Paleo-Indians, Paleoindians or Paleoamericans is a classification term given by scholars to the first peoples who entered, subsequently inhabited, the Americas during the final glacial episodes of the late Pleistocene period. The prefix "paleo-" comes from the Greek adjective palaios, meaning "old" or "ancient"; the term "Paleo-Indians" applies to the lithic period in the Western Hemisphere and is distinct from the term "Paleolithic". Traditional theories suggest that big-animal hunters crossed the Bering Strait from North Asia into the Americas over a land-and-ice bridge; this bridge existed from 45,000–12,000 BCE. Small isolated groups of hunter-gatherers migrated alongside herds of large herbivores far into Alaska. From c. 16,500 – c. 13,500 BCE, ice-free corridors developed along the Pacific coast and valleys of North America. This allowed animals, followed by humans; the people used primitive boats along the coastline. The precise dates and routes of the peopling of the New World remain subjects of ongoing debate.
Stone tools projectile points and scrapers, are the primary evidence of the earliest human activity in the Americas. Archaeologists and anthropologists use surviving crafted lithic flaked tools to classify cultural periods. Scientific evidence links Indigenous Americans to eastern Siberian populations. Indigenous peoples of the Americas have been linked to Siberian populations by linguistic factors, the distribution of blood types, in genetic composition as reflected by molecular data, such as DNA. There is evidence for at least two separate migrations. From 8000–7000 BCE the climate stabilized, leading to a rise in population and lithic technology advances, resulting in more sedentary lifestyle; the specifics of Paleo-Indian migration to and throughout the Americas, including the exact dates and routes traveled, are subject to ongoing research and discussion. The traditional theory has been that these early migrants moved into Beringia between eastern Siberia and present-day Alaska 17,000 years ago, when sea levels were lowered due to the Quaternary glaciation.
These people are believed to have followed herds of now-extinct pleistocene megafauna along ice-free corridors that stretched between the Laurentide and Cordilleran ice sheets. Another route proposed is that, either on foot or using primitive boats, they migrated down the Pacific coast to South America. Evidence of the latter would since have been covered by a sea level rise of hundreds of meters following the last ice age. Archaeologists contend that Paleo-Indians migrated out of Beringia, ranging from c. 40,000 – c. 16,500 years ago. This time range promises to continue as such for years to come; the few agreements achieved to date are the origin from Central Asia, with widespread habitation of the Americas during the end of the last glacial period, or more what is known as the late glacial maximum, around 16,000–13,000 years before present. However, alternative theories about the origins of Paleoindians exist, including migration from Europe. Sites in Alaska are where some of the earliest evidence has been found of Paleo-Indians, followed by archaeological sites in northern British Columbia, western Alberta and the Old Crow Flats region in the Yukon.
The Paleo-Indian would flourish all over the Americas. These peoples were spread over a wide geographical area. However, all the individual groups shared a common style of stone tool production, making knapping styles and progress identifiable; this early Paleo-Indian period lithic reduction tool adaptations have been found across the Americas, utilized by mobile bands consisting of 20 to 60 members of an extended family. Food would have been plentiful during the few warm months of the year. Lakes and rivers were teeming with many species of fish and aquatic mammals. Nuts and edible roots could be found in the forests and marshes; the fall would have been a busy time because foodstuffs would have to be stored and clothing made ready for the winter. During the winter, coastal fishing groups trap fresh food and furs. Late ice age climatic changes caused plant communities and animal populations to change. Groups moved from place to place as preferred resources were depleted and new supplies were sought.
Small bands utilized hunting and gathering during the spring and summer months broke into smaller direct family groups for the fall and winter. Family groups moved every 3–6 days traveling up to 360 km a year. Diets were sustaining and rich in protein due to successful hunting. Clothing was made from a variety of animal hides that were used for shelter construction. During much of the Early and Middle Paleo-Indian periods, inland bands are thought to have subsisted through hunting now-extinct megafauna. Large Pleistocene mammals were the giant beaver, steppe wisent, musk ox, woolly mammoths and ancient reindeer; the Clovis culture, appearing around 11,500 BCE, undoubtedly did not rely on megafauna for subsistence. Instead, they employed a mixed foraging strategy that included smaller terrestrial game, aquatic animals, a variety of flora. Paleo-Indian groups carried a variety of tools; these included efficient fluted style spear points, as well as microblades used for butchering and hide processing.
Projectile points and hammerstones made from many sources are found traded or moved to new locations. Stone tools were traded and/or left behind fro
The Métis are members of ethnic groups native to Canada and parts of the United States that trace their descent to both indigenous North Americans and European settlers. The term applied to French-speaking mixed-race families in the Red River area of what became Manitoba, Canada. Since the late 20th century, the Métis in Canada have been recognized as a distinct aboriginal people under the Constitution Act of 1982. Smaller communities identifying as Métis exist in the U. S; the word derives from the French adjective métis spelled metice, referring to a hybrid, or someone of mixed ancestry. In the 16th century, French colonists used the term métis as a noun for people of mixed European and indigenous American parentage in New France and La Louisiane in North America, it came to be used for people of mixed European and indigenous backgrounds in other French colonies, including Guadeloupe in the Caribbean. In Latin America, a similar word is mestizo in Spanish-speaking countries, in Portuguese-speaking countries, mestiço is used.
The English word mestee is a corruption of the Middle French mestis. It has been used to refer to people of mixed race born to indigenous women and French men in New France; the Métis in Canada married within their own group, over time, created a distinct culture and ethnicity of their own. In former French colonies where slavery was part of society, a group known as gens du couleur libre developed from unions between African or mixed-race women and French male colonists. In New Orleans, the system of plaçage was well developed in the eighteenth century, in which women in these relationships received some protection by contracts negotiated by their mothers; the men freed the women, if they were enslaved, their mixed-race children, if born into slavery. Property settlements were part of the relationship, the men sometimes provided for education of sons, sometimes in France; the term mestee was used in the antebellum United States for mixed-race individuals, according to Jack D. Forbes, it was used for people of European and Native American ancestry, as well as European and African, for those who were tri-racial.
In the 19th century and up until 1930, United States census takers recorded people of color as mulatto meaning mixed race. After the American Civil War, the term "mestee" fell into disuse when millions of slaves were emancipated as freedmen; as conservative whites in the South worked to re-establish white supremacy, they imposed Jim Crow laws after regaining control of state legislatures. In the early 20th century, they passed more stringent laws establishing the "one-drop rule". By this anyone with any known Sub-Saharan African ancestry was "Black", a more restrictive definition than had operated in the South on the frontier. Scholar Jack D. Forbes has attempted to revive "mestee" as a term for the mixed-race peoples who were established as free before the Civil War. Worldwide, since the early 20th century the term Metis has been applied in various ways. Metisaje was used from the 1920s to the 1960s in some Latin American countries to indicate cultural hybridity, at times to invoke a nationalist sentiment.
Cultural "Hybridity" theorists have used the term "métissage" to examine postcolonial themes, including Françoise Lionnet. Creolité is a cultural and literary movement that has common threads with "métis" identity, has been a counterpoint to the Négritude movement, although it has been used to indicate "race and gender specific" themes as well; the Canadian Encyclopedia indicates that there is no complete consensus for the definition of Métis in Canada. The Canadian Encyclopedia's definition of Métis was not developed in consultation with Métis people or communities, it uses the following definition: Written with a small m, métis is the French word for "mixed", it is used here in a general sense for people of dual Indian-White ancestry. Capitalized, Métis refers to people of the post-contact indigenous people, the Métis Nation, it may variously refer to a distinctive socio cultural heritage, a means of ethnic self-identification, sometimes a political and legal category, more or less narrowly defined.
The Métis Nation is considered to be rooted in what is known as the "Métis Homeland," an area ranging from northwestern Ontario and moving westward across the prairies. In this area, fur trappers married indigenous Saulteaux women. A distinct ethnicity developed, as mixed-race descendants married within this group and remained involved with fur trapping and trading, they began to farm in the Red River of the North area. People of "mixed ancestry," although not of the Métis Nation, have a distinct history of their own; these unions began in the east. The fur trade and colonial development drew French voyageurs and coureurs des bois to the west, along with the Hudson's Bay Company employees. Wintering partners of the fur trading companies took a wikt:country wife for their months away from the eastern cities. After the fall of New France to the British 1763, many mixed-race populations continued to establish themselves spec
The Inuit are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland and Alaska. The Inuit languages are part of the Eskimo–Aleut family. Inuit Sign Language is a critically endangered language isolate used in Nunavut. In Canada and the States, the term "Eskimo" was used by ethnic Europeans to describe the Inuit and Siberia's and Alaska's Yupik and Iñupiat peoples. However, "Inuit" is not accepted as a term for the Yupik, "Eskimo" is the only term that applies to Yupik, Iñupiat and Inuit. Since the late 20th century, Indigenous peoples in Canada and Greenlandic Inuit consider "Eskimo" to be a pejorative term, they more identify as "Inuit" for an autonym. In Canada, sections 25 and 35 of the Constitution Act of 1982 classified the Inuit as a distinctive group of Aboriginal Canadians who are not included under either the First Nations or the Métis; the Inuit live throughout most of Northern Canada in the territory of Nunavut, Nunavik in the northern third of Quebec and NunatuKavut in Labrador, in various parts of the Northwest Territories around the Arctic Ocean.
These areas are known in the Inuktitut language as the "Inuit Nunangat". In the United States, the Iñupiat live on the Alaska North Slope and on Little Diomede Island; the Greenlandic Inuit are descendants of ancient indigenous migrations from Canada, as these people migrated to the east through the continent. They are citizens of Denmark. Inuit are the descendants of what anthropologists call the Thule people, who emerged from western Alaska around 1000 CE, they had split from the related Aleut group about 4000 years ago and from northeastern Siberian migrants related to the Chukchi language group, still earlier, descended from the third major migration from Siberia. They spread eastwards across the Arctic, they displaced the related Dorset culture, called the Tuniit in Inuktitut, the last major Paleo-Eskimo culture. Inuit legends speak of the Tuniit as people who were taller and stronger than the Inuit. Less the legends refer to the Dorset as "dwarfs". Researchers believe that Inuit society had advantages by having adapted to using dogs as transport animals, developing larger weapons and other technologies superior to those of the Dorset culture.
By 1300, Inuit migrants had reached west Greenland. During the next century, they settled in East Greenland Faced with population pressures from the Thule and other surrounding groups, such as the Algonquian and Siouan-speaking peoples to the south, the Tuniit receded; the Tuniit were thought to have become extinct as a people by about 1400 or 1500. But, in the mid-1950s, researcher Henry B. Collins determined that, based on the ruins found at Native Point, the Sadlermiut were the last remnants of the Dorset culture, or Tuniit; the Sadlermiut population survived up until winter 1902–03, when exposure to new infectious diseases brought by contact with Europeans led to their extinction as a people. In the early 21st century, mitochondrial DNA research has supported the theory of continuity between the Tuniit and the Sadlermiut peoples, it provided evidence that a population displacement did not occur within the Aleutian Islands between the Dorset and Thule transition. In contrast to other Tuniit populations, the Aleut and Sadlermiut benefited from both geographical isolation and their ability to adopt certain Thule technologies.
In Canada and Greenland, Inuit circulated exclusively north of the "arctic tree line", the effective southern border of Inuit society. The most southern "officially recognized" Inuit community in the world is Rigolet in Nunatsiavut. South of Nunatsiavut, the descendants of the southern Labrador Inuit in NunatuKavut continued their traditional transhumant semi-nomadic way of life until the mid-1900s; the Nunatukavummuit people moved among islands and bays on a seasonal basis. They did not establish stationary communities. In other areas south of the tree line, non-Inuit indigenous cultures were well established; the culture and technology of Inuit society that served so well in the Arctic were not suited to subarctic regions, so they did not displace their southern neighbors. Inuit had trade relations with more southern cultures. Warfare was not uncommon among those Inuit groups with sufficient population density. Inuit such as the Nunamiut, who inhabited the Mackenzie River delta area engaged in warfare.
The more sparsely settled Inuit in the Central Arctic, did so less often. Their first European contact was with the Vikings who settled in Greenland and explored the eastern Canadian coast; the sagas recorded meeting skrælingar an undifferentiated label for all the indigenous peoples whom the Norse encountered, whether Tuniit, Inuit, or Beothuk. After about 1350, the climate grew colder during the period known as the Little Ice Age. During this period, Alaskan natives were able to continue their whaling activities. But, in the high Arctic, the Inuit were forced to abandon their hunting and whaling sites as bowhead whales disappeared from Canada and Greenland; these Inuit had to subsist on a much poorer diet, lost access to the essential raw materials for their tools and architecture which they had derived from whaling. The changing climate forced the Inuit to work their way south, pushing them into marginal niches along the edges of the tree line; these were areas which Native Americans had not occupied or where they were weak enough for the Inuit to live near them.
Researchers have difficulty defining when Inuit stopped this territorial
Idle No More
Idle No More is an ongoing protest movement, founded in December 2012 by four women: three First Nations women and one non-Native ally. It is a grassroots movement among the Aboriginal peoples in Canada comprising the First Nations, Métis and Inuit peoples and their non-Aboriginal supporters in Canada, to a lesser extent, internationally, it has consisted of a number of political actions worldwide, inspired in part by the liquid diet hunger strike of Attawapiskat Chief Theresa Spence and further coordinated via social media. A reaction to alleged legislative abuses of Indigenous treaty rights by the Stephen Harper and the Conservative federal government, the movement takes particular issue with the omnibus bill Bill C-45; the popular movement has included round dances in public blockades of rail lines. After the May 2, 2011 Canadian Federal election, the Conservative federal government, led by Stephen Harper, proposed a number of omnibus bills introducing sweeping legislative changes. While omnibus bills had been presented to parliament by previous governments, the removal of protections for forests and waterways proposed in Bill C-45 led to concern among Indigenous communities and environmentalists.
Of particular concern is the removal of the term "absolute surrender" in Section 208. A number of these measures drew fire from environmental and First Nations groups. In particular, Bill C-45 overhauled the Navigable Waters Protection Act of 1882, renaming it the Navigation Protection Act; the NWPA had mandated an extensive approval and consultation process before construction of any kind could take place in or around any water which could in principle be navigated by any kind of floating craft. Under the new NPA, the approval process would only be required for development around one of a vastly circumscribed list of waterways set by the Minister of Transportation. Many of the newly deregulated waterways passed through traditional First Nations land. While the NWPA had been intended to facilitate actual navigation, the ubiquity of waterways in the Canadian wilderness has given it the effect of strong environmental legislation by presenting a significant barrier to industrial development to projects such as pipelines which crossed many rivers.
The government had by this time been engaged for some years in a campaign for approval of the Enbridge Northern Gateway Pipelines project, a proposal to build a pipeline for bitumen condensate connecting the Athabasca tar sands with the Pacific Ocean, facilitating unprocessed bitumen exports to China. Many bills affecting First Nations people have failed to be passed. Numerous attempts to introduce bills have failed due to their low priority for past federal governments dying on the order paper without being debated or passed. In 1996 Bill C-79, the Indian Act Optional Modification Act died on the order paper. In 2002, Bill C-7, the First Nations Governance Act, attempted to reform reserve administration, it died in 2003. In 2008, there was Bill C-47, the Family Homes on Reserves and Matrimonial Interests or Rights Act, to redress inequity in the treatment of women; that one died on the order paper three times and is returned before Parliament, now called Bill S-2. The cancellation of the Kelowna Accords by the current federal government was seen as a betrayal by natives.
Further background to this is the feeling that the federal government has acted in bad faith with Aboriginal people's interests, have violated treaties when it suited them. The feeling that the traditional tactics of negotiating with the federal government have become meaningless has caused support for new tactics; the founders of Idle No More outlined the vision and goals of the movement in a January 10, 2013 press release as follows: The Vision revolves around Indigenous Ways of Knowing rooted in Indigenous Sovereignty to protect water, air and all creation for future generations. The Conservative government bills beginning with Bill C-45 threaten Treaties and this Indigenous Vision of Sovereignty; the movement indigenous sovereignty. It plans to accomplish these goals by: Implementing leadership structure and councils Taking training in coordinating rallies, media and safety issues as well as in identifying provocateurs, misinformation shills, propaganda. Placing key spokespeople and connecting with experienced experts in different areas.
Creating chapters across Turtle Island under the umbrella of the main INM. Requesting regular meetings with First Nations leadership to have ongoing discussions regarding third party agreements between the Government of Canada and industry corporations To date the movement has been focused on: The education and the revitalization of indigenous peoples through awareness and empowerment. Encouraging knowledge sharing about indigenous sovereignty and environmental protections; the press release notes that "As a grassroots movement no political organization speaks for Idle No More". Furthermore, this is not just an Aboriginal Canadian movement; these pipeline projects will be stretching beyond borders carving through critical ecosystems and landscapes in the States. Canada's large oil reserves have attracted industry to exploit, profit, "The tar sands industry aims to create an extensive web of pipelines to deliver increasing amounts of this Canadian tar sands sludge to refineries in the United States".
Reports say that some 900,000 barrels of oil per day will be traveling from Canada tar sands through these pipelines. According to the National Wildlife Federation report, these p
Métis in Alberta
Métis in Alberta are Métis people, descendants of mixed First Nations/native Indian and white/European families, who live in the Canadian province of Alberta. The Métis are considered an aboriginal group under Canada's Constitution Act 1982 and make up a separate and distinct from the First Nations, have different legal rights. In Alberta, unlike in the rest of Canada, Métis people have negotiated certain lands to be reserved for them, known today as the Eight Metis Settlements; these Metis Settlements Federated in 1975 to protect existing Metis Settlement lands following the Alberta Governments dissolution, by Order-In-Council of four Metis Settlements from 1950-1960. Following legal challenges by the Federation of Metis Settlements in 1975 for the lose of natural resource against Alberta, the Crown in Right of Alberta settled out of court for a suite of legislation that would see self-government and money transferred to the newly formed government of the Metis Settlements General Council, Canada’s only Metis self-govenernment.
The Metis Settlements General Council is the legislator of the Federation of Metis Settlements. MSGC is the second largest land owner in the Province of Alberta. Métis history in Alberta begins with the fur trade in North America; the Métis developed as a people by the interactions of European fur trading agents and First Nations communities. From 1670 to 1821 the Métis populations grew regionally around fur-trading posts of the North-West and Hudson's Bay companies. For example, Fort Edmonton spawned a large Métis population, involved in an annual buffalo hunt for many years; these Métis helped to establish the nearby settlements of Lac Ste. Anne, St. Albert, Lac La Biche, St. Paul de Métis; the Hudson's Bay Company's land-claim in the west was sold to the newly formed Dominion of Canada with the passing of the British North-America Act The sale of the Hudsons Bay Companies claimed territory in 1869/70 ended its legal monopoly on the fur trade. The fur-trade was an economic boom for the Métis as it opened the fur and buffalo meat trades to private Métis and non-Metis traders.
Metis living closer to Canadian occupied territory such as the Red River Métis, today in parts of Manitoba and Saskatchewan, took up arms against the Canadian government in the two failed Riel Rebellions in an attempt to assert their rights in the face of the newcomers. Following the Rebellions, some Red River Metis fled north-west, married into the Northwest Metis populations of northern Alberta or assimilated into surrounding Euro-Canadian society; the end of these rebellions combined with the collapse of the fur and buffalo meat industries forced many Albertan Métis off their lands and reduced them to critical levels of poverty. On the whole, the Métis cultures and communities survived with farming, ranching and industry replacing their traditional economy of fur-trading as the main economic activity in the Parkland Belt, though trapping and hunting have remained important in the Rocky Mountain and Boreal Forest regions. More urban Metis who live in close proximity to other cultural groups may have intermarried and assimilated into mainstream Euro-Albertan society to the point that their descendants no longer recognize themselves as Métis.
However, in much of northern Alberta, the Métis in more remote rural and isolated communities have remained culturally distinct. Many of the contemporary Metis Settlement population have retained their unique cultural heritage and history due to land-grants provided by King George V by way of the Metis Population Betterment Act of 1938. In the early 20th century, as a response to Métis dispossession and impoverishment following the collapse of the fur-trade and marginalization of Metis/Halfbreeds by the newly dominate Canadian Society, Métis political organization, dormant since the Riel Rebellions, was revived in the mid-late 1920s, by a number of competing organizations such as the Half-Breed Association, the Métis Association, the Half-breed Association of Northern Alberta. In 1932, a lasting and successful organization was founded following large half-breed gatherings in Frog Lake and Fishing Lake; these gatherings were organized by grassroots leaders such as Charles Delores and Dieudonne Collins.
These men would call on the expertise of a local enfranchised Indian named Joesepf Dion of the Kehiwin Cree Nation. The lasting organization would be known as "L’Association des Métis d’Alberta et les Territories du Nord-Ouest" by Malcolm Norris, Jim Brady, Peter Tomkins, Joseph Dion and Felix Calliou; the Famous Five would go on to pressure the Government of Alberta on behalf of the Metis populations for a protected homeland, the Metis settlements. In response to the pressured lobbying, the Alberta legislature would call for a Royal Commission, entitled "The Ewing Commission" to investigate the conditions of the "Half-Breeds" within the province; the Ewing Commission's final report called for a Métis land base and that it be provided by the provincial government under the Natural Resource Transfer Act 1930. The result of the report was the creation of twelve Métis settlements in 193
Canadian Indian residential school system
In Canada, the Indian residential school system was a network of boarding schools for Indigenous peoples. The network was funded by the Canadian government's Department of Indian Affairs and administered by Christian churches; the school system was created for the purpose of removing Indigenous children from the influence of their own culture and assimilating them into the dominant Canadian culture. Over the course of the system's more than hundred-year existence, about 30 per cent of Indigenous children were placed in residential schools nationally; the number of school-related deaths remains unknown due to an incomplete historical record, though estimates range from 3,200 upwards of 6,000. The system had its origins in laws enacted before Confederation, but it was active from the passage of the Indian Act in 1876. An amendment to the Indian Act in 1884 made attendance at day schools, industrial schools, or residential schools compulsory for First Nations children. Due to the remote nature of many communities, school locations meant that for some families residential schools were the only way to comply.
The schools were intentionally located at substantial distances from Indigenous communities to minimize contact between families and their children. Indian Commissioner Hayter Reed argued for schools at greater distances to reduce family visits, which he thought counteracted efforts to civilize Indigenous children. Parental visits were further restricted by the use of a pass system designed to confine Indigenous peoples to reserves; the last federally operated residential school closed in 1996, called Gordon Indian Residential School and was located in Punnichy, Saskatchewan. Schools operated in every province and territory with the exception of New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island; the residential school system harmed Indigenous children by removing them from their families, depriving them of their ancestral languages, exposing many of them to physical and sexual abuse, forcibly enfranchising them. Disconnected from their families and culture and forced to speak English or French, students who attended the residential school system graduated unable to fit into either their communities and still subject to racist attitudes in mainstream Canadian society.
The system proved successful in disrupting the transmission of Indigenous practices and beliefs across generations. The legacy of the system has been linked to an increased prevalence of post-traumatic stress, substance abuse, suicide, which persist within Indigenous communities today. On June 11, 2008, Prime Minister Stephen Harper offered a public apology on behalf of the Government of Canada and the leaders of the other federal parties in the House of Commons. Nine days prior, the Truth and Reconciliation Commission was established to uncover the truth about the schools; the commission gathered about 7,000 statements from residential school survivors through public and private meetings at various local and national events across Canada. Seven national events held between 2008 and 2013 commemorated the experience of former students of residential schools. In 2015, the TRC concluded with the establishment of the National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation, the publication of a multi-volume report detailing the testimonies of survivors and historical documents from the time.
The TRC report found. Attempts to assimilate Indigenous peoples were rooted in imperial colonialism, which centred around a European worldview of cultural practice and an understanding of land ownership based on the doctrine of Discovery; as explained in the executive summary of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada's final report: "Underlying these arguments was the belief that the colonizers were bringing civilization to savage people who could never civilize themselves. The'civilizing mission' rested on a belief of racial and cultural superiority."Assimilation efforts began as early as the 17th century with the arrival of French colonists in New France. They were resisted by Indigenous communities who were unwilling to leave their children for extended periods and who came to associate missionaries with the diseases devastating Indigenous populations; the establishment of day and boarding schools by groups including the Récollets and Ursulines was abandoned by the 1690s. The political instability and realities of colonial life played a role in the decision to halt the education programs.
An increase in orphaned and foundling colonial children limited church resources, colonists benefited from favourable relations with Indigenous peoples in both the fur trade and military pursuits. After a failure to assimilate Indigenous children by early missionaries in the 17th century, educational programs were not attempted again by religious officials until the 1820s, prior to the introduction of state-sanctioned operations. Included among them was a school established by John West, an Anglican missionary, at the Red River Colony in what is today Manitoba. Protestant missionaries opened residential schools in the current Ontario region, spreading Christianity and working to encourage Indigenous peoples to adopt subsistence agriculture as a way to ensure they would not return to their original, nomadic ways of life upon graduation. Although many of these early schools were open for only a short time, efforts persisted; the Mohawk Institute Residential School, the oldest, continuously operated residential school in Canada, opened in 1834 on Six Nations of the Grand River near Brantford, Ontario.
Administered by the Anglican Church, the facility opened as the Mechanics' Institute, a day school for boys, in 1828 and became a boarding school four years when it accepted