U.S. Route 12 in Michigan
US Highway 12 is an east–west US Highway that runs from Aberdeen, Washington, to Detroit, Michigan. In Michigan it runs for 210 miles between New Buffalo and Detroit as a state trunkline highway and Pure Michigan Byway. On its western end, the highway is a two-lane road that runs through the southern tier of counties parallel to the Indiana state line, it forms part of the Niles Bypass, a four-lane expressway south of Niles in the southwestern part of the state, it runs concurrently with the Interstate 94 freeway around the south side of Ypsilanti in the southeastern. In between Coldwater and the Ann Arbor area, the highway angles northeasterly and passes the Michigan International Speedway. East of Ypsilanti, US 12 follows a divided highway routing on Michigan Avenue into Detroit, where it terminates at an intersection with Cass Avenue; when US 12 was designated in Michigan on November 11, 1926, along with the other original US Highways, it ran along a more northerly course. It replaced sections of the original M-11 and M-17 along Michigan Avenue in the state, the route of the much older St. Joseph Trail, a footpath used by Native Americans before European settlement in the area.
It entered from Indiana as it does now, but it followed the Lake Michigan shoreline farther north to Benton Harbor–St. Joseph before turning eastward to run through Kalamazoo, Battle Creek and Jackson. In the Ann Arbor area, it followed a more northerly path into Detroit before terminating downtown. In the 1940s and 1950s, sections of the highway were converted into freeways. Starting in 1959, these freeway segments were renumbered as part of I-94, in January 1962, US 12 was shifted to replace US Highway 112; that highway, when it was designated in 1926 replaced the original M-23 along the Chicago Road. US 112 replaced the first M-151 when the former was extended to New Buffalo in the mid-1930s. Since 1962, the highway has remained unchanged aside from minor truncations in the city of Detroit. US 112 had two business loops, both of which were renumbered Business US 12 in 1962. In 2010, the Niles business loop was decommissioned. One section of the former US 112 was renumbered US 112S for a few years in the 1930s.
Between the state line near Michiana and the interchange with I-94 near New Buffalo, US 12 forms a portion of the Lake Michigan Circle Tour. The full length of the highway in the state is a Pure Michigan Historic Byway. Outside of the various cities, most of US 12 is a two-lane state highway. One section runs concurrently with I-94 south of Ypsilanti. From there eastward, US 12 is a divided highway and a boulevard into the Detroit area; the entire length of the highway east of Coldwater is listed on the National Highway System, a network of roads important to the US's economy and mobility. US 12 enters the state of Michigan southwest of New Buffalo near the town of Michiana; the highway runs a bit inland and parallel to the Lake Michigan shore on Red Arrow Highway past the community of Grand Beach before turning eastward away from the lake on the north side of New Buffalo. US 12 intersects I-94 less than a mile east of this turn and continues due east along Pulaski Highway through rural farmland.
The highway is the main east–west street as it crosses through Three Oaks in southern Berrien County. East of Galien, the highway dips southward around Dayton Lake before passing south of Buchanan; the highway continues eastward. East of that freeway, US 12 expands into an expressway as the Niles Bypass; this bypass intersects M-139, crosses the St. Joseph River and intersects M-51 on the south side of Niles. US 12 turns northeasterly along the bypass east of downtown and departs to the southeast at an interchange with Main Street and M-60 just across the county line with Cass County. Continuing through southern Cass County, US 12 runs parallel to the state line, it turns northeasterly to run into Edwardsburg, where it intersects M-62. The highway turns southeasterly and runs to the south of Eagle Lake before entering the community of Adamsville; the highway continues on this southeasterly course until it intersects the former M-205 and M-217 near Union and turns to the northeast. US 12 intersects the southern end of M-40 before crossing into St. Joseph County at the eastern crossing of the St. Joseph River.
On the eastern side of the river, US 12 enters Mottville and intersects M-103. The highway continues as Chicago Road through intersects US 131 near White Pigeon, it continues to a junction with M-66 in Sturgis. East of Sturgis, US 12 turns northeasterly into Branch County. Still named Chicago Road, it passes through Batavia. Northeast of Batavia, US 12 intersects the eastern end of M-86 near Branch County Memorial Airport; the airport is on the western edge of Coldwater, after crossing the Coldwater River between Cemetery and South lakes, the highway runs through residential neighborhoods and into downtown. East of Division Street, Business Loop I-69 follows US 12 through downtown and out to an interchange with I-69 on the east side of Coldwater; the highway continues past retail businesses and parallel to the Sauk River. US 12 passes through the town of Quincy before crossing into Hillsdale County. East of the Hillsdale County line, US 12 runs easterly into Allen, where it intersects M-49; the highway continues northeastward through farmland to Jonesville, where it runs concurrently with M-99 through downtown and across a different St. Joseph River.
The trunkline continues
Campus Martius (Ohio)
Campus Martius was a defensive fortification at the Marietta, Ohio settlement, was home to Rufus Putnam, Benjamin Tupper, Arthur St. Clair, other pioneers from the Ohio Company of Associates during the Northwest Indian War. Major Anselm Tupper was commander of the Campus Martius during the war. Construction began in 1788 and was completed in 1791; the Campus Martius was located on the east side of the Muskingum River, upriver from its confluence with the Ohio River. A firsthand description of the fort is provided in Hildreth's Pioneer History, Campus Martius is the handsomest pile of buildings on this side of the Alleghany mountains, in a few days will be the strongest fortification in the territory of the United States, it stands on the margin of the elevated plain on which are the remains of the ancient works, mentioned in my letter of May last, thirty feet above the high bank of the Muskingum, twenty-nine perches distant from the river, two hundred and seventy-six from the Ohio. It consists of a regular square, having a block house at each angle, eighteen feet square on the ground, two stories high.
These block houses serve as bastions to a regular fortification of four sides. The curtains are composed of dwelling houses two stories high, eighteen feet wide, of different lengths; the Campus Martius site is now occupied by the Campus Martius Museum. The Rufus Putnam House, part of the original Campus, is enclosed in the museum. Campus Martius was located around 39°25′17″N 81°27′40″W; the other fortification at the Marietta settlement was the Picketed Point Stockade, built by associates during 1791 on the east side of the mouth of the Muskingum River at its confluence with the Ohio, directly across the Muskingum from Fort Harmar. Fort Harmar was constructed several years earlier in 1785 by United States troops, on the west side of the mouth of the Muskingum River. Two additional forts, somewhat distant from Marietta, were built by settlers from the Ohio Company of Associates. A group of associates moved about 15 miles down the Ohio River from Marietta, opposite the mouth of the Little Kanawha River.
Another group of associates moved about 20 miles up the Muskingum River from Marietta, near the mouth of Wolf Creek. American pioneers to the Northwest Territory Ohio Company of Associates Cutler, Julia Perkins; the Founders of Ohio, Brief Sketches of the Forty-Eight Pioneers. Cincinnati, Ohio: Robert Clarke and Company. Hildreth, S. P.. Pioneer History: Being an Account of the First Examinations of the Ohio Valley, the Early Settlement of the Northwest Territory. Cincinnati, Ohio: H. W. Derby and Co. Howe, Henry. Historical Collections of Ohio. III. Columbus, Ohio: Henry Howe and Son
Detroit is the largest and most populous city in the U. S. state of Michigan, the largest United States city on the United States–Canada border, the seat of Wayne County. The municipality of Detroit had a 2017 estimated population of 673,104, making it the 23rd-most populous city in the United States; the metropolitan area, known as Metro Detroit, is home to 4.3 million people, making it the second-largest in the Midwest after the Chicago metropolitan area. Regarded as a major cultural center, Detroit is known for its contributions to music and as a repository for art and design. Detroit is a major port located on the Detroit River, one of the four major straits that connect the Great Lakes system to the Saint Lawrence Seaway; the Detroit Metropolitan Airport is among the most important hubs in the United States. The City of Detroit anchors the second-largest regional economy in the Midwest, behind Chicago and ahead of Minneapolis–Saint Paul, the 13th-largest in the United States. Detroit and its neighboring Canadian city Windsor are connected through a tunnel and the Ambassador Bridge, the busiest international crossing in North America.
Detroit is best known as the center of the U. S. automobile industry, the "Big Three" auto manufacturers General Motors and Chrysler are all headquartered in Metro Detroit. In 1701, Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, the future city of Detroit. During the 19th century, it became an important industrial hub at the center of the Great Lakes region. With expansion of the auto industry in the early 20th century, the city and its suburbs experienced rapid growth, by the 1940s, the city had become the fourth-largest in the country. However, due to industrial restructuring, the loss of jobs in the auto industry, rapid suburbanization, Detroit lost considerable population from the late 20th century to the present. Since reaching a peak of 1.85 million at the 1950 census, Detroit's population has declined by more than 60 percent. In 2013, Detroit became the largest U. S. city to file for bankruptcy, which it exited in December 2014, when the city government regained control of Detroit's finances.
Detroit's diverse culture has had both local and international influence in music, with the city giving rise to the genres of Motown and techno, playing an important role in the development of jazz, hip-hop and punk music. The erstwhile rapid growth of Detroit left a globally unique stock of architectural monuments and historic places, since the 2000s conservation efforts managed to save many architectural pieces and allowed several large-scale revitalizations, including the restoration of several historic theatres and entertainment venues, high-rise renovations, new sports stadiums, a riverfront revitalization project. More the population of Downtown Detroit, Midtown Detroit, various other neighborhoods has increased. An popular tourist destination, Detroit receives 19 million visitors per year. In 2015, Detroit was named a "City of Design" by UNESCO, the first U. S. city to receive that designation. Paleo-Indian people inhabited areas near Detroit as early as 11,000 years ago including the culture referred to as the Mound-builders.
In the 17th century, the region was inhabited by Huron, Odawa and Iroquois peoples. The first Europeans did not penetrate into the region and reach the straits of Detroit until French missionaries and traders worked their way around the League of the Iroquois, with whom they were at war, other Iroquoian tribes in the 1630s; the north side of Lake Erie was held by the Huron and Neutral peoples until the 1650s, when the Iroquois pushed both and the Erie people away from the lake and its beaver-rich feeder streams in the Beaver Wars of 1649–1655. By the 1670s, the war-weakened Iroquois laid claim to as far south as the Ohio River valley in northern Kentucky as hunting grounds, had absorbed many other Iroquoian peoples after defeating them in war. For the next hundred years no British, colonist, or French action was contemplated without consultation with, or consideration of the Iroquois' response; when the French and Indian War evicted the Kingdom of France from Canada, it removed one barrier to British colonists migrating west.
British negotiations with the Iroquois would both prove critical and lead to a Crown policy limiting the west of the Alleghenies settlements below the Great Lakes, which gave many American would-be migrants a casus belli for supporting the American Revolution. The 1778 raids and resultant 1779 decisive Sullivan Expedition reopened the Ohio Country to westward emigration, which began immediately, by 1800 white settlers were pouring westwards; the city was named by French colonists, referring to the Detroit River, linking Lake Huron and Lake Erie. On July 24, 1701, the French explorer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, along with more than a hundred other settlers began constructing a small fort on the north bank of the Detroit River. Cadillac would name the settlement Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, after Louis Phélypeaux, comte de Pontchartrain, Minister of Marine under Louis XIV. France offered free land to colonists to attract families to Detroit. By 1773, the population of Detroit was 1,400. By 1778, its population was up to 2,144 and it was the third-largest city in the Province of Quebec.
The region's economy was based on the lucrative fur trade, in which nume
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U. S. history. As a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States; the loyalists of the Union in the North proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, secessionist partisans in seven Southern slave states declared state secessions from the country and unveiled their defiant formation of a Confederate States of America in rebellion against the U. S. Constitutional government; the Confederacy grew to control over half the territory in eleven states, it claimed the additional states of Kentucky and Missouri by assertions from exiled native secessionists without territory or population.
These were given full representation in the Confederate Congress throughout the Civil War. The two remaining slave holding states of Delaware and Maryland were invited to join the Confederacy, but nothing substantial developed; the Confederate States was never diplomatically recognized by the government of the United States or by that of any foreign country. The states that remained loyal to the U. S. were known as the Union. The Union and the Confederacy raised volunteer and conscription armies that fought in the South over the course of four years. Intense combat left 620,000 to 750,000 people dead, more than the number of U. S. military deaths in all other wars combined. The war ended when General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the Battle of Appomattox Court House. Confederate generals throughout the southern states followed suit. Much of the South's infrastructure was destroyed the transportation systems; the Confederacy collapsed, slavery was abolished, four million black slaves were freed.
During the Reconstruction Era that followed the war, national unity was restored, the national government expanded its power, civil rights were granted to freed black slaves through amendments to the Constitution and federal legislation. In the 1860 presidential election, led by Abraham Lincoln, supported banning slavery in all the U. S. territories. The Southern states viewed this as a violation of their constitutional rights and as the first step in a grander Republican plan to abolish slavery; the three pro-Union candidates together received an overwhelming 82% majority of the votes cast nationally: Republican Lincoln's votes centered in the north, Democrat Stephen A. Douglas' votes were distributed nationally and Constitutional Unionist John Bell's votes centered in Tennessee and Virginia; the Republican Party, dominant in the North, secured a plurality of the popular votes and a majority of the electoral votes nationally. He was the first Republican Party candidate to win the presidency.
However, before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies declared secession and formed the Confederacy. The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, with an average of 49 percent. Of those states whose legislatures resolved for secession, the first seven voted with split majorities for unionist candidates Douglas and Bell, or with sizable minorities for those unionists. Of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession. Outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincoln's March 4, 1861, inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war. Speaking directly to the "Southern States", he attempted to calm their fears of any threats to slavery, reaffirming, "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists.
I believe I have no lawful right to do so, I have no inclination to do so." After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed and both sides prepared for war. The Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on "King Cotton" that they would intervene, but none did, none recognized the new Confederate States of America. Hostilities began on April 1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter. While in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive during 1861–1862. In September 1862, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy much of its western armies, seized New Orleans; the successful 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lee's Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg.
Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grant's command of all Union armies in 1864. Inflicting an ever-tightening naval blockade of Confederate ports, the Union marshaled the resources and manpower to attack the Confederacy from all directions, leading to the fall of Atlanta to William T. Sherman and his march to th
Cadillac Center station
Cadillac Center station is a Detroit People Mover station in Downtown Detroit, Michigan. It is located at the intersection of Library Street; the station takes its name from Cadillac Square, adjacent to the Campus Martius Park. It serves the One Campus Martius building which has several tenants and is the headquarters for Compuware. East of here the tracks curve inside the Compuware parking garage before returning to daylight at Randolph. List of rapid transit systems List of United States rapid transit systems by ridership Metromover Transportation in metropolitan Detroit DPM station overview Station from Google Maps Street View
Cadillac Centre was a proposed contemporary complex to be constructed in downtown Detroit, Michigan on the Monroe block of Campus Martius. In January 2008, the city announced that the complex was approved for construction with groundbreaking planned for September 2009, but the project was placed on hold indefinitely due to an economic recession. Expected to cost $150-million, the mixed-use development called for two 24-story towers to rise from a 12-story base which would connect to the 40-story Cadillac Tower; the upscale residential high-rise was slated to include a entertainment complex. The architect was Anthony Caradonna, an associate professor with Pratt Institute School of Architecture in New York City and a principal with the AC/2 Studio firm, whose recent projects have included the Hotel Duomo in Molfetta and the Bar Solex in New York City; the Detroit Free Press reported in early October 2008 that the New York-based developers were having trouble meeting their deadline, the Detroit Economic Growth Corp rejected a revised $40 million proposal described as a "dressed-up parking garage" by DEGC President George W. Jackson.
Failing to meet the standards of the DEGC, the project was put on hold indefinitely. Styled in the postmodern architectural genre known as deconstructivism, the $150-million Cadillac Center was expected to have a profound impact on development in downtown Detroit as a mixed-use residential and commercial complex. Anthony Caradonna's steel-glass design for Cadillac Centre, reminiscent of the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, was slated to face Campus Martius Park, a central gathering place in downtown Detroit. Developer Northern Group was the owner of Detroit's Penobscot Building, First National Building, Cadillac Tower; the existing Gothic-Revival Cadillac Tower would have connected with and incorporated the new Cadillac Centre. The futuristic Cadillac Centre would have been constructed on Detroit's historic Monroe block, once a collection of eight antebellum commercial buildings demolished in 1989; the architect of record is Anthony Caradonna, a faculty member at the Pratt Institute School of Architecture and a principal with the firm of OPUS Architecture and Design Studios based in New York City and Rome, Italy.
He is the Harvard University Graduate School of Design. His recent projects include the Hotel Duomo in Molfetta and the Bar Solex in New York City He earned a medal of merit from the American Institute of Architects in 1986. Cadillac Tower Campus Martius Park Hill, Eric J.. AIA Detroit: The American Institute of Architects Guide to Detroit Architecture. Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0-8143-3120-3. Meyer, Katherine Mattingly and Martin C. P. McElroy with Introduction by W. Hawkins Ferry, Hon A. I. A.. Detroit Architecture A. I. A. Guide Revised Edition. Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0-8143-1651-4. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list Sharoff, Robert. American City: Detroit Architecture. Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0-8143-3270-6. Northern Group Inc. corporate website Northern Group Inc. Downtown Collection
Bagley Memorial Fountain
The Bagley Memorial Fountain is a historic fountain in Downtown Detroit, Michigan. It has been moved from its long-time location in Campus Martius Park to a new location in just down the street in Cadillac Square Park; the fountain was listed on the National Register of Historic Places and designated a Michigan State Historic Site in 1971. The John N. Bagley House at 2921 East Jefferson Avenue in Detroit was constructed for Governor Bagley's son, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. John J. Bagley was the 16th governor of Michigan, serving from 1873 to 1877. Bagley served as a Detroit Alderman from 1860–61 and as Police Commissioner from 1865-72, he was instrumental in the creation of the Detroit Metropolitan Police Commission and the construction of the first Detroit House of Corrections. When Bagley died in 1881, his will contained $5,000 for the construction of a drinking fountain for the people of Detroit, having "water cold and pure as the coldest mountain stream." In 1885, the Bagley family chose Henry Hobson Richardson to design the fountain.
In 1887, the Bagley Memorial Fountain was dedicated at the corner of Woodward Avenue and Fort Street. Richardson constructed the fountain out of pink Bragville granite, modeled after a ciborium located in St. Mark's Basilica in Venice; the Bagley Memorial Fountain stands 21 feet high with a basin 7 feet across. At the center of the fountain, four lion heads distribute water. In the original design, two of the heads produced "normal" temperature water and the other two produced cold water, chilled by ice packed around the fountain pipes; the inscription on the four sides of the cornice reads: TESTAMENTARY GIFT | FOR THE PEOPLE FROM | JOHN JVDSON BAGLEY | A. D. MDCCCLXXXVII. In 1926 the fountain was moved from its original home at Woodward and Fort to Campus Martius, because of the increase of automobile traffic. In 2000, the fountain was removed from its site and put into storage. In 2007, the fountain was installed in its current location in Cadillac Square, it is the only remaining work by Richardson in the Detroit area.
Drinking fountains in the United States