conflict, wanted to make northern Italy into a pro-Rome stronghold. He did this through both construction, he built four churches surrounding the city. A fourth church, Basilica Salvatoris is attributed to him as well, but may not be from the 4th century; these churches were dedicated with anti-Arian language and as symbols of the wealth and power of the pro-Nicene faction in Milan. In the centuries after its construction, the edifice underwent several restorations and partial reconstructions, assuming the current appearance in the 12th Century, when it was rebuilt in the Romanesque style.
The basilica was outside the city of Milan, but over the following centuries, the city grew up around it. It became a community of canons developed in the church. In 789, a monastery was established within the basilica grounds; the canons, retained their own community and identity instead of fading away. Two, distinct religious communities shared the basilica. In the 11th century, the canons became Canons Regular. There were now two separate monastic orders following different rules living in the basilica; the canons were in the northern building, the cloister of the canons, while the monks were in the two southern buildings. The two towers symbolize the division in the basilica; the 9th century Torre dei Monaci tower was used by the monks to call the faithful to the monks' mass. The monks supported themselves from the offerings given after mass. However, the canons did not have a bell tower and were not allowed to ring bells until they finished their own tower in the 12th Century; the monastery and church became a large landholder in northern Italy and into what is now the Swiss Canton of Ticino.
On 4 August 1528 it was the so-called "Peace of St. Ambrose", between the noble and popular factions of the city, was signed here. In 1492 the Benedictines commissioned Donato Bramante, structural architect of St. Peter's Basilica, to renovate the new rectory. In August 1943 the Allied bombings damaged the basilica, in particular the apse and surrounding area; as a result of this a new building, painted in pink, was constructed to house the Abbot's offices and the museum. The church is built in brickwork of different origins and colors, with parts of stone and white plastering; the current Romanesque church was begun around 1080. The nave dates to about 1128 and the rib vaults of the nave are from about 1140; the original edifice, like the great churches of Rome of the same epoch, belonged to the basilica type. Investigations made in 1864 have established the fact that the nave and the aisles of the existing basilica correspond with those of the primitive church; the altar occupies about the same place as in the time of St. Ambrose, the columns of the ciborium over the altar appear never to have been disturbed.
In the following centuries the edifice underwent several restorations and partial reconstructions, assuming the current appearance in the 12th century. The basilica plan of the original edifice was maintained, with an apse and two aisles, all with apses, a portico with arches supported by semicolumns and pilasters preceding the entrance; the latter was used to house the catechumens who attended part of the Mass prior to receiving baptism. The hut-shaped façade has two orders of loggias: the lower one has three arcades of same span, which join the portico ones, which are higher; the upper loggia was used by the bishops to bless the citizens. The portico's arcade are supported by pillars, flanked by semi-columns, they have double archivolts, while the portico's upper frame is decorated with Lombard bands, which are repeated on the façade. Thin lesenes start from the pillars' centres; the capitals are decorated by animal, human figures, as well as by vegetable or fantastic motifs of pre-Romanesque origin.
Under the narthex, between the central portal and the left aisle's portal, is the sarcophagus of Pietro Candido Decembrio, from the 15th century. The central portal is flanked by two multi-column pillars, has an archivolt with decorative of elements of Sassanid origin; the basilica has two bell towers. The right one, called dei Monaci, is from the 9th century and has a severe appearance typical of defensive structures; the left and higher one dates from 1144, the last two floors having been added in 1889. It was designed by the same architect of the Roma
Swisscom AG is a major telecommunications provider in Switzerland. Its headquarters are located in Worblaufen near Bern; the Swiss Confederation owns 51.0 percent of Swisscom AG. According to its own published data, Swisscom holds a market share of 60% for mobile, 67% for broadband and 33% for TV telecommunication in Switzerland, its Italian subsidiary Fastweb is attributed 16% of private clients and 29% of corporate clients share of Italian broadband and is active in the mobile market. The Swiss telegraph network was first set up in 1852, followed by telephones in 1877; the two networks were combined with the postal service in 1920 to form the PTT. It struggled to develop a homegrown digital network, with the first digital exchange launched in 1986, but pioneered the NATEL A mobile service in 1978 and the GSM-based NATEL D offering a digital service in 1993; the Swiss telecommunications market was deregulated in 1997. Telecom PTT was spun off and rebranded Swisscom ahead of a partial privatisation in 1997, which has left the Swiss government with a 51% stake.
Besides pioneering the first mobile telephone network NATEL A, the present-day Swisscom owns the protected brand NATEL, used and known only in Switzerland. In 2001, 25% of Swisscom Mobile was sold to Vodafone. Since Swisscom has bought a majority stake in Italy's second-biggest telecom company Fastweb and invested in areas such as hospitality support, cloud services, mobile solutions and billing. Switzerland's entry into the telecommunications era came in 1851, with the passage of legislation giving the Swiss government control over the development of a telegraph network throughout the country; the government's initial plans called for the creation of three primary telegraph lines, as well as a number of secondary networks. In order to build equipment for the system, the government established the Atelier Fédéral de Construction des Télégraphes. In July 1852, the first leg of the country's telegraph system—between St. Gallen and Zurich—was operational. By the end of that year, most of the country's main cities had been connected to the telegraph system.
In 1855, the network was extended with the first underwater cable, connecting Winkel-Stansstad and Bauen-Flüelen. Night service was launched that year, starting in Basel, St. Gallen and Bellinzona. Telegraph traffic took off in the late 1860s after the government had reduced the cost of 20-word messages in 1867. While telegraph traffic continued to rise in the following decade, the technology was soon to be replaced by the telephone. Switzerland's entry into the telephone age came in 1877, when the first experimental phone lines appeared, starting with a line linking the post office building with the Federal Palace and with a link, using the existing telegraph line, between Bern and Thun; the following year, the government passed legislation establishing a monopoly on the country's telephone network. Nonetheless, private operators were allowed to bid for licenses in order to develop their local concessions. By 1880, Switzerland's first private network had been created in Zurich; this was a central system with the capacity for 200 lines.
The first directory was published that year and listed 140 subscribers. Basel and Geneva all launched their own local networks between 1881 and 1882. One year the first intercity telephone line was established, linking Zurich's private exchange with Winterthur's public system, yet the Zurich company ran into difficulties by the mid-1880s. With its development falling behind the telephone concessions elsewhere in the country, the federal government bought out the private operator, paying just over CHF 300,000 in 1886; the national telephone network continued to expand. Telephone numbers were introduced in 1890, replacing the initial system whereby callers had been able to ask for their party by name; the number of Switzerland's telephone subscribers grew after the inauguration of a new telephone switchboard capable of handling nearly 4,000 lines. By 1896, Switzerland's telephone network had been extended to include all of Switzerland's cantons. By 1900, the country had established its first international connection, between Basel and Stuttgart, Germany.
Switzerland began testing its first public phone booths in 1904. Restricted to local calls, the public telephones allowed national calling for the first time in 1907; the first automatic telephone exchanges were installed by private networks in 1912. By 1917, a semi-automatic exchange had been installed, in Zurich-Hottingen; the following year, in order to extend the country's phone system into rural parts of Switzerland, the government began promoting the establishment of party-line systems. In 1920, the Swiss government created the Swiss PTT, combining the country's postal services and telegraph and telephone systems into a single, government-controlled entity. Development of the country's telephone system now came under the purview of the government. In 1921, the PTT launched its own directory inquiries service; the following year, the PTT started the first automatic public telephone exchange in Zurich-Hottingen. The PTT began telex services in 1934, by 1936 had linked up the cities of Zurich and Bern, which were linked via Zurich to the international market.
In the meantime, the PTT became responsible for developing the company's radio broadcasting, television broadcasting services. Switzerland's telephone system took off in the years following World War II. By 1948, the country boasted 500,000 telephone subscribers. Over the following decade, that number doubled. In 1957, the PTT added computer capacity. Through this period, t
Livigno is a town and comune in the province of Sondrio, in the region of Lombardy, located in the Italian Alps, near the Swiss border. Livigno's first settlers were shepherds during the Middle Ages; the first documents called this area Vineola. The name comes from an old German word for "avalanche" which have always been frequent in the valley – the last avalanche hitting the village was in 1951, which caused seven deaths and damage to a dozen houses. Politically, Livigno has always followed Bormio's history, although the relationships between the two communes have always been tense, Bormio being dominant and more populous than Livigno; until the 1970s Livigno was a farming village. In recent decades, things have changed, nowadays Livigno enjoys a better economic situation and a higher number of inhabitants. Livigno has enjoyed one of Italy's highest birth rates. Livigno's economy is based on tourism, both in winter and in summer, on its duty-free status, with goods sold at bargain prices. Livigno is 1,816 metres above sea level.
Livigno's main river is called Aqua Spöl. Trepalle, a frazione in the municipality of Livigno, is considered Europe's highest inhabited parish. Livigno was once a cultural village. Livigno is one of the few Italian villages which do not belong to the drainage basin of the Mediterranean Sea but to the Black Sea basin. A part of the old village was destroyed in the 1960s by the creation of a reservoir, the Lago di Livigno. Livigno has a cold, dry climate. Most of winter is spent below freezing and snow is abundant. Summer is the only part of the year in which temperatures above 10 °C are common, frosts are less common. Temperatures over 20 °C are rare. Saint Mary's parish church was erected on a previous church; the current building incorporated the previous one, left standing until the end of works, allowing church services to be carried out as usual. Other buildings of note are the Caravaggio church, with some ex voto paintings and a picture, traditionally attributed to Caravaggio, Saint Rocco church, built at the beginning of the 16th century as an offering for protecting the village against plague.
Local scenery encompasses deep valleys. Livigno enjoys a special tax status as a duty-free area. Italian VAT is not paid. Although tax advantages for Livigno were recorded as far back as the sixteenth century, the current tax exemption was first introduced by the Austrian Empire around 1840, it was confirmed by the Kingdom of Italy around 1910 by the Italian Republic and the European Economic Community in 1960. Although no VAT is paid, income taxes are, thus Livigno cannot be considered as a tax haven; the justification for such a status is the difficulty in reaching Livigno during winter, the centuries-long history of poverty in the region. The various states wanted to ensure. At the same time, the tax revenue from Livigno would have been negligible. Only three roads lead to the town. Two link to Switzerland, one through the Forcola di Livigno, elevation 2,315 metres and open in summer only, the second through the Munt la Schera Tunnel; the third road connects to other parts of Italy through elevation 2,291 metres.
Leaving Livigno into the rest of Italy on the road there is a custom checkpoint manned by Guardia di Finanza militaries. Entering or leaving from Switzerland there is both Guardia di Finanza militaries and Swiss Border Guards. Livigno once made a living from a little commerce. Smuggling was both widespread and not deprecated, being the only way to survive in such a harsh environment; this generated some prejudice in the remaining population of Valtellina, where smuggling was widespread, with the local proverb gent de cunfin, tücc' lader o asesin, or "border people, all thieves or murderers". Nowadays Livigno is a rich area, the main activities are linked to tourism as a ski resort. Many inhabitants of Valtellina visit once in a while to buy goods at lower prices tax-free gasoline, sometimes from as far as Sondrio; the tax free allowance for tourists applied here is the same as the one applied to travellers coming from any non EU country. The 2005 Union Cycliste Internationale mountain biking world championships were held here, from 28 August to 4 September.
Despite its small size, there are many cultural organizations in Livigno. Some of these are: Corpo Musicale, a local street band Gruppo folkloristico, a folk group Monteneve Chorus Carcent theatre group A few rock/pop bands, the most well-known being MetalDreitThe mass-media sector is quite developed as well. In the 1980s a local radio, Radio Alteuropa, used to broadcast from Livigno, covering up to a wide part of the neighbouring Valtellina valley; the local monthly newspaper, Al Restel, was founded in the same period and it is still published today. Nowadays, most of information is given by a TV channel, TeleMonteNeve, which broadcasts the city council's meetings, a news report three times a week and other information both for residents and for tourists. On-line new media is growing. An example is an on-line cultural magazine, its name means "without VAT", referring to the special duty-free status of Livigno and of all cultural products. The local dialect has been categorized in a dictionary, funded by the local administration.
This language variety is used locally in street names and in some othe
The Helvetii were a Celtic tribe or tribal confederation occupying most of the Swiss plateau at the time of their contact with the Roman Republic in the 1st century BC. According to Julius Caesar, the Helvetians were divided into pagi. Of these Caesar names only the Verbigeni and the Tigurini, while Posidonius mentions the Tigurini and the Tougeni, they feature prominently in the Commentaries on the Gallic War, with their failed migration attempt to southwestern Gaul serving as a catalyst for Caesar's conquest of Gaul. The Helvetians were subjugated after 52 BC, under Augustus, Celtic oppida, such as Vindonissa or Basilea, were re-purposed as garrisons. In AD 68, a Helvetian uprising was crushed by Aulus Caecina Alienus; the Swiss plateau was at first incorporated into the Roman province of Gallia Belgica into Germania Superior. The Helvetians, like the rest of Gaul, were Romanized by the 2nd century. In the 3rd century, Roman control over the region waned, the Swiss plateau was exposed to the invading Alemanni.
The Alemanni and Burgundians established permanent settlements in the Swiss plateau in the 5th and 6th centuries, resulting in the early medieval territories of Alemannia and Upper Burgundy. The endonym Helvetii is derived from a Gaulish elu-, meaning "gain, prosperity" or "multitude", cognate with Welsh elw and Old Irish prefix il-, meaning "many" or "multiple"; the second part of the name has sometimes been interpreted as *etu-, "terrain, grassland", thus interpreting the tribal name as "rich in land". The earliest attestation of the name is found in a graffito on a vessel from Mantua, dated to c. 300 BC. The inscription in Etruscan letters reads eluveitie, interpreted as the Etruscan form of the Celtic elu̯eti̯os referring to a man of Helvetian descent living in Mantua. Of the four Helvetian pagi or sub-tribes, Caesar names only the Verbigeni and the Tigurini, Posidonius the Tigurini and the Tougeni. There has been substantial debate in Swiss historiography on whether the Tougeni may or may not be identified with the Teutones mentioned by Titus Livius.
According to Caesar, the territory abandoned by the Helvetii had comprised 400 villages and 12 oppida. His tally of the total population taken from captured Helvetian records written in Greek is 263,000 people, including fighting men, old men and children. However, the figures are dismissed as too high by modern scholars. Like many other tribes, the Helvetii did not have kings at the time of their clash with Rome but instead seem to have been governed by a class of noblemen; when Orgetorix, one of their most prominent and ambitious noblemen, was making plans to establish himself as their king, he faced execution by burning if found guilty. Caesar does not explicitly name the tribal authorities prosecuting the case and gathering men to apprehend Orgetorix, but he refers to them by the Latin terms civitas and magistratus. In his Natural History, Pliny provides a foundation myth for the Celtic settlement of Cisalpine Gaul in which a Helvetian named Helico plays the role of culture hero. Helico had worked in Rome as a craftsman and returned to his home north of the Alps with a dried fig, a grape, some oil and wine, the desirability of which caused his countrymen to invade northern Italy.
The Greek historian Posidonius, whose work is preserved only in fragments by other writers, offers the earliest historical record of the Helvetii. Posidonius described the Helvetians of the late 2nd century BC as "rich in gold but peaceful," without giving clear indication to the location of their territory, his reference to gold washing in rivers has been taken as evidence for an early presence of the Helvetii in the Swiss plateau, with the Emme as being one of the gold-yielding rivers mentioned by Posidonius. This interpretation is now discarded, as Posidonius' narrative makes it more that the country some of the Helvetians left in order to join in the raids of the Teutones and Ambrones was in fact southern Germany and not Switzerland; that the Helvetians lived in southern Germany is confirmed by the Alexandrian geographer Claudius Ptolemaios, who tells us of an Ἐλουητίων ἔρημος north of the Rhine. Tacitus knows that the Helvetians once settled in the swath between Rhine and the Hercynian forest.
The abandonment of this northern territory is now placed in the late 2nd century BC, around the time of the first Germanic incursions into the Roman world, when the Tigurini and Toygenoi/Toutonoi are mentioned as participants in the great raids. At the Vicus Turicum in the first 1st century BC or much earlier, the Celts settled at the Lindenhof Oppidium. In 1890, so-called Potin lumps were found, whose largest weights 59.2 kilograms at the Prehistoric pile dwelling settlement Alpenquai in Zürich, Switzerland. The pieces consist of a large number of fused Celtic coins; some of the 18,000 coins originate from the Eastern Gaul, others are of the Zürich type, that were assigned to the local Helvetii, which date to around 100 BC. The find is so far unique, the scientific research assumes that the melting down of the lump was not completed, therefore the aim was to form cultic offerings; the site of the find was at that time at least 50 metres from the lake shore, 1 metre to three meters deep in the water.