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Canada Elections Act

The Canada Elections Act is an Act of the Parliament of Canada which regulates the election of members of parliament to the House of Commons of Canada. The Canada Election Act limits spending on election advertising by interest groups, upheld by the Supreme Court of Canada in Harper v. Canada, it sets out various provisions regarding the publication or broadcast of election advertising and election results. In 1989, the government of Canada appointed the Royal Commission on Electoral Reform and Party Financing regarding restrictions in the Elections Act inconsistent with Section Three of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. In 1996, the Act was amended to establish a Register of Electors. In 2003, the Act was extended to cover the nomination contests of registered parties. In 2007, it was amended to mandate fixed election dates. Section 329 of the Act outlawed publishing election results from other ridings in constituencies where polls are still open; this section was upheld by the Supreme Court in R. v. Bryan, but was repealed in 2015 because the wide use of the internet and social media had made it outdated and difficult to enforce.

Section 331 forbids those who are not citizens of Canada from " electors to vote or refrain from voting or vote or refrain from voting for a particular candidate". Violators may face six months imprisonment. Section 335 requires that all broadcasters make 6.5 hours of advertising available for purchase by political parties over the course of a general election during "prime time". Broadcasters that do not ordinarily accept advertising, such as the CBC's radio services, premium pay TV channels like Crave/HBO and Super Channel, are required to accept these political ads during a federal election. Section 345 requires that all CRTC-licensed over-the-air radio and television networks, which reach the majority of Canadians in the language of broadcast, allocate free time for election broadcasts. However, there are no restrictions on when these free-time broadcasts must air, most of these networks now confine them to late night; as of 2011, the networks subject to this provision are CBC Television, Ici Radio-Canada Télé, CBC Radio One, Ici Radio-Canada Première, TVA, V.

The amount of free time per election varies by network, from 3.5 hours to 62 minutes. CTV and the Radiomédia / Corus Québec radio network were subject to free-time allocations. Note that there is no free-time allocation required for individual private radio or television stations, or cable specialty channels. Section 482, which finds anyone who "induces a person to vote or refrain from voting or to vote or refrain from voting for a particular candidate at an election" guilty of intimidation of the electoral process. Anyone convicted under s. 482 faces, on a summary conviction, a maximum $2,000 fine, or a maximum of one year in prison, or both. On an indictment, individuals found guilty face a maximum of five years in prison, a maximum $5,000 fine, or both. In 2015, wealthy U. S.-style political action committees organizations were introduced to Ontario and Alberta and were expected to play a major role in Canadian political elections at the provincial and federal level. PACs are new to Canadian federal politics and are "technically federal non-profit corporations" registered with Industry Canada.

The Canada Elections Act allows PACs to "spend up to $150,000 on third-party advertising during an election" but "spending outside the election period is unlimited." Up until the enactment of the Elections Modernization Act in 2018 after which spending was nonetheless unlimited outside of the defined pre-election periods. In Ontario, the union-funded Working Families Coalition, spent millions on anti-conservative ads before the 2015 Ontario provincial elections; the left-leaning organization Engage Canada, which released its first anti-Harper attack ad early June 2015. The right-leaning Conservative PAC Foundation founded by high-profile Alberta conservatives Jonathan Denis, Brad Tennant and Zoe Addington in June 2015 will fund advertising in support of Conservative Prime Minister Stephen Harper. Canadian federal election Federal political financing in Canada Department of Justice of Canada - Canada Elections Act text Bil C-2: The Canada Elections Act

Trolley problem

The trolley problem is a thought experiment in ethics. It is considered to represent a classic clash between two schools of moral thought and deontological ethics; the general form of the problem is this: There is a runaway trolley barreling down the railway tracks. Ahead, on the tracks, there are five people unable to move; the trolley is headed straight for them. You are standing some distance off in the train yard, next to a lever. If you pull this lever, the trolley will switch to a different set of tracks. However, you notice. You have two options: allow the trolley to kill the five people on the main track. Pull the lever, diverting the trolley onto the side track. Which is the more ethical option? Or, more simply: What is the right thing to do? Philippa Foot introduced this modern form of the problem in 1967. Judith Thomson, Frances Kamm, Peter Unger have analysed the dilemma extensively. Earlier forms of the problem predated Foot's publication. Frank Chapman Sharp included a version in a moral questionnaire given to undergraduates at the University of Wisconsin in 1905.

In this variation, the railway's switchman controlled the switch, the lone individual to be sacrificed was the switchman's child. The German legal scholar Hans Welzel discussed a similar problem in 1951. In his commentary on the Talmud, published long before his death in 1953, Avrohom Yeshaya Karelitz discussed the similar question of whether it is ethical to deflect a projectile from a larger crowd toward a smaller one. Beginning in 2001, the trolley problem and its variants have been used extensively in empirical research on moral psychology. Trolley problems have been a topic of popular books; the problem arises in discussing the ethics of autonomous vehicle design, which may require programming to choose whom or what to strike when a collision appears to be unavoidable. Foot's original structure of the problem ran as follows: Suppose that a judge or magistrate is faced with rioters demanding that a culprit be found for a certain crime and threatening otherwise to take their own bloody revenge on a particular section of the community.

The real culprit being unknown, the judge sees himself as able to prevent the bloodshed only by framing some innocent person and having him executed. Beside this example is placed another in which a pilot whose airplane is about to crash is deciding whether to steer from a more to a less inhabited area. To make the parallel as close as possible it may rather be supposed that he is the driver of a runaway tram which he can only steer from one narrow track on to another. In the case of the riots the mob have five hostages, so that in both examples the exchange is supposed to be one man's life for the lives of five. A utilitarian view asserts. According to classical utilitarianism, such a decision would be not only permissible, morally speaking, the better option. An alternate viewpoint is that since moral wrongs are in place in the situation, moving to another track constitutes a participation in the moral wrong, making one responsible for the death when otherwise no one would be responsible. An opponent of action may point to the incommensurability of human lives.

Under some interpretations of moral obligation being present in this situation and being able to influence its outcome constitutes an obligation to participate. If this is the case deciding to do nothing would be considered an immoral act if one values five lives more than one; the trolley problem is a specific ethical thought experiment among several that highlights the difference between deontological and consequentialist ethical systems. The central question that these dilemmas bring to light is on whether or not it is right to inhibit the utility of an individual if doing so produces a greater utility for other individuals; the initial trolley problem supports comparison to other, dilemmas: As before, a trolley is hurtling down a track towards five people. You are on a bridge under which it will pass, you can stop it by putting something heavy in front of it; as it happens, there is a fat man next to you – your only way to stop the trolley is to push him over the bridge and onto the track, killing him to save five.

Should you proceed? Resistance to this course of action seems strong; this has led to attempts to find a relevant moral distinction between the two cases. One clear distinction is that in the first case, one does not intend harm towards anyone – harming the one is just a side effect of switching the trolley away from the five. However, in the second case, harming the one is an integral part of the plan to save the five; this is an argument. A claim can be made that the difference between the two cases is that in the second, you intend someone's death to save the five, this is wrong, whereas, in the first, you have no such intention; this solution is an application of the doctrine of double effect, which says that you may take action which has bad side effects, but deliberately intending harm is wrong. Another distinction is that the first case is similar to a pilot in an airplane that has lost power and is about to crash into a populated area. If the pilot k

Torchlight to Valhalla

Torchlight to Valhalla is a lesbian-themed novel published by Random House in 1938, written by Gale Wilhelm. The novel is considered a classic in lesbian fiction, being one of the few hardbound novels with lesbian content to be published in the early 20th century. Quite rare for lesbian fiction in this time, the ending is satisfactory for the lesbian characters, it was reissued in 1953 by Lion Publishers, but titled The Strange Path. It was re-issued once more in 1985 by Naiad Press under its original title, it was Wilhelm's second novel after We Too both of them containing lesbian themes. One 2002 review of the book noted that it was released "just ten years after Radclyffe Hall’s The Well of Loneliness. Wilhelm has created a work of self-exploration that bears little resemblance to the tormented world of Hall’s Stephen Gordon." Morgen Teutenberg is an introverted 21-year-old woman nursing her dying father Fritz, a painter. She is developing a novel with her father's assistance. Out walking one day, she meets a handsome young man, Royal St. Gabriel, a pianist, quite taken with her.

Royal pursues her romantically despite Morgen's lack of enthusiasm. Fritz dies soon after Morgen meets Royal, she is devastated by his loss and nonplussed by Royal's attention, not seeming to welcome it, but flattered by his gentlemanly manners and thoughtfulness, he buys her a radio and has it delivered to her house with a letter telling her when to tune in to a station. When she does, she hears a composition he has written for her that she imagines describes her perfectly. For five months they have a friendship characterized by Royal's unabashed love for Morgen, her not sure how to tell him that she is grateful for his friendship, but does not want to pursue anything deeper with him. On Christmas Eve, overwhelmed with missing her father again, she turns to Royal and they sleep together. Royal is overcome with gratitude, not believing she has given herself to him at last, but Morgen does not enjoy the experience and realizes she went to him out of loneliness, she tells him this and he is hurt by it.

He travels and leaves her again, unsure of how to reach her. In his absence, she meets new neighbors. A 16-year-old woman named Toni lives with her aunt, they have known each other before as Morgen is thrilled to have Toni back so close by. In sharp contrast to her relationship with Royal and Toni find themselves kindred immediately, they spend several nights together, are quite hesitant to leave each other. When Royal returns, he notices, she tells him, "I am two and the other is Toni." He is stunned. Soon before Fritz dies, he comments that he will be on his way to Valhalla soon, he is prepared for it because he is so happy since Morgen has just finished a good novel, he tells her. His comment serves as the impetus for her to realize. Reviewers noted first Wilhelm's style of prose, characterized as "beautifully written", "sensitive", "dignified," contrasting with a description of it being a "moody dose of emotionalism." All the reviewers of course noted the lesbian content and disagreed as to whether it was handled gracefully and unsensationally, or if it indicated Wilhelm was unable to break out of a format by handling the same subject matter twice in two novels.

Said one reviewer, "Torchlight to Valhalla is not a story for sensation-mongers, nor is it for those who prefer'morals' packaged up in simple bundles of black and white. It is, rather, a novel for readers who accept the author's quiet candor and appreciate the scrupulous artistry with which she has described a not-too-happy kind of happiness."

Carl Christian Seydewitz

Carl Christian von Seydewitz was a Danish portrait painter and army officer. He was not a member of the nobility but, from 1770 to 1860, officers were allowed to use "von" with their surnames. Von Seydewitz was born in Nortorf, Denmark, he was the son of Magdalena Maria Ralfs. His father was an builder in the rural districts of Mecklenburg, he followed his older brother, into the Royal Danish Army. In 1796, became a fændrik à la suite in the Schleswig Regiment, he was promoted to First Lieutenant in 1804 and Captain in 1810. In 1816, due to cutbacks in troop strength, he was mustered out with the rank of Major. Despite his choice of a military career, he always had a desire to be an artist. Around 1800, after some opposition by Crown Prince Frederick, he was allowed to attend classes at satellite schools of the Royal Academy. In 1803, he was awarded money from the Fonden ad usus publicos, a fund for the support of artistic and scientific endeavors; this would be used for study abroad, but he was compelled to use it locally.

He received an additional grant and was allowed to study in Italy, where he was influenced by the works of Raphael. However, after the English Wars broke out in 1807, official duties occupied most of his time. In 1817, now a retired Major and newly married, he began to paint in earnest, his first major work was done for the Palace Building Commission. He was paid well. King Frederick, wanting to make amends for his earlier opposition, ordered a large number of pieces. Nineteen of these went into the Royal Collection. Many were lost during the devastating fire at Christiansborg Palace in 1884. In 1814 he became Knight of the Order of the Dannebrog, he was married in 1816 with Sophie Amalie Møller. He was buried at Garnisons Cemetery in Copenhagen. Media related to Carl Christian Seydewitz at Wikimedia Commons More works by Seydewitz @ Europeana Collections

Energy efficiency in agriculture

European Commission definitions of energy efficiency, are given below: Energy efficiency: a ratio between an output of performance, goods or energy, an input of energy. It excludes deliveries to the energy transformation sector and the energy industries themselves. Primary energy consumption in agriculture is the energy consumed in an agricultural production system including the energy for the production of all indirect inputs. Energy efficiency in agriculture improvement is defined as the decrease of primary energy consumption for the production of a unit of agricultural product, within the farm boundaries. European Commission requirements regarding energy use across the EU establish a common framework of measures for the promotion of energy efficiency within the European Union to: Ensure the achievement of the Union’s 2020 20% headline target on energy efficiency Pave the way for further energy efficiency improvements beyond that dateThe directive also: Lays down rules designed to remove barriers in the energy market and overcome market failures that impede efficiency in the supply and use of energy.

Provides for the establishment of indicative national energy efficiency targets for 2020Key measures with implications for the agricultural sector: Energy companies are requested to reduce energy sales by 1.5% every year among their customers. This can be achieved via improved heating systems, fitting double-glazed windows or insulating roofs. Measures to achieve higher energy efficiency should be applied in agricultural buildings too; the public sector is required to renovate 3% of buildings "owned and occupied" by the central government in each country. Buildings need to have a useful area larger than 500 m2. In many EU member states there are public sector agricultural buildings that could be included in the measures taken by the national government. EU countries are requested to draw up a roadmap to make the entire buildings sector more energy efficient by 2050. Making farm buildings more energy efficient contributes to this aim. Measures regarding existing agricultural buildings should be carried out and new legislation regarding new installations need to be adopted in the direction of improving their energy efficiency.

Energy audits and management plans are required for large companies, with cost-benefit analyses for the deployment of combined heat and power generation and public procurement. This has implications for large farm companies and large farmers associations and their buildings, storage rooms and greenhouses; each country has to present national indicative targets by April 2013. If the European Commission estimates that those are insufficient to meet the EU's overall 2020 goal it can request member states to re-assess their plans. In the first semester of 2014, the Commission will review the progress towards the 20% energy-efficiency target, report on it and assess whether further measures are needed. If Europe is off track, the Commission intends to come back with a proposal for further legislation. Including agricultural activities in the general planning of each member state would help in covering the targets and avoid re-assessing on behalf of the European Commission; this comment applies to the last 3 remarks of the Directive.

In the framework of the AGREE project, several state of the art studies on the energy efficiency of specific agricultural production systems of different types were executed in 2012-13 in Europe based on existing data from six countries and were combined in one report. A stakeholder and driver analysis on energy efficiency in agriculture in all six countries and separate reports Finland, Greece, Poland, Portugal) are available. Energy efficiency measures were proposed for each agricultural system and presented in an overview report. A synthesis and summary report on state of the art and stakeholders of energy efficiency in agriculture, potential of energy saving hours is available; the most directly effective measures were taken into account in reporting their effect on energy consumption per unit of product in certain case studies in all seven countries taking into account trade-offs regarding GHG emissions and final farm cost. The results are presented in a report named Economic and environmental analysis of energy efficiency measures in agriculture – Case Studies and trade-offs.

An intensive stakeholder process, by organising national stakeholders meetings in six countries, revealed the opportunities and drawbacks for a future energy efficient agriculture in Europe. The results of this process are presented for six countries at special reports, o


Unimicron Technology Corporation is a printed circuit board manufacturer headquartered in Taiwan. The company produces PCBs, high density interconnection boards, flexible PCBs, rigid flex PCBs, integrated circuit carriers, others. In addition, it provides burn-in services of IC substrates and PCBs. Applications of its products and services include liquid crystal display monitors, personal computers and peripheral products, notebook computers, network cards, facsimile machines, mobile phones, personal digital assistants, others. Unimicron has manufacturing sites and/or service centers in Taiwan, China and Japan. Unimicron, a subsidiary of United Microelectronics Corporation, started in 1990, grew to global rank of 6th in 2006, became global No. 1 in the PCB industry in 2009 and 2010. Unimicron arrived at a second position in the 2012 global PCB market with a market share of 3.7% and $2.4 billion in revenue. In 2014, Unimicron opened the "Sunrise Public Welfare Convenience Store" at its Shanying Plant.

This project is the result of concern and care from Unimicron's employees for disadvantaged families and youth as well as those with disabilities in the community, has resulted in multiple positive social benefits. Unimicron funded the "UniFresh Farm" with a vision to respond to concerns including climate change, inadequate food production, excessive use of pesticides, food safety and environmental pollution, unhealthy diet, increase in consumer demand. With its own professional agricultural-biotechnology team, strong automated production management capabilities, R&D and innovation, various professional skills of the subsidiaries of the Group, Unimicron's UniFresh Farm is aiming to produce high-quality vegetables and fruits as well as to create a new LOHAS lifestyle with the combination of health and environmental sustainability; the "UniFresh Farm" employs innovative environmental technologies, including solar power, efficient LED lighting technology, high-quality automated management, cloud environmental monitoring technology, biotechnology