Canada is a country in the northern half of North America. Canadas border with the United States is the worlds longest binational land border, the majority of the country has a cold or severely cold winter climate, but southerly areas are warm in summer. Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its territory being dominated by forest and tundra. It is highly urbanized with 82 per cent of the 35.15 million people concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, One third of the population lives in the three largest cities, Toronto and Vancouver. Its capital is Ottawa, and other urban areas include Calgary, Quebec City, Winnipeg. Various aboriginal peoples had inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Pursuant to the British North America Act, on July 1,1867, the colonies of Canada, New Brunswick and this began an accretion of provinces and territories to the mostly self-governing Dominion to the present ten provinces and three territories forming modern Canada.
With the Constitution Act 1982, Canada took over authority, removing the last remaining ties of legal dependence on the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II being the head of state. The country is officially bilingual at the federal level and it is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Its advanced economy is the eleventh largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources, Canadas long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. Canada is a country and has the tenth highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the ninth highest ranking in the Human Development Index. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, Canada is an influential nation in the world, primarily due to its inclusive values, years of prosperity and stability, stable economy, and efficient military.
While a variety of theories have been postulated for the origins of Canada. In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona, from the 16th to the early 18th century Canada referred to the part of New France that lay along the St. Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named The Canadas, until their union as the British Province of Canada in 1841. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the name for the new country at the London Conference. The transition away from the use of Dominion was formally reflected in 1982 with the passage of the Canada Act, that year, the name of national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day
Military history of the Acadians
Some other Acadians provided military intelligence and logistical support to the resistance movement. The Acadian militias achieved effective resistance for more than 75 years, while Acadian militia was briefly active during the American Revolution, the militias were dormant throughout the nineteenth century. After confederation, Acadians eventually joined the Canadian War efforts in World War I, the most well-known colonial leaders of these militias were Joseph Broussard and Joseph-Nicolas Gautier. The first war to influence the Acadians is now known as King Williams War, the crews of the French privateer Pierre Maisonnat dit Baptiste were primarily Acadian. The Acadians resisted during the Raid on Chignecto, colonel Benjamin Church and four hundred men arrived offshore of Beaubassin on September 20. When they came ashore, the Acadians and Mi’kmaq opened fire on them, Church lost a lieutenant and several of his men. They managed to get ashore and surprise the Acadians, many fled while one confronted Church with papers showing they had signed an oath of allegiance in 1690 to the English King.
Church was unconvinced, especially after he discovered the proclamation heralding the French success at Pemaquid posted on the church door. On October 18 Church and his troops arrived opposite the capital of Acadia, in the Siege of Fort Nashwaak, Pierre Maisonnat dit Baptiste was there to defend the capital. Baptiste joined the Maliseet from Meductic for the duration of the siege, there was a fierce exchange of gun fire for two days, with the advantage going to the better sited French guns. The New Englanders were defeated, having suffered eight killed and seventeen wounded, the French lost one killed and two wounded. After the Siege of Pemaquid, dIberville led a force of 124 Canadians, Acadians, Mi’kmaq and they destroyed almost every British settlement in Newfoundland, killed more than 100 British and captured many more. They deported almost 500 British colonists to Britain or France, during Queen Annes War, the members of the Wabanaki Confederacy from Acadia raided Protestant settlements along the Acadia/ New England border in present-day Maine in the Northeast Coast Campaign.
Mi’kmaq and Acadians resisted the New England retaliatory Raid on Grand Pré, the raid was led by Benjamin Church who was fired on by the local militia, who had gathered in the woods along the banks. According to Church, on the first day of the raid, Church had a small cannon on his boat, which he used to fire grape shot at the attackers on the shore, who withdrew, suffering one Mi’kmaq killed and several wounded. Church was unable to come ashore, having withdrawn from the village, the next morning the Acadian and Mi’kmaq militia waited in the woods for Church and his men to arrive. At the break of day, the New Englanders again set off toward the village, the largest body of defenders fired on the raiders right flank from behind trees and logs, but their fire was ineffective and they were driven off. Acadians joined the French privateer Pierre Maisonnat dit Baptiste as crew members in his victories over British vessels, Acadians fought alongside the Confederacy and French soldiers to protect the capital in the Siege of Port Royal and the final Conquest of Acadia
Father Le Loutre's War
Father Le Loutres War, known as the Indian War, the Micmac War and the Anglo-Micmac War, took place between King Georges War and the French and Indian War in Acadia and Nova Scotia. On one side of the conflict, the British and New England colonists were led by British Officer Charles Lawrence, on the other side, Father Jean-Louis Le Loutre led the Mikmaq and the Acadia militia in guerrilla warfare against settlers and British forces. While the British captured Port Royal in 1710, the Mikmaq and Acadians continued to contain the British to settlements at Port Royal, the rest of the colony was in the control of the Catholic Mikmaq and Acadians. The British settled 3,229 people in Halifax during the first years and this exceeded the number of Mikmaq in the entire region and was seen as a threat to the traditional occupiers of the land. The Mikmaq and some Acadians resisted the arrival of these Protestant settlers, the war caused unprecedented upheaval in the area. Atlantic Canada witnessed more population movements, more construction.
Twenty-four conflicts were recorded during the war,13 of which were Mikmaq, as typical of frontier warfare, many additional conflicts were unrecorded. The British wanted to establish Protestant communities in Nova Scotia, during the war, the Acadians and Mikmaq left Nova Scotia for the French colonies of Ile St. Jean and Ile Royale. The French tried to control of the disputed territory of present-day New Brunswick. Throughout the war, the Mi’kmaq and Acadians attacked the British forts in Nova Scotia and they wanted to retard British settlement and buy time for France to implement its Acadian resettlement scheme. The war began with the British unilaterally establishing Halifax, which was a violation of a treaty with the Mikmaq. In response, the Acadians and Mikmaq orchestrated attacks at Chignecto, Grand Pré, Canso, the French erected forts at present-day Saint John and Port Elgin, New Brunswick. The British responded by attacking the Mikmaq and Acadians at Mirligueche, the British unilaterally established communities in Lunenburg and Lawrencetown.
Finally, the British erected forts in Acadian communities located at Windsor, Grand Pre, the war ended after six years with the defeat of the Mikmaq and French in the Battle of Fort Beausejour. The Mikmaq and Acadians were united in their commitment to Catholicism, despite the British Conquest of Acadia in 1710, the dominant population in Acadia remained Catholic Acadians, who would not sign an unconditional oath to become British subjects. As a result, Acadians and Mi’kmaq resisted the British occupation of Acadia, by the time Cornwallis had arrived in Halifax, there was a long history of the Wabanaki Confederacy protecting their land by killing British civilians along the New England/ Acadia border in Maine. Before the founding of Halifax, there was a history of Acadian resistance to the British through three French and Indian Wars as well as Father Rales War. Acadians joined French privateer Pierre Maisonnat dit Baptiste as crew members in his victories over many British vessels during King Williams War, after the Siege of Pemaquid, dIberville led a force of 124 Canadians, Acadians and Abanaki in the Avalon Peninsula Campaign
Nova Scotia is one of Canadas three Maritime provinces, and one of the four provinces which form Atlantic Canada. Nova Scotia is Canadas second-smallest province, with an area of 55,284 square kilometres, including Cape Breton, as of 2016, the population was 923,598. Nova Scotia is the second most-densely populated province in Canada with 17.4 inhabitants per square kilometre, Nova Scotia means New Scotland in Latin and is the recognized English language name for the province. In Scottish Gaelic, the province is called Alba Nuadh, which simply means New Scotland. Nova Scotia is Canadas second-smallest province in area after Prince Edward Island, the provinces mainland is the Nova Scotia peninsula surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, including numerous bays and estuaries. Nowhere in Nova Scotia is more than 67 km from the ocean, Nova Scotia has many ancient fossil-bearing rock formations. These formations are rich on the Bay of Fundys shores. Blue Beach near Hantsport, Joggins Fossil Cliffs, on the Bay of Fundys shores, has yielded an abundance of Carboniferous age fossils, wassons Bluff, near the town of Parrsboro, has yielded both Triassic and Jurassic age fossils.
Nova Scotia lies in the mid-temperate zone, since the province is almost surrounded by the sea, the climate is closer to maritime than to continental climate. The winter and summer temperature extremes of the climate are moderated by the ocean. However, winters are cold enough to be classified as continental – still being nearer the freezing point than inland areas to the west. The Nova Scotia climate is in ways similar to the central Baltic Sea coast in Northern Europe. This is in spite of Nova Scotia being some fifteen parallels south, areas not on the Atlantic coast experience warmer summers more typical of inland areas, and winter lows a little colder. The province includes regions of the Mikmaq nation of Mikmaki, the Mikmaq people inhabited Nova Scotia at the time the first European colonists arrived. In 1605, French colonists established the first permanent European settlement in the future Canada at Port Royal, the British conquest of Acadia took place in 1710. The Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 formally recognized this and returned Cape Breton Island to the French, present-day New Brunswick still formed a part of the French colony of Acadia.
The British changed the name of the capital from Port Royal to Annapolis Royal, in 1749, the capital of Nova Scotia moved from Annapolis Royal to the newly established Halifax. In 1755 the vast majority of the French population were removed in the Expulsion of the Acadians
The Trent Affair was a diplomatic incident in 1861 during the American Civil War that threatened a war between the United States and the United Kingdom. The U. S. Navy illegally captured two Confederate diplomats from a British ship, the UK protested vigorously, the United States closed the incident by releasing the diplomats. The envoys were bound for Britain and France to press the Confederacys case for recognition and to lobby for possible financial and military support. Public reaction in the United States was to celebrate the capture and rally against Britain, in the Confederate States, the hope was that the incident would lead to a permanent rupture in Anglo-American relations and possibly even war or at least diplomatic recognition by Britain. Confederates realized their independence potentially depended on intervention by Britain and France, in Britain, the public disapproved of this violation of neutral rights and insult to their national honor. The British government demanded an apology and the release of the prisoners, and took steps to strengthen its forces in Canada.
President Abraham Lincoln and his top advisors did not want to risk war with Britain over this issue, after several tense weeks, the crisis was resolved when the Lincoln administration released the envoys and disavowed Captain Wilkess actions without a formal apology. Mason and Slidell resumed their voyage to Britain but failed in their goal of achieving diplomatic recognition, Relations with the United States were often strained, and even verged on war when Britain almost supported the Confederacy in the early part of the American Civil War. British leaders were constantly annoyed from the 1840s to the 1860s by what they saw as Washingtons pandering to the democratic mob, even stronger the Civil War was viewed upon in Britain as a slavery issue with the North opposing slavery and the South upholding the institution. This constituency rejected war and slavery, forcing London to appease the Americans. During the Trent affair of late 1861, London drew the line, historian Charles Hubbard, Davis left foreign policy to others in government and, rather than developing an aggressive diplomatic effort, tended to expect events to accomplish diplomatic objectives.
The new president was committed to the notion that cotton would secure recognition, the men Davis selected as secretary of state and emissaries to Europe were chosen for political and personal reasons—not for their diplomatic potential. This was due, in part, to the belief that cotton could accomplish the Confederate objectives with little help from Confederate diplomats, the Unions main focus in foreign affairs was just the opposite, to prevent any British recognition of the Confederacy. Notwithstanding a relatively minor incident in the Pacific Northwest, Anglo-American relations had steadily improved throughout the 1850s. The issues of the Oregon territory, British involvement in Texas, British Prime Minister Lord Palmerston urged a policy of neutrality. His international concerns were centered in Europe, where he had to watch both Napoleon IIIs ambitions in Europe and Bismarcks rise in Prussia, during the Civil War, British reactions to American events were shaped by past British policies and their own national interests, both strategically and economically.
In the Western Hemisphere, as relations with the United States improved, as a naval power, Britain had a long record of insisting that neutral nations honor its blockades of hostile countries. From the earliest days of the war, this perspective would guide the British away from taking any action that might have been viewed in Washington as a challenge to the Union blockade
The Beaver Wars—also known as the Iroquois Wars or the French and Iroquois Wars—encompass a series of conflicts fought intermittently during the 17th century in eastern North America. During the 17th century, the Beaver Wars were battles for economic welfare throughout the St. Lawrence, the wars were between the Iroquois trying to take control of the fur trade from the Hurons, the northern Algonquians, and their French allies. From medieval times, Europeans had obtained furs from Russia and Scandinavia, the Iroquois sought to expand their territory and monopolize the fur trade and the trade between European markets and the tribes of the western Great Lakes region. They were a confederation of five nations—Mohawk, Onondaga, each of these Native American nations has beliefs in tribal sovereignty and a collective body called a league. These nations had a supralevel affirmation in the sovereignty of the two leagues between Onondaga and New York, government officials in Washington DC and Ottawa recognized the Iroquois sovereignty only in existence of individual tribal governments.
The Iroquois Confederation, led by the dominant Mohawk, mobilized against the largely Algonquian-speaking tribes of the Great Lakes region, the Iroquois were armed by their Dutch and English trading partners, the Algonquian were backed by the French, their chief trading partner. The wars were brutal and are considered one of the bloodiest series of conflicts in the history of North America and they pushed some eastern tribes to the west of the Mississippi River, or southward into the Carolinas. The Iroquois gained control of the Ohio Valley lands as hunting ground, the Ohio Country and the Lower Peninsula of Michigan had become virtually empty of Native people as refugees fled westward to escape the Iroquois warriors. Both Algonquian and Iroquoian societies were disrupted by these wars. After the Iroquois became trading partners with the English, their alliance was a component of the English expansion. The English used the Iroquois conquests as a claim to the old Northwest Territory, the expeditions of French explorer Jacques Cartier in the 1540s made the first written records of the Native Americans in North America.
French explorers and fishermen had traded in the region near the mouth of the St. Lawrence River estuary a decade before for valuable furs. Cartier recorded an ongoing war between the Stadaconans and another known as the Toudaman, who had destroyed one of their forts the previous year. Wars and politics in Europe distracted French efforts at colonization in the St. Lawrence Valley until the beginning of the 17th century, when the French returned to the area, they found the sites of both Stadacona and Hochelaga abandoned, completely destroyed by an unknown enemy. When the French returned, they found no inhabitants in this part of the river valley. The Iroquois and the Iroquoian-speaking Huron used it as hunting ground and this was perhaps in response to the formation of the League of the Iroquois. Before 1603, Champlain had formed an alliance against the Iroquois. He decided that the French would not trade firearms to the Iroquois and he had a commercial rationale, the northern Natives provided the French with valuable furs and the Iroquois, based in present-day New York, interfered with that trade
Confederate States of America
The Confederate States, officially the Confederate States of America, commonly referred to as the Confederacy, was a breakaway country of 11 secessionist slave states existing from 1861 to 1865. It was never recognized as an Independent country, although it achieved belligerent status by Britain. A new Confederate government was established in February 1861 before Lincoln took office in March, after the Civil War began in April, four slave states of the Upper South – Virginia, Arkansas and North Carolina – declared their secession and joined the Confederacy. The government of the United States rejected the claims of secession, the Civil War began with the April 12,1861, Confederate attack upon Fort Sumter, a Union fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. In spring 1865, after four years of fighting which led to an estimated 620,000 military deaths, all the Confederate forces surrendered. Jefferson Davis lamented that the Confederacy had disappeared in 1865, Missouri and Kentucky were represented by partisan factions from those states, while the legitimate governments of those two states retained formal adherence to the Union.
Also fighting for the Confederacy were two of the Five Civilized Tribes located in Indian Territory and a new, but uncontrolled, Confederate Territory of Arizona. Efforts by certain factions in Maryland to secede were halted by federal imposition of law, while Delaware, though of divided loyalty. A Unionist government in parts of Virginia organized the new state of West Virginia. With the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1,1863, the Union made abolition of slavery a war goal, as Union forces moved southward, large numbers of plantation slaves were freed. Many joined the Union lines, enrolling in service as soldiers and laborers, the most notable advance was Shermans March to the Sea in late 1864. Much of the Confederacys infrastructure was destroyed, including telegraphs, plantations in the path of Shermans forces were severely damaged. Internal movement became increasingly difficult for Southerners, weakening the economy and these losses created an insurmountable disadvantage in men and finance.
Public support for Confederate President Jefferson Daviss administration eroded over time due to repeated military reverses, economic hardships, after four years of campaigning, Richmond was captured by Union forces in April 1865. Shortly afterward, Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant, President Davis was captured on May 10,1865, and jailed in preparation for a treason trial that was ultimately never held. The U. S. government began a process known as Reconstruction which attempted to resolve the political and constitutional issues of the Civil War. By 1877, the Compromise of 1877 ended Reconstruction in the former Confederate states, Confederate veterans had been temporarily disenfranchised by Reconstruction policy. The prewar South had many areas, the war left the entire region economically devastated by military action, ruined infrastructure
Military history of Canada
For thousands of years, the area that would become Canada was the site of sporadic intertribal conflicts among Aboriginal peoples. In 1763, after the final colonial war—the Seven Years War—the British emerged victorious and the French civilians, the Americans launched invasions in 1775 and 1812. On both occasions, the Americans were rebuffed by Canadian forces, this threat would remain well into the 19th century, after Confederation, and amid much controversy, a full-fledged Canadian military was created. Canada, remained a British dominion, and Canadian forces joined their British counterparts in the Second Boer War and the First World War. While independence followed the Statute of Westminster, Canadas links to Britain remained strong, and the British once again had the support of Canadians during the Second World War. Since then, Canada has been committed to multilateralism and has gone to war within large multinational coalitions such as in the Korean War, the Gulf War, the Kosovo War, and the Afghan war.
Canada has played an important role in United Nations peacekeeping operations worldwide and has committed more troops than any other country. The causes of aboriginal warfare tended to be over tribal independence, before European colonization, aboriginal warfare tended to be formal and ritualistic, and entailed relatively few casualties. Warfare was common among indigenous peoples of the Subarctic with sufficient population density, inuit groups of the northern Arctic extremes generally did not engage in direct warfare, primarily because of their small populations, relying instead on traditional law to resolve conflicts. Those captured in fights were not always killed, tribes often adopted captives to replace warriors lost during raids and battles, slavery was hereditary, the slaves being prisoners of war and their descendants. Slave-owning tribes of the societies, such as the Tlingit and Haida. Among indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast, about a quarter of the population were slaves, according to Norse sagas, the skraelings of Vinland responded so ferociously that the newcomers eventually withdrew and gave up their plans to settle the area.
Prior to French settlements in the St. Lawrence River valley, the Iroquois League was established prior to major European contact. Most archaeologists and anthropologists believe that the League was formed sometime between 1450 and 1600, existing aboriginal alliances would become important to the colonial powers in the struggle for North American hegemony during the 17th and 18th centuries. By the end of the 17th century, First Nations from the woodlands, eastern subarctic. The adoption of firearms significantly increased the number of fatalities, the bloodshed during conflicts was dramatically increased by the uneven distribution of firearms and horses among competing aboriginal groups. Two years after the French founded Port Royal in 1605, the English began their first settlement, at Jamestown, Virginia, by 1706, the French population was around 16,000 and grew slowly due to a multitude of factors. This lack of immigration resulted in New France having one-tenth of the British population of the Thirteen Colonies by the mid 1700s, La Salles explorations had given France a claim to the Mississippi River valley, where fur trappers and a few colonists set up scattered settlements
Queen Anne's War
The War of the Spanish Succession was primarily fought in Europe. In addition to the two combatants, the war involved numerous Native American tribes allied with each nation, and Spain. It was known as the Third Indian War or in French as the Second Intercolonial War, the English colonies of New England fought with French and Native American forces based in Acadia and Canada. Quebec City was repeatedly targeted by British expeditions, and the Acadian capital Port Royal was taken in 1710, the French and Wabanaki Confederacy sought to thwart New England expansion into Acadia, whose border New France defined as the Kennebec River in southern Maine. Toward this end, they executed raids against targets in Massachusetts, on Newfoundland, English colonists based at St. Johns disputed control of the island with the French based at Plaisance. Most of the conflict consisted of destructive raids against the other sides settlements. The French successfully captured St. Johns in 1709, but the British quickly reoccupied it after the French abandoned it, following a preliminary peace in 1712, the Treaty of Utrecht ended the war in 1713.
It resulted in the French cession of claims to the territories of Hudson Bay, some of its terms were ambiguous, and concerns of various Native American tribes were not included in the treaty, setting the stage for future conflicts. In 1701, following the death in late 1700 of King Charles II, although the war was at first restricted to a few powers in Europe, in May 1702 it widened when England declared war on Spain and France. The hostilities in North America were further encouraged by existing frictions along the frontier areas separating the colonies of these powers, the total population of the English colonies at the time has been estimated at 250,000, with Virginia and New England dominating. The population centers of these colonies were concentrated along the coast, with small settlements inland, most European colonists knew very little of the interior of the continent, to the west of the Appalachians and south of the Great Lakes. This area was dominated by tribes, although French and English traders had penetrated the area.
Spanish missionaries in La Florida had established a network of missions to convert the inhabitants to Roman Catholicism. The Spanish population was small, and the native population they ministered to has been estimated to number 20,000. French explorers had located the mouth of the Mississippi River, near which they established a colonial presence in 1699 at Fort Maurepas. From there they began to trade routes into the interior, establishing friendly relations with the Choctaw. All of these populations had suffered to some degree from the introduction of Eurasian infectious diseases like smallpox by early explorers and traders and Spain, allies in this conflict, had been on opposite sides of the recently ended Nine Years War. To the north, the conflict held a strong component in addition to territorial disputes
The Canadian Crown and the Canadian Armed Forces
This modern construct stems from Canadas system of constitutional monarchy, and through its 500 years of monarchical history. Since Canadian Confederation, three members of the Royal Family have been titled as Commander-in-Chief, the Duke of Argyll, Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, and the Earl of Athlone. As such, all new recruits into the Canadian Forces are required to recite the Oath of Allegiance to the monarch and his or her heirs and successors. According to the National Defence Act, the use of traitorous or disloyal words towards the king or queen is a service offence. The monarch issues letters patent, known as the Queens Commission, to commissioned officers in the Canadian Army, Royal Canadian Navy, all regulations for the Canadian Forces are set out by the sovereign in the Queens Regulations and Orders. The Canadian Forces have derived many of their traditions and symbols from the British army, contemporary icons and rituals, have evolved to include elements reflective of Canada and the Canadian monarchy.
Many ceremonies and rituals of the Canadian Forces have a royal connection, Canada has mounted the Kings/Queens Guard eight times since 1916, including Canadian Coronation Contingents for King George VI in May 1937 and for Queen Elizabeth II in May 1953. Also, whenever the sovereign or a member of her family is in Ottawa, they lay a wreath at the National War Memorial. For such events, an order of precedence is followed for organising participants and according respect, the provincial viceroys fall in at sixteenth on the list, behind the leader of Her Majestys Loyal Opposition. The Royal Anthem of Canada, God Save the Queen, is played, as may be the Viceregal Salute for the governor general or lieutenant governor. A Loyal Toast may be given, it is required at all formal mess dinners, Canadian Forces members and officers are required to stand during the toast and to salute any time the Royal Anthem is played. A number of flags and banners are used by the Canadian Forces to signify loyalty, nationality and this flag however, is generally flown only on specified days and whenever instructed by National Defence headquarters.
Others symbolise royal and viceroyal figures or royal honours bestowed on a unit or regiment, Colours are thus consecrated objects, it is expected that everyone will rise to attention and salute upon passing a stand of uncased Colours. Those in the Royal Family may present a Royal Banner to a unit to commemorate specific services rendered and these typically include a mark unique to the royal individual, such as a cypher. Other flags that are held by an individual bear royal symbols, to signify the sovereigns place at the head of the Canadian Forces, many badges include a crown in their design. Originally designed by the British King of Arms, since 1968 they have created by the Department of National Defence. The Queens Canadian Arms and her Royal Cypher are displayed throughout the forces, including on banners and military band instruments. Many regiments of the Canadian Army have granted the use of the prefix royal in the regiments name
Upper Canada Rebellion
The Upper Canada Rebellion was an insurrection against the oligarchic government of the British colony of Upper Canada in December 1837. While public grievances had existed for years, it was the Rebellion in Lower Canada that emboldened rebels in Upper Canada to openly revolt soon after and they launched the Patriot War in 1838-39. Some historians argue that the rebellions in 1837 should be viewed in the context of the late 18th. The United Kingdoms Chartists sought similar democratic goals, the Upper Canada Rebellion is sometimes dismissed as a farmers revolt, an opportunistic action by misled backwoodsmen. The rebellion was, the consequence of a sophisticated political movement that copied the organizational forms of the British reform movement. The British Reform movement, organized as Political Unions, had achieved the Great Reform Bill of 1832 which broadened the electoral franchise, the Upper Canada Central Political Union was organized in 1832-3 by Dr Thomas David Morrison while William Lyon Mackenzie was in England.
This union collected 19,930 signatures on a petition protesting Mackenzies unjust expulsion from the House of Assembly by the Family Compact and this union was reorganized as the Canadian Alliance Society in 1835. It shared a meeting space in the market buildings with the Mechanics Institute. The Canadian Alliance Society adopted much of the platform of the Owenite National Union of the Working Classes in London, England, in pursuit of this democratic goal, the Chartists eventually staged a similar armed rebellion, the Newport Rising, in Wales in 1839. The Canadian Alliance Society was reborn as the Constitutional Reform Society in 1836, the Reformers experienced a disaster at the 1836 elections for the 13th Parliament of Upper Canada, and the Society took its final form as the Toronto Political Union in 1837. It was this group of the disenfranchised that began organizing local Vigilance Committees to elect delegates to a so-called Constitutional Convention in July 1837 and this became the organizational structure for the Rebellion, most of the rebel organizers were elected Constitutional Convention delegates.
The first of those meetings to select delegates to the convention were held at Doels Brewery in Toronto on July 28 and 31. The second meeting was called to order by Samuel Hughes, a member of the Children of Peace, the meeting appointed Hughes, Samuel Lount, Nelson Gorham, Silas Fletcher, Jeremiah Graham and John McIntosh, M. P. P. as delegates to the convention. Immediately preceding the Mackenzie rebellion John Doels house and brewery were prominent gathering places for the Reformers, the large meetings were usually held in the brewery while smaller meetings of the leaders were held in the home. Mackenzie’s planned to take foundry-men and axe-makers and seize arms and they would arouse the citizens of the town and country to proclaim a provincial government. Mr. Doel objected to the plan and there was a fight between Mackenzie and Morrison, the meeting was broken up and Mackenzie left the house forever. From this point forward John Doel, his brewery, and his home were not longer part of the rebellion.
The meetings in the Home District met with an amount of Orange Order violence, so that the reformers began to protect themselves
French and Indian War
The French and Indian War comprised the North American theater of the worldwide Seven Years War of 1754–1763. At the start of the war, the French North American colonies had a population of roughly 60,000 European settlers, the outnumbered French particularly depended on the Indians. Following months of localised conflict, the nations declared war on each other in 1756. The name French and Indian War, used mainly in the United States and European historians use the term the Seven Years War, as do English speaking Canadians. French Canadians call it La guerre de la Conquête or the Fourth Intercolonial War, fighting took place primarily along the frontiers between New France and the British colonies, from Virginia in the south to Newfoundland in the north. It began with a dispute over control of the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers, called the Forks of the Ohio, and the site of the French Fort Duquesne. The dispute erupted into violence in the Battle of Jumonville Glen in May 1754, in 1755, six colonial governors in North America met with General Edward Braddock, the newly arrived British Army commander, and planned a four-way attack on the French.
None succeeded, and the effort by Braddock proved a disaster, he lost the Battle of the Monongahela on July 9,1755. In 1755, the British captured Fort Beauséjour on the border separating Nova Scotia from Acadia, orders for the deportation were given by William Shirley, Commander-in-Chief, North America, without direction from Great Britain. The Acadians, both captured in arms and those who had sworn the loyalty oath to His Britannic Majesty, were expelled. Native Americans were likewise driven off their land to make way for settlers from New England, after the disastrous 1757 British campaigns, the British government fell. France concentrated its forces against Prussia and its allies in the European theatre of the war, between 1758 and 1760, the British military launched a campaign to capture the Colony of Canada. They succeeded in capturing territory in surrounding colonies and ultimately the city of Quebec, though the British lost the Battle of Sainte-Foy west of Quebec, the French ceded Canada in accordance with the Treaty of Paris.
The outcome was one of the most significant developments in a century of Anglo-French conflict, France ceded its territory east of the Mississippi to Great Britain. It ceded French Louisiana west of the Mississippi River to its ally Spain, in compensation for Spains loss to Britain of Florida. Frances colonial presence north of the Caribbean was reduced to the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, the conflict is known by multiple names. In British America, wars were often named after the sitting British monarch, such as King Williams War or Queen Annes War. As there had already been a King Georges War in the 1740s, British colonists named the war in King Georges reign after their opponents