Banff National Park
Banff National Park is Canada's oldest national park and was established in 1885. Located in the Rocky Mountains, 110–180 kilometres west of Calgary in the province of Alberta, Banff encompasses 6,641 square kilometres of mountainous terrain, with numerous glaciers and ice fields, dense coniferous forest, alpine landscapes; the Icefields Parkway extends from Lake Louise. Provincial forests and Yoho National Park are neighbours to the west, while Kootenay National Park is located to the south and Kananaskis Country to the southeast; the main commercial centre of the park is the town of Banff, in the Bow River valley. The Canadian Pacific Railway was instrumental in Banff's early years, building the Banff Springs Hotel and Chateau Lake Louise, attracting tourists through extensive advertising. In the early 20th century, roads were built in Banff, at times by war internees from World War I, through Great Depression-era public works projects. Since the 1960s, park accommodations have been open all year, with annual tourism visits to Banff increasing to over 5 million in the 1990s.
Millions more pass through the park on the Trans-Canada Highway. As Banff has over three million visitors annually, the health of its ecosystem has been threatened. In the mid-1990s, Parks Canada responded by initiating a two-year study, which resulted in management recommendations, new policies that aim to preserve ecological integrity. Banff National Park has a subarctic climate with three ecoregions, including montane and alpine; the forests are dominated by Lodgepole pine at lower elevations and Engelmann spruce in higher ones below the treeline, above, rocks and ice. Mammal species such as the grizzly bear, wolverine, bighorn sheep and moose are found, along with hundreds of bird species. Reptiles and amphibians are found but only a limited number of species have been recorded; the mountains are formed from sedimentary rocks which were pushed east over newer rock strata, between 80 and 55 million years ago. Over the past few million years, glaciers have at times covered most of the park, but today are found only on the mountain slopes though they include the Columbia Icefield, the largest uninterrupted glacial mass in the Rockies.
Erosion from water and ice have carved the mountains into their current shapes. Throughout its history, Banff National Park has been shaped by tension between conservationist and land exploitation interests; the park was established on 25 November 1885 as Banff Hot Springs Reserve, in response to conflicting claims over who discovered hot springs there and who had the right to develop the hot springs for commercial interests. The conservationists prevailed when Prime Minister John A. Macdonald set aside the hot springs as a small protected reserve, expanded to include Lake Louise and other areas extending north to the Columbia Icefield. Archaeological evidence found at Vermilion Lakes indicates the first human activity in Banff to 10,300 B. P. Prior to European contact, including the Stoneys, Tsuu T'ina, Kainai and Siksika, resided in the region where they hunted bison and other game. With the admission of British Columbia to Canada on 20 July 1871, Canada agreed to build a transcontinental railroad.
Construction of the railroad began in 1875, with Kicking Horse Pass chosen, over the more northerly Yellowhead Pass, as the route through the Canadian Rockies. Ten years on 7 November 1885, the last spike was driven in Craigellachie, British Columbia. With conflicting claims over the discovery of hot springs in Banff, Prime Minister John A. Macdonald decided to set aside a small reserve of 26 square kilometres around the hot springs at Cave and Basin as a public park known as the Banff Hot Springs Reserve in 1885. Under the Rocky Mountains Park Act, enacted on 23 June 1887, the park was expanded to 674 km2 and named Rocky Mountains Park; this was Canada's first national park, the third established in North America, after Yellowstone and Mackinac National Parks. The Canadian Pacific Railway built the Banff Springs Hotel and Lake Louise Chalet to attract tourists and increase the number of rail passengers; the Stoney First Nations were removed from Banff National Park between the years 1890 and 1920.
The park was designed to appeal to sportsmen, tourists. The exclusionary policy met the goals of sports hunting and game conservation, as well as of those attempting to "civilize" the Indians. Early on, Banff was popular with wealthy European and American tourists, the former of which arrived in Canada via trans-Atlantic luxury liner and continued westward on the railroad; some visitors participated in mountaineering activities hiring local guides. Guides Jim and Bill Brewster founded one of the first outfitters in Banff. From 1906, the Alpine Club of Canada organized climbs and camps in the park. By 1911, Banff was accessible by automobile from Calgary. Beginning in 1916, the Brewsters offered motorcoach tours of Banff. In 1920, access to Lake Louise by road was available, the Banff-Windermere Road opened in 1923 to connect Banff with British Columbia. In 1902, the park was expanded to cover 11,400 km2, encompassing areas around Lake Louise, the Bow, Red Deer and Spray rivers. Bowing to pressure from grazing and logging interests, the size of the park was reduced in 1911 to 4,663 km2, eliminating many eastern foothills areas from the park.
Park boundaries changed several more times up until 1930, when the area of Banff was fixed at 6,697 km2, with the passage of the National Parks Act. The Act, which took effect May 30, 1930 renamed the par
Environment and Climate Change Canada
Environment and Climate Change Canada incorporated as the Department of the Environment under the Department of the Environment Act, is the department of the Government of Canada with responsibility for coordinating environmental policies and programs as well as preserving and enhancing the natural environment and renewable resources. The powers and functions of the Minister of the Environment extend to and include matters relating to: "preserve and enhance the quality of the natural environment, including water, soil and fauna, its ministerial headquarters is located in les Terrasses de la Chaudière, Quebec. Under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, Environment Canada became the lead federal department to ensure the cleanup of hazardous waste and oil spills for which the government is responsible, to provide technical assistance to other jurisdictions and the private sector as required; the department is responsible for international environmental issues. CEPA was the central piece of Canada's environmental legislation but was replaced when budget implementation bill entered into effect in June 2012.
Under the Constitution of Canada, responsibility for environmental management in Canada is a shared responsibility between the federal government and provincial/territorial governments. For example, provincial governments have primary authority for resource management including permitting industrial waste discharges; the federal government is responsible for the management of toxic substances in the country. Environment Canada provides stewardship of the Environmental Choice Program, which provides consumers with an eco-labelling for products manufactured within Canada or services that meet international label standards of Global Ecolabelling Network. Environment Canada continues to undergo a structural transformation to centralize authority and decision-making, to standardize policy implementation. Minister Deputy Minister Associate Deputy Minister Assistant Deputy Minister Associate Assistant Deputy Minister Director General Director Managers Supervisors Staff Environment Canada is divided into several geographic regions: National Capital Atlantic and Quebec Region Ontario West and North The department has several organizations which carry out specific tasks: Enforcement Branch Environmental Enforcement Wildlife Enforcement Environmental Protection Branch Canadian Wildlife Service Chemical Sectors Energy and Transportation Environmental Protection Operations Legislative and Regulatory Affairs Strategic Priorities Meteorological Service of Canada Weather and environmental monitoring Weather and Environmental Operations Weather and Environmental Prediction and Services Canadian Hurricane Centre Science and Technology Branch Atmospheric and Climate Science Water Science and Technology Directorate National Pollutant Release Inventory Wildlife and Landscape Science Air Quality Mobile Source Emissions Measurement and ResearchThe Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency is an arms-length agency that reports to the Minister of EnvironmentParks Canada, which manages the Canadian National Parks system, was removed from Environment Canada and became an agency reporting to the Minister of Heritage in 1998.
In 2003, responsibility for Parks Canada was returned to the Minister of the Environment. Environment Canada Enforcement Branch is responsible for ensuring compliance with several federal statues; the Governor-in-Council appoints enforcement officers and pursuant to section 217 of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, enforcement officers have all the powers of peace officers. There are two designations of enforcement officers: Environmental Enforcement and Wildlife Enforcement; the former administers the Canadian Environmental Protection Act and pollution provisions of the Fisheries Act and corresponding regulations. The latter enforces Migratory Birds Convention Act, Canada Wildlife Act, Species at Risk Act and The Wild Animal and Plant Protection and Regulation of International and Interprovincial Trade Act. All officers wear dark green uniform with a badge. Environmental Enforcement Officers only carry baton and OC spray whereas Wildlife Enforcement Officers are equipped with firearm.
The Minister may appoint members of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, fishery officers, parks officers, customs officers and conservation officers of provincial and territorial governments as enforcement officers and to allow them to exercise the powers and privilege of Environment Canada officers. On March 4, 2009, a bill to increase the enforcement capabilities of Environment Canada was introduced into the House of Commons; the Environmental Enforcement Bill would increase the fines for individuals and corporations for ser
Sir Henri Charles Wilfrid Laurier was the seventh prime minister of Canada, in office from 11 July 1896 to 6 October 1911. Laurier is considered one of the country's greatest statesmen, he is well known for his policies of conciliation, expanding Confederation, compromise between French and English Canada. His vision for Canada was a land of decentralized federalism, he argued for an English-French partnership in Canada. "I have had before me as a pillar of fire," he said, "a policy of true Canadianism, of moderation, of reconciliation." He passionately defended individual liberty, "Canada is free and freedom is its nationality," and "Nothing will prevent me from continuing my task of preserving at all cost our civil liberty." Laurier was well-regarded for his efforts to establish Canada as an autonomous country within the British Empire, he supported the continuation of the Empire if it was based on "absolute liberty political and commercial". In addition, he was a strict nationalist, argued for a more competitive Canada through limited government, was an adherent of fiscal discipline.
A 2011 Maclean's historical ranking of the Prime Ministers placed Laurier first. Canada's first francophone prime minister, Laurier holds a number of records, he is tied with Sir John A. Macdonald for the most consecutive federal elections won, his 15-year tenure remains the longest unbroken term of office among prime ministers. In addition, his nearly 45 years of service in the House of Commons is a record for that house. At 31 years, 8 months, Laurier was the longest-serving leader of a major Canadian political party, surpassing William Lyon Mackenzie King by over two years. Along with King, he holds the distinction of serving as Prime Minister during the reigns of three Canadian Monarchs, he is the fourth-longest serving Prime Minister of Canada, behind King and Pierre Trudeau. Laurier's portrait has been displayed on the Canadian five-dollar bill since 1972; the second child of Carolus Laurier and Marcelle Martineau, Wilfrid Laurier was born in Saint-Lin, Canada East, on 20 November 1841. Laurier was among the seventh generation of his family in Canada.
He was a sixth-generation Canadian. His ancestor François Cottineau, dit Champlaurier, came to Canada from France, he grew up in a family where politics was a staple of debate. His father, an educated man having liberal ideas, enjoyed a certain degree of prestige about town. In addition to being a farmer and surveyor, he occupied such sought-after positions as mayor, justice of the peace, militia lieutenant and school board member. At the age of 11, Wilfrid left home to study in New Glasgow, a neighbouring village inhabited by immigrants from Scotland. Over the next two years, he familiarized himself with the mentality and culture of British people. Laurier attended the Collège de L'Assomption and graduated in law from McGill University in 1864, he was elected to the Legislative Assembly of Quebec from Drummond-Arthabaska in the 1871 Quebec general election, but resigned on 19 January 1874, to enter federal politics in the riding of Quebec East. He was first elected to the House of Commons of Canada in the 1874 election, serving in the Cabinet of Prime Minister Alexander Mackenzie as Minister of Inland Revenue.
Chosen as leader of the federal Liberal Party in 1887, he built up his party's strength through his personal following both in Quebec and elsewhere in Canada. He led the Liberal Party to victory in the 1896 election, contested five other federal elections. By 1909, Laurier had been able to build the Liberal Party a base in Quebec, which had remained a Conservative stronghold for decades due to the province's social conservatism and to the influence of the Roman Catholic Church, which distrusted the Liberals' anti-clericalism; the growing alienation of French Canadians from the Conservative Party due to its links with anti-French, anti-Catholic Orangemen in English Canada aided the Liberal Party. These factors, combined with the collapse of the Conservative Party of Quebec, gave Laurier an opportunity to build a stronghold in French Canada and among Catholics across Canada. Catholic priests in Quebec warned their parishioners not to vote for Liberals, their slogan was "le ciel est bleu, l'enfer est rouge".
Laurier led Canada during a period of rapid industrialization and immigration. His long career straddles a period of major economic change; as Prime Minister he was instrumental in ushering Canada into the 20th century and in gaining greater autonomy from Britain for his country. A list of his Ministers is available at the Parliamentary website, is known as the 8th Canadian Ministry. One of Laurier's first acts as Prime Minister was to implement a solution to the Manitoba Schools Question, which had helped to bring down the Conservative government of Charles Tupper earlier in 1896; the Manitoba legislature had passed a law eliminating public funding for Catholic schooling. The Catholic minority asked the federal Government for support, the Conservatives proposed remedial legislation to override Manitoba's legislation. Laurier opposed the remedial legislation on the basis of provincial rights, succeeded in blocking its passage by Parliament. Once elected, Laurier proposed a compromise stating that Catholi
Fundy National Park
Fundy National Park is located on the Bay of Fundy, near the village of Alma, New Brunswick. The Park showcases a rugged coastline which rises up to the Canadian Highlands, the highest tides in the world and more than 25 waterfalls; the Park covers an area of 207 km2 along the northwestern branch of the Bay of Fundy. When one looks across the Bay, they can see the northern Nova Scotia coast. At low tide, park visitors can explore the ocean floor where a variety of sea creatures cling to life. At high tide, the ocean floor disappears under 15 m of salt water. There are 25 hiking trails throughout the park; the Caribou Plains trail and boardwalk provides access to upland bog habitats. Dickson Falls is the most popular trail in the park. Park amenities include a golf course, a heated saltwater swimming pool, three campgrounds, a network of over 100 km of hiking and biking trails. During the winter, Fundy National Park is available for day use, at one's own risk. Visitors use the park to go cross-country skiing, snowshoeing and winter walking.
The cross-country ski trails are groomed by the local Chignecto Ski Club. A variety of scientific projects are ongoing in the Park, with the primary focus on monitoring the park's ecology. Recent projects have focused on re-establishing aquatic connectivity in the park (Bennett Lake Dam, new Culverts, Dickson Brook restoration. Species such as the endangered Inner Bay of Fundy Salmon and Fishers, brook trout and moose are monitored regularly; the Dobson Trail and Fundy Footpath extend out of the park to Riverview and to St. Martins respectively. A unique red-painted covered bridge is located at Point Wolfe. Other rivers that flow through the park include the: Broad River Point Wolfe River Upper Salmon River According to the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, the park is located in the Level III- Eastern Temperate Forests ecoregion. According to the Ecological Framework of Canada, the park is situated in two distinct ecoregions; the southern section of the park falls in the Fundy Coast ecoregion.
This region experiences mild, rainy winters. Its coniferous forest consists of red spruce, balsam fir, red maple with some white spruce, white and yellow birch; some sugar maple and beech trees are found here at higher elevations. The northern section of the park falls in the Southern New Brunswick Uplands ecoregion; this ecoregion experiences summers that are warm and rainy, winters that are mild and snowy. Its mixed-wood forest contains sugar and red maple and red spruce and balsam fir trees. According to the World Wide Fund for Nature the park is located in the New England-Acadian forest ecoregion; the park is home to 658 species of vascular plants, 276 species of bryophytes, more than 400 species of lichens. The Fundy forest is a mixed-wood forest composed of red spruce, balsam fir, yellow birch, white birch, sugar maple, red maple; the mixed-wood forest floor is blanketed with moss, wood fern, bunchberry. Pure hardwood stands account for 5.4% of the Fundy forest cover. The most abundant pure hardwood stands are white birch.
There are some sugar maple, red maple, beech stands. Carolina springbeauty and trout-lily bloom in the hardwood forest every year; the coniferous forest in the park represents the boreal element of Fundy’s forest cover. Although pure stands of conifer are rare in the park, the Fundy forest has some of the last pure stands of red spruce found in eastern North America; the bogs of the park are blanketed with sphagnum moss from which grow black spruce and Eastern larch. Within the park’s Caribou Plain bog, three carnivorous plant species are found: pitcher plant and bladderwort; some rare plant species are found in the park. Bird’s-eye primrose is found along the Point Wolfe and Goose River coastal cliffs, several other rare flora species, namely slender spikemoss, green spleenwort, rare sedges, fir clubmoss, are found along the eastern branch of the Point Wolfe River and the lower part of Bennett Brook. Animals that inhabit this national park are moose, snowshoe hares, cormorants, red squirrels, pileated woodpeckers, little brown bats, peregrine falcons, black bears, beavers, white-tailed deer, white-winged crossbills, various mice and shrews, sandpipers, warblers, great blue herons, northern flying squirrels.
Located in Alma, New Brunswick, Fundy National park is operated by Parks Canada an agency of the Government of Canada, managed by Environment Canada. For the 2013-2014 fiscal year, Parks Canada plans to spend $693.7 million to manage its 44 national parks, 964 places of national historic significance, 4 national marine conservation areas. Of these national historic sites, 167 are directly administered by Parks Canada; the park received 240,481 visitors during the 2012-2013 year. It is the most visited Parks Canada site in New Brunswick. Data from previous years reveal that 40% of people who camped at the park were from New Brunswick, 8% were from Nova Scotia
Law of Canada
The Canadian legal system has its foundation in the English common law system, inherited from being a former colony of the United Kingdom and a Commonwealth Realm member of the Commonwealth of Nations. The legal system is bi-jurisdictional, as the responsibilities of public and private law are separated and exercised by Parliament and the provinces respectively. Quebec, still retains a civil system for issues of private law. Both legal systems are subject to the Constitution of Canada; the federal government has jurisdiction over certain exclusive domains which are regulated by Parliament, as well as all matters and disputes between provinces. These include interprovincial transport as well as interprovincial trade and commerce; the criminal law is an area of exclusive federal jurisdiction, has its origins in the English common law. Prosecutions of most criminal offences are conducted by the provincial Attorneys General, acting under the Criminal Code. Canada's constitution is its supreme law, any law passed by any federal, provincial, or territorial government, inconsistent with the constitution is invalid.
The Constitution Act, 1982 stipulates that Canada's constitution includes that act, a series of thirty acts and orders referred to in a schedule to that act, any amendment to any of those acts. However, the Supreme Court of Canada has found that this list is not intended to be exhaustive, in 1998's Reference re Secession of Quebec identified four "supporting principles and rules" that are included as unwritten elements of the constitution: federalism, constitutionalism and the rule of law, respect for minorities. While these principles are an enforceable part of Canada's constitution, Canadian courts have not used them to override the written text of the constitution, instead confining their role to "filling gaps"; because the Constitution Act, 1867 provides that Canada's constitution is "similar in Principle to that of the United Kingdom", considered to be an uncodified constitution, the Supreme Court has recognized the existence of constitutional conventions. In 1981's Reference re a Resolution to amend the Constitution, the Court provided three factors necessary for the existence of a constitutional convention: a practice or agreement developed by political actors, a recognition that they are bound to follow that practice or agreement, a purpose for that practice or agreement.
It found that, while these conventions are not law and are therefore unenforceable by the courts, courts may recognize conventions in their rulings. The Constitution Act, 1867 assigns powers to the provincial and federal governments. Matters under federal jurisdiction include criminal law and commerce, immigration; the federal government has the residual power to make laws necessary for Canada's "peace and good government". Matters under provincial jurisdiction include hospitals, municipalities and property and civil rights; the Constitution Act, 1867 provides that, while provinces establish their own superior courts, the federal government appoints their judges. It gives the federal Parliament the right to establish a court system responsible for federal law and a general court of appeal to hear appeals of decisions of both federal and provincial courts; this last power resulted in the federal Parliament's creation of the Supreme Court of Canada, which is, despite its role as supreme arbiter of all Canadian law, a creation of simple, rather than constitutional, statute.
The Constitution Act, 1982 created a mechanism by which Canada's constitution could be amended by joint action of federal and provincial governments. It created the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, which grants individual rights which may not be contravened by any provincial or federal law. Acts passed by the Parliament of Canada and by provincial legislatures are the primary sources of law in Canada. Sections 91 and 92 of the Constitution Act, 1867 enumerate the subject matters upon which either level of government may legitimately enact legislation. Laws passed by the federal government are announced in the Canada Gazette, a published newspaper for new statutes and regulations. Federal bills that receive Royal Assent are subsequently published in the Annual Statutes of Canada. From time to time, the federal government will consolidate its current laws into a single consolidation of law known as the Revised Statutes of Canada; the most recent federal consolidation was in 1985. Laws passed by the provinces follow a similar practice.
The Acts are pronounced in a provincial gazette, published annually and consolidated from time to time. The Revised Statutes of Canada is the federal statutory consolidation of statutes enacted by the Parliament of Canada. In each Canadian province, there is a similar consolidation of the statute law of the province; the Revised Statutes of British Columbia, Revised Statutes of Alberta, Statutes of Manitoba, Revised Statutes of Saskatchewan, 1978, Revised Statutes of New Brunswick, Revised Statutes of Nova Scotia, Statutes of Prince Edward Island, Consolidated Statutes of Newfoundland and Labrador, Revised Statutes of Ontario, Revised Statutes of Quebec are the statutory consolidations of each Canadian province. They contain all of the major topic areas and most of the statutes enacted by the governments in each province; these statutes
Bruce Peninsula National Park
Bruce Peninsula National Park is a national park on the Bruce Peninsula in Ontario, Canada. Located on a part of the Niagara Escarpment, the park comprises 156 square kilometres and is one of the largest protected areas in southern Ontario, forming the core of UNESCO's Niagara Escarpment World Biosphere Reserve; the park offers opportunities for many outdoor activities, including hiking and bird watching. The park has trails ranging in difficulty from easy to expert, connects to the Bruce Trail; the park offers visitors vistas to view either the sunrise or sunset, the rocks of the Niagara Escarpment, the wildlife, which includes black bear, many species of birds, wild orchids, massasauga rattlesnake, much more. The park was the subject of a short film in 2011's National Parks Project, directed by Daniel Cockburn and scored by John K. Samson, Christine Fellows and Sandro Perri; the Niagara Escarpment runs from near Rochester, New York, to Tobermory on to Manitoulin, St. Joseph Island and other islands located in northern Lake Huron where it turns westwards into the Upper Peninsula of northern Michigan, south of Sault Ste.
Marie. The escarpment extends southwards into Wisconsin following the Door Peninsula and more inland from the western coast of Lake Michigan and Milwaukee ending northwest of Chicago near the Wisconsin-Illinois border, it forms the backbone of the Bruce Peninsula and shapes the northern boundary of most of the park and provides the park with some of its most spectacular scenery. The rock of the escarpment is old. 400 million years ago, this area was covered by a shallow tropical sea teeming with life in the form of plant-like animals, living corals and mollusks. It would have looked much like the present-day Great Barrier Reef of Australia; when the sea began to dry up, the minerals dissolved in it became more concentrated. Magnesium in the water was absorbed into the limestone, which became a harder different sort of rock, called dolostone; the harder dolostone forms much of the rock of the escarpment cliffs along Bruce Peninsula National Park's Georgian Bay shoreline. At Niagara Falls, the dolostone "caprock" is more resistant to erosion than the rock below it, creating the sculptured cliffs for which the area is famous.
Since the last Ice Age, water levels in the region have undergone great changes. Softer limestone has been eroded away by water action, leaving magnificent overhanging cliffs at various points along the shore; these are the big attraction of the Cyprus Lake trails. Where erosion has cut more caves have been formed, such as the famed "Grotto" on the shore between the Marr Lake and Georgian Bay Trails. Great blocks of dolomite, undercut by wave action, have tumbled from the cliffs above and can be seen below the surface of the deep, clean waters of Georgian Bay; the park has a maritime climate with mild winters. In the northern parts of the Peninsula, the climate is among the most temperate in Canada; the climate of park is influenced by both Georgian Bay and Lake Huron, which moderate temperatures. As a result, they tend to prolong milder temperatures in cooler temperatures in spring. Summers are warm, with an average temperature of 16.8 °C while winters are cool, averaging −6.7 °C. Summers are dominated by humid air masses from the Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico.
In winter, Pacific air masses predominate, bringing in warm and humid air although cold, dry air from the Arctic highs can occur, bringing in colder and drier conditions. Warm air masses coming from the Gulf of Mexico are rare during winter but are responsible for bringing January and February thaws. Spring and fall are characterized by complex weather patterns with contrasting and changing influences from the different regional air masses; the park receives 900 mm of precipitation per year. This is evenly distributed throughout the year with fall being the wettest. Precipitation is lower than inland areas due to the limited influence that the narrow peninsula has when air masses travel over it compared to more interior locations. Animals that inhabit this national park are chipmunks, red foxes, coyotes, black bears, snowshoe hares, white-tailed deer and frogs. In 2006, a new visitors' centre opened to serve Fathom Five National Marine Park and the Bruce Peninsula National Park. Designed by Andrew Frontini of Shore Tilbe Irwin + Partners, the CAD $7.82 million centre, approached by a boardwalk, features an information centre, reception area, exhibit hall and theatre.
A 20-metre viewing tower was constructed to provide visitors with aerial views of the surrounding park and Georgian Bay. The centre was designed with environmental sustainability in mind, receiving $224,000 from the Federal House in Order initiative for implementation of innovative greenhouse gas reduction technology. National Parks of Canada List of National Parks of Canada Official Site Photo gallery and travel information
Yellowstone National Park
Yellowstone National Park is an American national park located in Wyoming and Idaho. It was established by the U. S. Congress and signed into law by President Ulysses S. Grant on March 1, 1872. Yellowstone was the first national park in the U. S. and is widely held to be the first national park in the world. The park is known for its wildlife and its many geothermal features Old Faithful geyser, one of its most popular features, it has many types of ecosystems. It is part of the South Central Rockies forests ecoregion. Native Americans have lived in the Yellowstone region for at least 11,000 years. Aside from visits by mountain men during the early-to-mid-19th century, organized exploration did not begin until the late 1860s. Management and control of the park fell under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of the Interior, the first being Columbus Delano. However, the U. S. Army was subsequently commissioned to oversee management of Yellowstone for a 30-year period between 1886 and 1916. In 1917, administration of the park was transferred to the National Park Service, created the previous year.
Hundreds of structures have been built and are protected for their architectural and historical significance, researchers have examined more than a thousand archaeological sites. Yellowstone National Park spans an area of 3,468.4 square miles, comprising lakes, canyons and mountain ranges. Yellowstone Lake is one of the largest high-elevation lakes in North America and is centered over the Yellowstone Caldera, the largest supervolcano on the continent; the caldera is considered an active volcano. It has erupted with tremendous force several times in the last two million years. Half of the world's geysers and hydrothermal features are in Yellowstone, fueled by this ongoing volcanism. Lava flows and rocks from volcanic eruptions cover most of the land area of Yellowstone; the park is the centerpiece of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, the largest remaining nearly-intact ecosystem in the Earth's northern temperate zone. In 1978, Yellowstone was named a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Hundreds of species of mammals, birds and reptiles have been documented, including several that are either endangered or threatened.
The vast forests and grasslands include unique species of plants. Yellowstone Park is the largest and most famous megafauna location in the contiguous United States. Grizzly bears and free-ranging herds of bison and elk live in this park; the Yellowstone Park bison herd is the largest public bison herd in the United States. Forest fires occur in the park each year. Yellowstone has numerous recreational opportunities, including hiking, boating and sightseeing. Paved roads provide close access to the major geothermal areas as well as some of the lakes and waterfalls. During the winter, visitors access the park by way of guided tours that use either snow coaches or snowmobiles; the park contains the headwaters of the Yellowstone River. Near the end of the 18th century, French trappers named the river Roche Jaune, a translation of the Hidatsa name Mi tsi a-da-zi. American trappers rendered the French name in English as "Yellow Stone". Although it is believed that the river was named for the yellow rocks seen in the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone, the Native American name source is unclear.
The human history of the park begins at least 11,000 years ago when Native Americans began to hunt and fish in the region. During the construction of the post office in Gardiner, Montana, in the 1950s, an obsidian projectile point of Clovis origin was found that dated from 11,000 years ago; these Paleo-Indians, of the Clovis culture, used the significant amounts of obsidian found in the park to make cutting tools and weapons. Arrowheads made of Yellowstone obsidian have been found as far away as the Mississippi Valley, indicating that a regular obsidian trade existed between local tribes and tribes farther east. By the time white explorers first entered the region during the Lewis and Clark Expedition in 1805, they encountered the Nez Perce and Shoshone tribes. While passing through present day Montana, the expedition members heard of the Yellowstone region to the south, but they did not investigate it. In 1806, John Colter, a member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, left to join a group of fur trappers.
After splitting up with the other trappers in 1807, Colter passed through a portion of what became the park, during the winter of 1807–1808. He observed at least one geothermal area near Tower Fall. After surviving wounds he suffered in a battle with members of the Crow and Blackfoot tribes in 1809, Colter described a place of "fire and brimstone" that most people dismissed as delirium. Over the next 40 years, numerous reports from mountain men and trappers told of boiling mud, steaming rivers, petrified trees, yet most of these reports were believed at the time to be myth. After an 1856 exploration, mountain man Jim Bridger reported observing boiling springs, spouting water, a mountain of glass and yellow rock; these reports were ignored because Bridger was a known "spinner of yarns". In 1859, a U. S. Army Surveyor named Captain William F. Raynolds embarked on a two-year survey of the northern Rockies. After wintering in Wyoming, in May 1860, Raynolds and his party – which included naturalist Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden and guide Jim B