Canada–United States softwood lumber dispute
The Canada–U. S. Softwood lumber dispute is one of the largest and most enduring trade disputes between both nations; this conflict arose in 1982 and its effects are still seen today. British Columbia, the major Canadian exporter of softwood lumber to the United States, was most affected, reporting losses of 9,494 direct and indirect jobs between 2004 and 2009; the heart of the dispute is the claim that the Canadian lumber industry is unfairly subsidized by federal and provincial governments, as most timber in Canada is owned by the provincial governments. The prices charged to harvest the timber are set administratively, rather than through the competitive marketplace, the norm in the United States. In the United States, softwood lumber lots are owned, the owners form an effective political lobby; the United States claims that the Canadian arrangement constitutes an unfair subsidy, is thus subject to U. S. trade remedy laws, where foreign trade benefiting from subsidies can be subject to a countervailing duty tariff, to offset the subsidy and bring the price of the commodity back up to market rates.
The Canadian government and lumber industry dispute this assertion, based on a number of factors, including that Canadian timber is provided to such a wide range of industries, that lack of specificity makes it ineligible to be considered a subsidy under U. S. law. Under U. S. trade remedy law, a countervailable subsidy must be specific to a particular industry. This requirement precludes imposition of countervailing duties on government programs, such as roads, that are meant to benefit a broad array of interests. Since 1982, there have been four major iterations of the dispute; the softwood lumber industry has employed thousands of people. The forest industry has contributed to direct jobs for about 232,700 individuals. Indirectly, 289,000 people have been hired to work in other sectors, they include engineering and construction. Such benefit from this industry can be seen in the nation's GDP, which added $21.2 billion in 2014. That accounted for around 1.3% of real GDP. Canada has the biggest trade surplus in relation to forest products.
As the largest market, the U. S. is dependent on Canada's lumber. The needs of the US outweigh the domestic supply. Canada has been expanding into the Asian market, with China being the second-largest importer; the U. S. accounted for 69% of Canada's softwood lumber exports in 2015. This is an increased share of Canadian softwood lumber exports, which reached its lowest level in 2011, accounting for only 54%. China in that same year accounted for 21%. In April 2006, the United States and Canada announced that they had reached a tentative settlement to end the dispute; the Softwood Lumber Agreement, which this became known as, went into full effect in October 2006. The conditions stated that the period for this agreement would last anywhere between seven and nine years. Both countries, in 2012, approved a two-year extension. Under the preliminary terms, the United States would lift countervailing and anti-dumping duties provided lumber prices continue to stay above a certain range. Below the specified range, a mixed export tax and quota regime would be implemented on imports of Canadian lumber.
On Canada's part, the nation agreed to enforce regulations, such as in the form of taxes on lumber exports headed to the U. S; the provincial governments of Canada were encouraged to make changes to their pricing systems. Such changes would allow for a non-subsidizing system; as a part of the deal, more than $5 billion in duty deposits collected would be returned. The SLA establishes a dispute settlement mechanism based around the London Court of International Arbitration, a nongovernmental institution. Either country may initiate dispute settlement of matters arising under the SLA or implementation thereof. Hearings are to be open to the public, as are other documents; the agreement states that hearings are to be held in either Canada. The SLA provides that decisions of an arbitration panel are binding on the two parties; the beginnings of the softwood lumber dispute referred to as Lumber I, were in 1982, when the U. S. lumber industry petitioned the U. S. Department of Commerce to impose a countervailing duty.
The DoC found that Canada's stumpage system was not specific to any single industry and thus not countervailable. While the DoC made this claim, the United States International Trade Commission believed that these Canadian imports did in fact hinder U. S. producers. The U. S. lumber industry chose not to appeal. The second phase, Lumber II, began in 1986, when a U. S. lumber industry group, the U. S. Coalition for Fair Lumber Imports, petitioned the Department of Commerce; the USITC once again arrived at the conclusion that Canada's exports unfairly impacted American producers. This time, the DoC did find Canadian forest programs to be countervailable and set a preliminary duty of 15%. Before the subsidy was imposed, the United States and Canada agreed to a Memorandum of Understanding that created a phased tariff. One of the terms of the MOU was that Canada levy an export tax on lumber traveling to the United States. Provinces that were affected had the chance to reduce this tax, if they performed any action meant to counterbalance their subsidies.
British Columbia had the tax removed in 1987 while Quebec had it lifted in 1988. Lumber III started in 1991 when Canada informed the United States it was withdrawing from the Memorandum of Understanding. In response, the Department of Commerce initiated a countervailing duty investigation, resulting
Special 301 Report
The Special 301 Report is prepared annually by the Office of the United States Trade Representative that identifies trade barriers to United States companies and products due to the intellectual property laws, such as copyright and trademarks, in other countries. By April 30 of each year, the USTR must identify countries which do not provide "adequate and effective" protection of intellectual property rights or "fair and equitable market access to United States persons that rely upon intellectual property rights"; the Special 301 Report is published pursuant to Section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974 as amended by Section 1303 of the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988. The Special 301 Report was first published in 1989. By statute, the annual Special 301 Report includes a list of "Priority Foreign Countries", that are judged to have inadequate intellectual property laws. In addition, the report contains a "Priority Watch List" and a "Watch List", containing countries whose intellectual property regimes are deemed of concern.
The Special 301 Sub-Committee of the Trade Policy Staff Committee advises the United States Trade Representative on which countries to designate as "priority foreign countries" or to include in the watchlists. The Special 301 Sub-Committee is chaired by the Office of the United States Trade Representative and its members include the Department of Commerce, the Patent and Trademark Office, the Department of State, the Department of Health and Human Services, the Department of Agriculture, the Copyright Office, the Council of Economic Advisers, other agencies. U. S. companies provide extensive comments in the annual National Trade Estimate Report. The Special 301 Sub-Committee takes the views of foreign governments and the views of U. S. embassies on intellectual property rights. U. S. companies and intellectual property owners, including copyrights and trademarks, can submit complaints to the Trade Compliance Centre, which provides a template for such complaints, or the country or industry desk at the International Trade Administration of the U.
S. Department of Commerce; the ITA reviews trade-related complaints with co-operation from the Office of General Counsel and the U. S. Patent and Trademark Office; the complaint cannot be in relation to disputes between companies on intellectual property rights, but must be about instances where a country has violated an international agreement with the United States. Complaints can be made in relation to the intellectual property law of the country, judicial or administrative procedures that discriminate against the US company, failure to enforce intellectual property laws in relation to trade in counterfeit goods, online copyright infringement. Complaints do not need to reference specific international agreements or provisions that are being breached. Complaints will focus on a country's failure to protect the intellectual property rights of a US company or lack of intellectual property rights relates market access. Complaints are expected to include a description of the efforts the company has made to enforce its intellectual property rights in that country and provide estimates of economic losses resulting from the infringement of intellectual property rights in that country.
Most countries included in the Priority Watch List and Watch List between 1996 and 2000 were requested by Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America or the International Intellectual Property Alliance. According to Andres Guadamuz of the University of Edinburgh, the IIPA, which represents the U. S. media industry, urged the U. S. government to consider countries like Indonesia and India for inclusion in the Special 301 Watchlist in early 2010 because they either mandated or suggested the use of open-source software. In 2010, NGOs such as PhRMA, MSF made submissions to the USTR. A Priority Foreign Country is the worst classification given to "foreign countries that deny "adequate and effective" protection of intellectual property rights or "fair and equitable market access" to U. S. persons relying upon IPR protection" under the Trade Act. On 13 March 2001, the United States Trade Representative designated Ukraine as a Priority Foreign Country citing the massive amounts of unlicensed CDs sold in Europe that originate in the Ukraine.
In 2011 and 2012, no countries were classified as a Priority Foreign Country. In 2013, Ukraine was redesignated as a Priority Foreign Country. In 2014, the US was in talks with the WTO to designate India as a "Priority Foreign Country" for the pharmaceutical sector. Under the amended Section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974 the USTR must by April 30 of each year: "identify those foreign countries that deny adequate and effective protection of intellectual property rights, or deny fair and equitable markets access to United States persons that rely upon intellectual property protection, those foreign countries identified under paragraph that are determined by the Trade Representative to be priority foreign countries"; the Act defines "priority foreign countries" as: "those foreign countries - that have the most onerous or egregious acts, policies, or practices that deny adequate and effective intellectual property rights, or deny fair and equitable market access to United States persons that rely upon intellectual property protection, whose acts, policies, or practices described in subparagraph have the greatest adverse impact (actual or potential
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Softwood is wood from gymnosperm trees such as conifers. The term is opposed to hardwood, the wood from angiosperm trees. Softwood is wood from gymnosperm trees such as spruces. Softwoods are not softer than hardwoods. In both groups there is an enormous variation in actual wood hardness, the range of density in hardwoods including that of softwoods; some hardwoods are softer than most softwoods, while the hardest hardwoods are much harder than any softwood. The woods of longleaf pine, Douglas fir, yew are much harder in the mechanical sense than several hardwoods. Softwoods are most used by the construction industry and are used to produce paper pulp, card products. Certain species of softwood are more resistant to insect attack from woodworm, as certain insects prefer damp hardwood. Softwood reproduces using cones and nuts. Douglas fir - joinery and heavy construction Eastern white pine - furniture European spruce - used throughout construction and cladding Larch - used for cladding and boats Lodgepole pine - roofing, flooring and in making chipboard and particle board, Parana pine - stair treads and joinery Scots pine - construction industry for interior work Sitka spruce - Southern yellow pine - joinery and decking Western hemlock - doors and furniture Western red cedar - furniture, decking and roof shingles Yew - interior and exterior furniture e.g. chairs, gate posts and wood turning Softwood is the source of about 80% of the world's production of timber, with traditional centres of production being the Baltic region, North America and China.
Softwood is used in construction as structural carcassing timber, as well as finishing timber. List of woods United States – Canada softwood lumber dispute Hardwood Janka hardness test Brinell scale
A prescription drug is a pharmaceutical drug that requires a medical prescription to be dispensed. In contrast, over-the-counter drugs can be obtained without a prescription; the reason for this difference in substance control is the potential scope of misuse, from drug abuse to practicing medicine without a license and without sufficient education. Different jurisdictions have different definitions of. "Rx" is used as a short form for prescription drug in North America - a contraction of the Latin word "recipe" meaning "take". Prescription drugs are dispensed together with a monograph that gives detailed information about the drug; the use of prescription drugs has been increasing since the 1960s. In the U. S. 88% of older adults use at least 1 prescription drug, while 36% take at least 5 prescription medicines concurrently. In Australia, the Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons governs the manufacture and supply of drugs with several categories: Schedule 1 – Defunct Schedule 2 – Pharmacy Medicine Schedule 3 – Pharmacist-Only Medicine Schedule 4 – Prescription-Only Medicine/Prescription Animal Remedy Schedule 5 – Caution Schedule 6 – Poison Schedule 7 – Dangerous Poison Schedule 8 – Controlled Drug Schedule 9 – Prohibited Substance Unscheduled SubstancesLike in the UK, the patient visits a health practitioner, who may prescribe the drug.
Many prescriptions issued by health practitioners in Australia are covered by the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme, a scheme that provides subsidised prescription drugs to residents of Australia to ensure that all Australians have affordable and reliable access to a wide range of necessary medicines. When purchasing a drug under the PBS, the consumer pays no more than the patient co-payment contribution, which, as of January 1, 2018, is A$39.50 for general patients. Those covered by government entitlements and or under the Repatriation Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme have a reduced co-payment, $6.40 in 2018. The co-payments are compulsory and can be discounted by pharmacies up to a maximum of A$1.00 at cost to the pharmacy. In the United Kingdom, the Medicines Act 1968 and the Prescription Only Medicines Order 1997 contain regulations that cover the supply of sale, use and production of medicines. There are three categories of medicine: Prescription-only medicines, which may be dispensed by a pharmacist if they are prescribed by a prescriber Pharmacy medicines, which may be sold by a pharmacist without a prescription General sales list medicines, which may be sold without a prescription in any shopThe possession of a prescription-only medicine without a prescription is legal unless it is covered by the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971.
A patient visits a medical practitioner or dentist, who may prescribe drugs and certain other medical items, such as blood glucose-testing equipment for diabetics. Qualified and experienced nurses and pharmacists may be independent prescribers. Both may prescribe all POMs, but may not prescribe Schedule 1 controlled drugs, 3 listed controlled drugs for the treatment of addiction. Schedule 1 drugs have little or no medical benefit, hence their limitations on prescribing. District nurses and health visitors have had limited prescribing rights since the mid-1990s. Once issued, a prescription is taken by the patient to a pharmacy. Most prescriptions are NHS prescriptions, subject to a standard charge, unrelated to what is dispensed; the NHS prescription fee was increased to £8.80 per item in England on 1 April 2018. The pharmacy charges the NHS the actual cost of the medicine, which may vary from a few pence to hundreds of pounds. A patient can consolidate prescription charges by using a prescription payment certificate capping costs at £29.10 per quarter or £104.00 per year.
Outside the NHS, private prescriptions are issued by private medical practitioner and sometimes under the NHS for medicines that are not covered by the NHS. A patient pays the pharmacy the normal price for medicine prescribed outside the NHS. Survey results published by Ipsos MORI in 2008 found that around 800,000 people in England were not collecting prescriptions or getting them dispensed because of the cost, the same as in 2001. In the United States, the Federal Food and Cosmetic Act defines what substances require a prescription for them to be dispensed by a pharmacy; the federal government authorizes physicians, physician assistants, nurse practitioners and other advanced practice nurses, veterinarians and optometrists to prescribe any controlled substance. They are issued unique Drug Enforcement Act numbers.