East Dunbartonshire is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. It borders the north-west of the City of Glasgow and contains many of the suburbs of Glasgow as well as many of the city's commuter towns and villages. East Dunbartonshire shares borders with North Lanarkshire and West Dunbartonshire; the council area covers parts of the historic counties of Dunbartonshire and Stirlingshire. The council area was formed as a result of the Local Government etc.. Act 1994, from part of the former Bearsden and Milngavie and Strathkelvin districts of the wider Strathclyde region. East Dunbartonshire council area has low levels of deprivation, with low unemployment and low levels of crime; the population is both ageing. In a 2007 Reader's Digest poll, East Dunbartonshire was voted the best place in Britain to raise a family; the area continually tops the Halifax Bank Quality of Life list. In 2010 East Dunbartonshire ranked 3rd in Scotland and was the only Scottish area in the British Top 20 in 2008 A Legatum Prosperity Index published by the Legatum Institute in October 2016 showed East Dunbartonshire as the most prosperous council area in Scotland and the ninth most prosperous in the United Kingdom.
At the first election to East Dunbartonshire Council in April 1995, 26 councillors were elected for a four-year term. Labour gained an outright majority and formed a single-party administration, headed by Charles Kennedy and Michael McCarron as leader and depute leader, with John Dempsey and Ann Cameron taking the civic posts of Provost and Depute Provost. Cllr Kennedy was the leader of Strathkelvin District Council, continued to hold that post during the shadow year of East Dunbartonshire until the final abolition of the district council in April 1996; the Liberal Democrats and Conservatives were the only other parties represented on East Dunbartonshire Council and sat in opposition for the next four years. The number of councillors was reduced to 24 at the May 1999 election, when the Labour Party was again returned as the largest group, but without an overall majority. At the statutory meeting, Charles Kennedy and Rhondda Geekie were appointed as leader and depute leader of a minority Labour administration, but the Provost and Depute Provost roles were taken by Lib Dem councillor Robin McSkimming and Conservative councillor Anne Jarvis.
Within a few months, the Labour administration fell, with support from the Conservatives, the Lib Dem councillors Keith Moody and John Morrison took over as leader and depute leader of a new administration in which members of both the Lib Dem and Conservative groups held the various convenerships. At the May 2003 election, the Liberal Democrats further increased their representation on the council, securing 12 out of the 24 seats. With the reduced Labour group declining to put forward nominations, Lib Dem councillors Pat Steel and Cathy McInnes became Provost and Depute Provost, John Morrison and Fiona Risk leader and depute leader. For the next four years the Lib Dems ran a single party administration that relied, when necessary, on the casting vote of the chair. June 2004 saw the emergence of the East Dunbartonshire Independent Alliance, when Jack Young and former council leader Charles Kennedy, elected as Labour councillors the previous year, formed a fourth group on East Dunbartonshire Council.
As a result of the 2007 election, the Scottish Liberal Democrats were reduced to three councillors and lost control of East Dunbartonshire Council, with one of the primary grievances amongst the electorate being fortnightly waste collection, after the introduction of kerbside collections for recycling plastics, glass and paper. Although the SNP were elected as the largest group, the administration became a Labour/Conservative coalition due to no single party having overall control; the leader of the council was Labour councillor Rhondda Geekie and the position of provost was subsequently held by Lib Dem councillor Eric Gotts. The depute leader and depute provost were the Conservative councillors Billy Anne Jarvis. In December 2009, Lib Dem representation increased to 4, following Ashay Ghai's win in the Bearsden South by-election caused by the resignation of the Conservatives' Simon Hutchison. However, their numbers reverted to 3 in June 2011, when Lib Dem councillor Duncan Cumming resigned from the party citing issues relating to the Liberal Democrats' role in the UK coalition government, sitting thereafter as an independent.
The 2012 election, again returned a council where no single party had overall control, the administration became a three-way Labour/Lib-Dem/Conservative coalition. The leader of the council remained Rhondda Geekie; the depute leader and depute provost were the Lib Dem councillor Ashay Ghai and the Conservative councillor Anne Jarvis. EDIA councillor Charles Kennedy, of the Campsie and Kirkintilloch North ward, died on 13 July 2012; the subsequent by-election took place on 13 September. Thereafter the EDIA was voluntarily deregistered, its remaining councillor, Jack Young, continuing as an independent for the remainder of his term retiring from the council in May 2017. Following a disagreement between the Liberal Democrats and their administration colleagues, the ruling three-party coalition reverted to a minority two-party Labour/Conservative coalition in January 2016, the Conservatives' Billy Hendry resumed the role of depute council leader; the number of seats on the local council was reduced to 22 at the 2017 election
Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to as Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland. A member of the Goidelic branch of the Celtic languages, Scottish Gaelic, like Modern Irish and Manx, developed out of Middle Irish. Most of modern Scotland was once Gaelic-speaking, as evidenced by Gaelic-language placenames. In the 2011 census of Scotland, 57,375 people reported as able to speak Gaelic, 1,275 fewer than in 2001; the highest percentages of Gaelic speakers were in the Outer Hebrides. There are revival efforts, the number of speakers of the language under age 20 did not decrease between the 2001 and 2011 censuses. Outside Scotland, Canadian Gaelic is spoken in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. Scottish Gaelic is not an official language of either the United Kingdom. However, it is classed as an indigenous language under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, which the British government has ratified, the Gaelic Language Act 2005 established a language development body, Bòrd na Gàidhlig.
Aside from "Scottish Gaelic", the language may be referred to as "Gaelic", pronounced or in English. "Gaelic" may refer to the Irish language. Scottish Gaelic is distinct from Scots, the Middle English-derived language varieties which had come to be spoken in most of the Lowlands of Scotland by the early modern era. Prior to the 15th century, these dialects were known as Inglis by its own speakers, with Gaelic being called Scottis. From the late 15th century, however, it became common for such speakers to refer to Scottish Gaelic as Erse and the Lowland vernacular as Scottis. Today, Scottish Gaelic is recognised as a separate language from Irish, so the word Erse in reference to Scottish Gaelic is no longer used. Gaelic was believed to have been brought to Scotland, in the 4th–5th centuries CE, by settlers from Ireland who founded the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata on Scotland's west coast in present-day Argyll.:551:66 However, archaeologist Dr Ewan Campbell has argued that there is no archaeological or placename evidence of a migration or takeover.
This view of the medieval accounts is shared by other historians. Regardless of how it came to be spoken in the region, Gaelic in Scotland was confined to Dál Riata until the eighth century, when it began expanding into Pictish areas north of the Firth of Forth and the Firth of Clyde. By 900, Pictish appears to have become extinct replaced by Gaelic.:238–244 An exception might be made for the Northern Isles, where Pictish was more supplanted by Norse rather than by Gaelic. During the reign of Caustantín mac Áeda, outsiders began to refer to the region as the kingdom of Alba rather than as the kingdom of the Picts. However, though the Pictish language did not disappear a process of Gaelicisation was under way during the reigns of Caustantín and his successors. By a certain point during the 11th century, all the inhabitants of Alba had become Gaelicised Scots, Pictish identity was forgotten. In 1018, after the conquest of the Lothians by the Kingdom of Scotland, Gaelic reached its social, cultural and geographic zenith.:16–18 Colloquial speech in Scotland had been developing independently of that in Ireland since the eighth century.
For the first time, the entire region of modern-day Scotland was called Scotia in Latin, Gaelic was the lingua Scotica.:276:554 In southern Scotland, Gaelic was strong in Galloway, adjoining areas to the north and west, West Lothian, parts of western Midlothian. It was spoken to a lesser degree in north Ayrshire, the Clyde Valley and eastern Dumfriesshire. In south-eastern Scotland, there is no evidence that Gaelic was widely spoken. Many historians mark the reign of King Malcom Canmore as the beginning of Gaelic's eclipse in Scotland, his wife Margaret of Wessex spoke no Gaelic, gave her children Anglo-Saxon rather than Gaelic names, brought many English bishops and monastics to Scotland.:19 When Malcolm and Margaret died in 1093, the Gaelic aristocracy rejected their anglicised sons and instead backed Malcolm's brother Donald Bàn. Donald had spent 17 years in Gaelic Ireland and his power base was in the Gaelic west of Scotland, he was the last Scottish monarch to be buried on Iona, the traditional burial place of the Gaelic Kings of Dàl Riada and the Kingdom of Alba.
However, during the reigns of Malcolm Canmore's sons, Alexander I and David I, Anglo-Norman names and practices spread throughout Scotland south of the Forth–Clyde line and along the northeastern coastal plain as far north as Moray. Norman French displaced Gaelic at court; the establishment of royal burghs throughout the same area under David I, attracted large numbers of foreigners speaking Old English. This was the beginning of Gaelic's status as a predominantly rural language in Scotland.:19-23 Clan chiefs in the northern and western parts of Scotland continued to support Gaelic bards who remained a central feature of court life there. The semi-independent Lordship of the Isles in the Hebrides and western coastal mainland remained Gaelic since the language's recovery there in the 12th century, providing a political foundation for cultural prestige down to the end of the 15th century.:553-6By the mid-14th century what came to be called Scots emerged as the official language of government and law.:139 Scotland's emergent nat
The Kilpatrick Hills are a range of hills in central Scotland, stretching from Dumbarton in the west to Strathblane in the east. Strathblane divides the Kilpatricks from the Campsie Fells to the east, while to the north is part of the Loch Lomond and the Trossachs National Park. To west and south the hills are fringed by the settlements of Balloch, Milton, Old Kilpatrick, Clydebank and Milngavie; the majority of the range is within West Dunbartonshire, although it extends into the East Dunbartonshire and Stirling areas. The highest points in the range are Fynloch; the Kilpatricks offer a number of viewpoints and places of interest: among the best known are Doughnot Hill and The Whangie. The area features several reservoirs; the hills are of volcanic origin, modified by subsequent glaciation. The Kilpatrick Hills are a part of the Clyde Plateau Lavas; these are about 340 million years old. Basaltic types of rocks predominate here; these are produced by denudation of the successive flows. The Whangie in the north of the Kilpatricks is of particular interest to geologists and casual walkers alike.
It consists of a slice of the hillside, separated from the main slope. This has created a narrow chasm up to 10 metres high and about 100 metres in length through which visitors can walk, it has been explained as result of glacial plucking, but more recent research indicates that a translational landslide was the cause. During an ice age, a glacier undermined the crag, opening up cracks in the rock and causing this chasm to form; the etymology of the Whangie's name is obscure but it might derive from the old Scots for slice. Local folklore suggests. There are several archaeological sites on the south-facing slopes of the hills; the chambered cairn at Carnhowit is situated on the plateau top near the edge of Cochno Loch, at a height of 275 metres. There are three other cairns. One known as Maidens Paps is nearby, just to the east of Jaw Reservoir. Both it and another cairn on Cochno Hill are at a height of about 250 metres, the third cairn is sited at Wester Duntiglennan at 150 metres height. Cists have been found at Cochno and Duntocher, on the slopes below 150 metres several groups of cup and ring marks have been found on outcrops around Auchnacraig and Whitehill, with other groups further west along the slopes to above Bowling, West Dunbartonshire.
The hills are named after the village of Old Kilpatrick. The following table lists summits over 1,000 feet. Duncolm, the highest point of the range, is the only Marilyn in the Kilpatricks, having a relative height of over 150 metres. List of mountains in Scotland Maiden Paps Breast shaped hills Cycling the Trossachs Scottish Place Names
Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce
Killearn – is a small village of 1700 people in the Stirling council area of Scotland. The village is located 15 miles north of Glasgow, 7 miles east of Loch Lomond, sits on the northwest flank of the Campsie Fells, most predominantly in the shadow of the volcanic plug of Dumgoyne, overlooking the confluence of the Endrick Water and Blane Water; the Glengoyne whisky distillery, Loch Lomond and the Trossachs National Park and West Highland Way long-distance walking route are situated close to the village. The residential special school of Ballikinrain is located in Killearn Parish, caters for boys with special needs from throughout Scotland.. The Church of Scotland congregation at Killearn Kirk falls under the Presbytery of Stirling, within the Synod of Forth. Within the Roman Catholic Church, Killearn falls under the Parish of Saint Anthony within the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh. Killearn was the birthplace of the historian and humanist scholar George Buchanan. Buchanan belonged to the Monarchomach movement.
Born at The Moss, Killearn, a monument, at the centre of the village is dedicated to Buchanan. Killearn on the Web Killearn Community Council Glengoyne Distillery
Lennoxtown is a town in East Dunbartonshire, Scotland at the foot of the Campsie Fells, which are just to the north. It is now part of the East Dunbartonshire council area but prior to 1975 was in the historic county of Stirlingshire, it had a population of 4,094 at the 2011 UK Census. The focus of the Lennoxtown area used to be the busy Lennox Mill, where tenants of the Woodhead estate brought their corn to be ground. There were several corn mills in Campsie Parish. Lennox Mill was located in the vicinity of the demolished Kali Nail Works. A significant event in the history of the locality was the establishment of the calico printing works at Lennoxmill during the late 1780s, on a site adjacent to the old corn mill. Calico is a type of cotton cloth, the printing of cotton cloth was soon established as a major industry in the area at Milton of Campsie, it was to provide accommodation for the block makers and other cotton printing workers that the village of Lennoxtown was established, during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.
Streets of houses were built according to a formal plan. Lennoxtown was at first known as'Newtown of Campsie', to distinguish it from the'Kirktoun' or'Clachan' of Campsie, at the foot of Campsie Glen. During the 19th century Lennoxtown grew to be the largest centre of population in Campsie Parish. Another important industry was soon established – a chemical works, founded by Charles Macintosh and his associates. At first their principal product was alum, a chemical employed in the textile industry. Alumschist, the basic ingredient in the process, was mined in the area; the works came to be known as the Secret Works because of the need to keep the industrial processes secret. During the 1790s many of the Lennoxmill workers supported the political reformer Thomas Muir of Huntershill in his campaigns to establish democracy in Scotland, a Reform Society was set up in Campsie in 1792. However, the parish minister, the Rev. James Lapslie, saw to it that there was some opposition to Muir's ideas in the area.
An important milestone in the drive towards democracy was the establishment in 1812 of a local co-operative society, the Lennoxtown Friendly Victualling Society, one of the earliest of its kind in Scotland. The growing importance of Lennoxtown was underlined by the removal of the parish church from the Clachan to the New Town during the 1820s. Plans for the new church were prepared by the architect David Hamilton, responsible for the nearby Lennox Castle. A Roman Catholic church was erected in 1846, one of the earliest post-Reformation Catholic churches in Scotland, apart from those in cities and large towns; the decline of the industries that flourished during the nineteenth century, the nail-making industry has left Lennoxtown in a kind of post-industrial limbo, from which it has been difficult to escape. Slow progress continues to be made. St Machan's Primary School was opened in 1964; the old building was used as the Campsie Recreation Centre, until demolition in 2009. In 2009, St Machan's had 200 pupils.
It is a feeder school for St Ninian's High School in Kirkintilloch. In 2009, St Machan's had 200 pupils enrolled in the school and would move on to St Ninian's High School which enrolled 757 pupils in 2009. In 2013, there was a petition in order to get a skate park to replace the old recreation centre and was handed out in the local businesses to get members of the local community to sign. In 1839 the Lennoxtown New Subscription School was given a grant of £280,000 from the government in order to rebuild; the school was made up of two large buildings and opened in 1840. It had a room for a second room for infant pupils. A new school was expanded to seven classrooms for 458 pupils; the Lennoxtown Public School was reduced to the status of Lennoxtown Primary School in 1963, with secondary pupils instead attending Kilsyth Academy. Lennoxtown Primary enrolled 128 pupils in 2009. A Community Hub is set to be built on the Main Street as a focus for the delivery of public services, it will bring together the existing East Dunbartonshire Library, the NHS Clinic, which will contain a dental practice and GP consulting rooms.
And the Housing office in one building. Completion is due in November 2014. One of the oldest surviving branches of the Co-operative is to be demolished as part of the development. An attempt to have the building listed was unsuccessful; the railway to Lennoxtown was an extension of the Glasgow to Edinburgh line. The first five and a half miles of this line, from Lenzie to Lennoxtown, were built by the Edinburgh and Glasgow railway, under powers obtained in 1845 and it was opened on 5 July 1848; the railway was intended to serve the print fields at Lennoxtown but it allowed passengers and provided this service as far as Aberfoyle. The passenger service was discontinued in October 1951, the transportation of goods continuing but only as far as Lennoxtown from 1959; the line closed in 1966. Lennoxtown Station won first prize for being the best kept railway station in Scotland in 1897 and for 7 years in succession from 1922 to 1928 and again in 1930 and 1931, it was announced that Celtic training ground was going to be built in Lennoxtown' in 2005 by the manager Gordon Strachan.
The 50 acre training ground was built on the grounds of Lennox castle and was opened in October 2007. The facility has three natural grass, UEFA match-size pitches and one f
The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that spans 60 million years from the end of the Devonian Period 358.9 million years ago, to the beginning of the Permian Period, 298.9 Mya. The name Carboniferous means "coal-bearing" and derives from the Latin words carbō and ferō, was coined by geologists William Conybeare and William Phillips in 1822. Based on a study of the British rock succession, it was the first of the modern'system' names to be employed, reflects the fact that many coal beds were formed globally during that time; the Carboniferous is treated in North America as two geological periods, the earlier Mississippian and the Pennsylvanian. Terrestrial animal life was well established by the Carboniferous period. Amphibians were the dominant land vertebrates, of which one branch would evolve into amniotes, the first terrestrial vertebrates. Arthropods were very common, many were much larger than those of today. Vast swaths of forest covered the land, which would be laid down and become the coal beds characteristic of the Carboniferous stratigraphy evident today.
The atmospheric content of oxygen reached its highest levels in geological history during the period, 35% compared with 21% today, allowing terrestrial invertebrates to evolve to great size. The half of the period experienced glaciations, low sea level, mountain building as the continents collided to form Pangaea. A minor marine and terrestrial extinction event, the Carboniferous rainforest collapse, occurred at the end of the period, caused by climate change. In the United States the Carboniferous is broken into Mississippian and Pennsylvanian subperiods; the Mississippian is about twice as long as the Pennsylvanian, but due to the large thickness of coal-bearing deposits with Pennsylvanian ages in Europe and North America, the two subperiods were long thought to have been more or less equal in duration. In Europe the Lower Carboniferous sub-system is known as the Dinantian, comprising the Tournaisian and Visean Series, dated at 362.5-332.9 Ma, the Upper Carboniferous sub-system is known as the Silesian, comprising the Namurian and Stephanian Series, dated at 332.9-298.9 Ma.
The Silesian is contemporaneous with the late Mississippian Serpukhovian plus the Pennsylvanian. In Britain the Dinantian is traditionally known as the Carboniferous Limestone, the Namurian as the Millstone Grit, the Westphalian as the Coal Measures and Pennant Sandstone; the International Commission on Stratigraphy faunal stages from youngest to oldest, together with some of their regional subdivisions, are: A global drop in sea level at the end of the Devonian reversed early in the Carboniferous. There was a drop in south polar temperatures; these conditions had little effect in the deep tropics, where lush swamps to become coal, flourished to within 30 degrees of the northernmost glaciers. Mid-Carboniferous, a drop in sea level precipitated a major marine extinction, one that hit crinoids and ammonites hard; this sea level drop and the associated unconformity in North America separate the Mississippian subperiod from the Pennsylvanian subperiod. This happened about 323 million years ago, at the onset of the Permo-Carboniferous Glaciation.
The Carboniferous was a time of active mountain-building as the supercontinent Pangaea came together. The southern continents remained tied together in the supercontinent Gondwana, which collided with North America–Europe along the present line of eastern North America; this continental collision resulted in the Hercynian orogeny in Europe, the Alleghenian orogeny in North America. In the same time frame, much of present eastern Eurasian plate welded itself to Europe along the line of the Ural Mountains. Most of the Mesozoic supercontinent of Pangea was now assembled, although North China, South China continents were still separated from Laurasia; the Late Carboniferous Pangaea was shaped like an "O." There were two major oceans in the Carboniferous—Panthalassa and Paleo-Tethys, inside the "O" in the Carboniferous Pangaea. Other minor oceans were shrinking and closed - Rheic Ocean, the small, shallow Ural Ocean and Proto-Tethys Ocean. Average global temperatures in the Early Carboniferous Period were high: 20 °C.
However, cooling during the Middle Carboniferous reduced average global temperatures to about 12 °C. Lack of growth rings of fossilized trees suggest a lack of seasons of a tropical climate. Glaciations in Gondwana, triggered by Gondwana's southward movement, continued into the Permian and because of the lack of clear markers and breaks, the deposits of this glacial period are referred to as Permo-Carboniferous in age; the cooling and drying of the climate led to the Carboniferous Rainforest Collapse during the late Carboniferous. Tropical rainforests fragmented and were devastated by climate change. Carboniferous rocks in Europe and eastern North America consist of a repeated sequence of limestone, sandstone and coal beds. In North America, the early Carboniferous is marine