Bulbuente is a municipality located in the province of Zaragoza, Spain. According to the 2004 census, the municipality has a population of 237 inhabitants
Red wine is a type of wine made from dark-colored grape varieties. The actual color of the wine can range from intense violet, typical of young wines, through to brick red for mature wines and brown for older red wines; the juice from most purple grapes is greenish-white, the red color coming from anthocyan pigments present in the skin of the grape. Much of the red-wine production process therefore involves extraction of color and flavor components from the grape skin; the first step in red wine production, after picking, involves physical processing of the grapes. Hand-picked or machine-harvested grapes are tipped into a receival bin when they arrive at the winery and conveyed by a screw mechanism to the grape-processing equipment. On arrival at the winery there is a mixture of individual berries, whole bunches and leaves; the presence of stems during fermentation can lead to a bitter taste in the wine, the purpose of destemming is to separate grapes from the stems and leaves. Mechanical de-stemmers consist of a rotating cage perforated with grape-sized holes.
Within this cage is a concentric axle with arms radiating towards the inner surface of the cage. Grapes pass through the holes in the cage, while stems and leaves are expelled through the open end of the cage. After destemming, the grapes are lightly crushed. Crushers consist of a pair of rollers, the gap between them can be regulated to allow for light, hard or no crushing, according to the winemaker's preference; the mixture of grapes, skins and seeds is now referred to as must. The must is pumped to a vessel a tank made of stainless steel or concrete, or an oak vat, for fermentation. In common with most modern winemaking equipment and crushers are made of stainless steel; the preservative sulfur dioxide is added when grapes arrive at the winery. The addition rate varies from zero, for healthy grapes, to up to 70 mg/litre, for grapes with a high percentage of rot; the purpose is to prevent oxidation and sometimes to delay the onset of fermentation. Macerating enzymes may be added at this stage, to aid extraction of color and fruit flavours from the skins and to facilitate pressing.
Tannin may be added now in the winemaking process, or not at all. Tannin can be added to help stabilize colour, to prevent oxidation, to help combat the effects of rot; some winemakers prefer to chill the must to around 10°C, to allow a period of pre-fermentation maceration, of between one and four days. The idea is that color and fruit flavours are extracted into the aqueous solution, without extraction of tannins which takes place in post-fermentation maceration when alcohol is present; this practice is by no means universal and is more common in New World winemaking countries. Once the must is in a fermentation vessel, yeast present on the skins of the grapes, or in the environment, will sooner or start the alcoholic fermentation, in which sugars present in the must are converted into alcohol with carbon dioxide and heat as by-products. Many winemakers, prefer to control the fermentation process more by adding specially selected yeasts of the species Saccharomyces ellipsoideous. Several hundred different strains of wine yeast are available commercially, many winemakers believe that particular strains are more or less suitable for the vinification of different grape varieties and different styles of wine.
It is common to add yeast nutrient at this stage in the form of diammonium phosphate. Soon after the must is placed in the fermentation vessel, a separation of solid and liquid phases occurs. Skins float to the surface. In order to encourage efficient extraction of colour and flavour components, it is important to maximize contact between the cap of skins and the liquid phase; this can be achieved by: pumping over punching down the cap submerging the cap drain and return Fermentation produces heat and if left uncontrolled the temperature of the fermenting may exceed 40°C, which can impair flavour and kill the yeast. The temperature is therefore controlled using different refrigeration systems. Winemakers have different opinions about the ideal temperature for fermentation, but in general cooler temperatures produce fruitier red wines for early drinking while higher temperatures produce more tannic wines designed for long aging. Winemakers will check the density and temperature of the fermenting must once or twice per day.
The density is proportional to the sugar content and will be expected to fall each day as the sugar is converted into alcohol by fermentation. Pressing in winemaking is the process where juice is extracted from grapes; this can be done with the aid of a wine press, by hand, or by the weight of the grape berries and clusters themselves. Intact grape clusters were trodden by feet but in most wineries today the grapes are sent through a crusher/destem
Comarcas of Aragon
Here is a list of the administrative comarcas in the autonomous community of Aragon in Spain. They were delimited in 1999, with substantial changes over a proposed division. Comarcal council Comarcas of SpainSee lists of municipalities in Aragon by province: List of municipalities in Huesca List of municipalities in Teruel List of municipalities in Zaragoza Comarcas of Aragon and legal links about their creation. Comarcal division, basic data
Magallón is a municipality located in the province of Zaragoza, Spain. In 2010 the municipality had a population of 1,205 inhabitants. Castle Church of Santa María de la Huerta Convent of the Dominicans Church of St. Lawrence, finished in 1609 Hermitage of Nuestra Señora del Rosario Fornoles bridge over the Huecha river, of Roman origins
Autonomous communities of Spain
In Spain, an autonomous community is a first-level political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish constitution of 1978, with the aim of guaranteeing limited autonomy of the nationalities and regions that make up Spain. Spain is not a federation, but a decentralized unitary state. While sovereignty is vested in the nation as a whole, represented in the central institutions of government, the nation has, in variable degrees, devolved power to the communities, which, in turn, exercise their right to self-government within the limits set forth in the constitution and their autonomous statutes; each community has its own set of devolved powers. Some scholars have referred to the resulting system as a federal system in all but name, or a "federation without federalism". There are 17 autonomous communities and two autonomous cities that are collectively known as "autonomies"; the two autonomous cities have the right to become autonomous communities, but neither has yet exercised it.
This unique framework of territorial administration is known as the "State of Autonomies". The autonomous communities are governed according to the constitution and their own organic laws known as Statutes of Autonomy, which contain all the competences that they assume. Since devolution was intended to be asymmetrical in nature, the scope of competences vary for each community, but all have the same parliamentary structure. Spain is a diverse country made up of several different regions with varying economic and social structures, as well as different languages and historical and cultural traditions. While the entire Spanish territory was united under one crown in 1479 this was not a process of national homogenization or amalgamation; the constituent territories—be it crowns, principalities or dominions—retained much of their former institutional existence, including limited legislative, judicial or fiscal autonomy. These territories exhibited a variety of local customs, laws and currencies until the mid nineteenth century.
From the 18th century onwards, the Bourbon kings and the government tried to establish a more centralized regime. Leading figures of the Spanish Enlightenment advocated for the building of a Spanish nation beyond the internal territorial boundaries; this culminated in 1833, when Spain was divided into 49 provinces, which served as transmission belts for policies developed in Madrid. However, unlike in other European countries such as France, where regional languages were spoken in rural areas or less developed regions, two important regional languages of Spain were spoken in some of the most industrialized areas, moreover, enjoyed higher levels of prosperity, in addition to having their own cultures and historical consciousness; these were Catalonia. This gave rise to peripheral nationalisms along with Spanish nationalism; therefore and social changes that had produced a national cultural unification in France had the opposite effect in Spain. As such, Spanish history since the late 19th century has been shaped by a dialectical struggle between Spanish nationalism and peripheral nationalisms in Catalonia and the Basque Country, to a lesser degree in Galicia.
In a response to Catalan demands, limited autonomy was granted to Catalonia in 1914, only to be abolished in 1923. It was granted again in 1932 during the Second Spanish Republic, when the Generalitat, Catalonia's mediaeval institution of government, was restored; the constitution of 1931 envisaged a territorial division for all Spain in "autonomous regions", never attained—only Catalonia, the Basque Country and Galicia had approved "Statutes of Autonomy"—the process being thwarted by the Spanish Civil War that broke out in 1936, the victory of the rebel Nationalist forces under Francisco Franco. During General Franco's dictatorial regime, centralism was most forcefully enforced as a way of preserving the "unity of the Spanish nation". Peripheral nationalism, along with communism and atheism were regarded by his regime as the main threats, his attempts to fight separatism with heavy-handed but sporadic repression, his severe suppression of language and regional identities backfired: the demands for democracy became intertwined with demands for the recognition of a pluralistic vision of the Spanish nationhood.
When Franco died in 1975, Spain entered into a phase of transition towards democracy. The most difficult task of the newly democratically elected Cortes Generales in 1977 acting as a Constituent Assembly was to transition from a unitary centralized state into a decentralized state in a way that would satisfy the demands of the peripheral nationalists; the Prime Minister of Spain, Adolfo Suárez, met with Josep Tarradellas, president of the Generalitat of Catalonia in exile. An agreement was made so that the Generalitat would be restored and limited competencies would be transferred while the constitution was still being written. Shortly after, the government allowed the creation of "assemblies of members of parliament" integrated by deputies and senators of the different territories of Spain, so that they could constitute "pre-autonomic regimes" for their regions as well; the Fathers of the Constitution had to strike a balance between the opposing views of Spain—on the one hand, the centralist view inherited from Franco's regime, on the other hand federalism and a pluralistic view of Spain as a "nation of nations".
Fuendejalón is a municipality located in the province of Zaragoza, Spain. According to the 2010 census the municipality has a population of 953 inhabitants; the Sierra del Bollón range rises west of the town. Campo de Borja List of municipalities in Zaragoza Fuendejalón in Campo de Borja San Juan Bautista Church - Description and pictures
The Ebro is a river on the Iberian Peninsula. It is the second longest river in the Iberian peninsula after the Tagus and the second biggest by discharge volume and by drainage area after the Douro; the Ebro flows through the following cities: Reinosa in Cantabria. The source of the river Ebro is from the Latin words Fontes Iberis, source of the Ebro. Close by is a large artificial lake, Embalse del Ebro, created by the damming of the river; the upper Ebro rushes through rocky gorges in Burgos Province. Flowing eastwards it begins forming a wider river valley of limestone rocks when it reaches Navarre and La Rioja thanks to many tributaries flowing down from the Iberian System on one side, the Navarre mountains and the western Pyrenees, on the other. There, the climate becomes progressively more continental, with more extreme temperatures and drier characteristics, therefore experiencing hot and dry summers which resemble summers seen in arid and semiarid climates. Karst geological processes shaped the landscape of layers of soluble carbonate rock of extensive limestone bedrock formed in an ancient seabed.
Aragonite, a mineral named for Aragon, attests to the fact that carbonates are abundant in the central Ebro Valley. The valley expands and the Ebro's flow becomes slower as its water volume increases, flowing across Aragon. There, larger tributaries flowing from the central Pyrenees and the Iberian System discharge large amounts of water in spring during the thawing season of the mountain snow; as it flows through Zaragoza the Ebro, is a sizeable river. There, the Basilica of Our Lady of the Pillar stands next to the Ebro; the soils in most of the valley are poor soils: calcareous, pebbly and sometimes salted with saltwater endorheic lagoons. The semi-arid interior of the Ebro Valley has either drought summers and a semi-desert climate with rainfall between 400 and 600 mm, with a maximum in the fall and spring, it is covered with chaparral vegetation. Summers are hot and winters are cold; the dry summer season has temperatures of more than 35 °C reaching over 40 °C. In winter, the temperatures drop below 0 °C.
In some areas the vegetation depends on moisture produced by condensation fog. It is a continental Mediterranean climate with extreme temperatures. There are many ground frosts on clear nights, sporadic snowfalls; the biomes are diverse in these Mediterranean climate zones: Mediterranean forests and scrub. Hinterlands are distinctive on account of extensive sclerophyll shrublands known as maquis, or garrigues; the dominant species are Quercus ilex. These trees form monospecific communities or communities integrated with Pinus, Mediterranean buckthorns, Chamaerops humilis, Pistacia, Thymus, so on; the hinterland climate becomes progressively more continental and drier, therefore there is an end from extreme temperatures accompanied by slow-growing dwarf juniper species to unvegetated desert steppes as in "llanos de Belchite" or "Calanda desert". The mountain vegetation is coniferous forests that are drought adapted, trees in the genus Quercus with different drought tolerance in the wetter highlands.
Halophiles extremophile characteristic communities are frequent in endorheic areas such as lagoons and creeks, which are Tamarix covered and include endemic species of bryophytes, plumbaginacea, Carex, asteraceaes, etc. Their presence is related to the marine origin of the Ebro valley and the extensive marine deposits in the same area. After reaching Catalonia, the Ebro Valley narrows, the river becomes constrained by mountain ranges, making wide bends. Massive dams have been built in this area, such as the dams at Riba-roja and Flix. In the final section of its course the river bends flows through spectacular gorges; the massive calcareous cliffs of the Serra de Cardó range constrain the river during this last stretch, separating the Ebro Valley from the Mediterranean coastal area. After passing the gorges, the Ebro bends again eastwards near Tortosa before discharging in a delta on the Mediterranean Sea close to Amposta in the province of Tarragona; the Ebro Delta, in the Province of Tarragona, Catalonia, is at 340 km2 one of the largest wetland areas in the western Mediterranean region.
The delta has expanded on soils washed downriver—the historical rate of growth of the delta is demonstrated by the town of Amposta. A seaport in the 4th century, it is now well inland from the current rivermouth; the rounded form of the delta attests to the balance between sediment deposition by the Ebro and removal of this material by wave erosion. The modern delta is in intensive agricultural use for rice and vegetables; the Ebro delta has numerous beaches and salt pans that provide habitat for over 300 species of birds. In 1983 Spain designated a large part of the delta as the Ebro Delta Natural Park to protect its natural resources. A network of canals and irrigation ditches constructed by both agricultural and conservation groups are helping to maintain the ecologic and economic resources of the Ebro