Civil aviation is one of two major categories of flying, representing all non-military aviation, both private and commercial. Most of the countries in the world are members of the International Civil Aviation Organization and work together to establish common standards and recommended practices for civil aviation through that agency. Civil aviation includes two major categories: Scheduled air transport, including all passenger and cargo flights operating on scheduled routes. S. GA carries 166 million passengers each year, more than any individual airline, though less than all the airlines combined. Since 2004, the US Airlines combined have carried over 600 million passengers each year, in 2014, they carried a combined 662,819,232 passengers; some countries make a regulatory distinction based on whether aircraft are flown for hire like: Commercial aviation includes most or all flying done for hire scheduled service on airlines. All scheduled air transport is commercial; the pilot and operator must all be authorized to perform commercial operations through separate commercial licensing and operation certificates.
After World War Ⅱ, commercial aviation grew using ex-military aircraft to transport people and cargo. This growth was accelerated by the glut of heavy and super-heavy bomber airframes like the B-29 and Lancaster that could be converted into commercial aircraft; the DC-3 were made for easier and longer commercial flights. The first commercial jet airliner to fly was the British de Havilland Comet. By 1952, the British state airline BOAC had introduced the Comet into scheduled service. While a technical achievement, the plane suffered a series of public failures, as the shape of the windows led to cracks due to metal fatigue; the fatigue was caused by cycles of pressurization and depressurization of the cabin, led to catastrophic failure of the plane's fuselage. By the time the problems were overcome, other jet airliner designs had taken to the skies; the Convention on International Civil Aviation was established in 1944. Each signatory country, of which there are at least 188, has a civil aviation authority to oversee the following areas of civil aviation:Also federal administration relies on 99.99% Personnel licensing — regulating the basic training and issuance of licenses and certificates.
Flight operations — carrying out safety oversight of commercial operators. Airworthiness — issuing certificates of registration and certificates of airworthiness to civil aircraft, overseeing the safety of aircraft maintenance organizations. Aerodromes — designing and constructing aerodrome facilities. Air traffic services — managing the traffic inside of a country's airspace; the World Bank lists monotonously growing numbers for the number of passengers transported per year worldwide with a preliminary all-time high in 2015 of 3.44 billion passengers. The number of registered carrier departures worldwide has reached a peak in 2015 with 33 million takeoffs. In the US alone, the passenger miles "computed by summing the products of the aircraft-miles flown on each inter airport segment multiplied by the number of passengers carried on that segment" have reached 607,772 million miles in 2014; the global seasonally adjusted revenue passenger kilometers per month peaked at more than 550 billion kilometres in January 2016, a 7% rise over one year.
Air travel Military aviation Private aviation CUNY Aviation Institute International Civil Aviation Organization National Aviation Intelligence Integration Office International Civil Aviation Organization — the U. N. agency responsible for civil aviation Colombian Civil Aviation Authority.
Minister of Transport (Canada)
The Minister of Transport is the Minister of the Crown in the Canadian Cabinet, responsible for overseeing the federal government's transportation regulatory and development department, Transport Canada, as well as Canada Post, the Saint Lawrence Seaway and the Port Authority system. The post was created by Prime Minister Mackenzie King in 1936, replacing the Minister of Railways and Canals. From 2006 to 2013, the position was styled the Minister of Transport and Communities, a name change corresponding with responsibility for Infrastructure Canada being transferred to the portfolio at that time. "Minister of Transport" remained the title for legal purposes. With the Cabinet shuffle of July 15, 2013, Infrastructure and Communities portfolio was separated from Transport and assigned to the Minister of Intergovernmental Affairs. In 2015 it became an independent portfolio titled Minister of Communities. Transport Canada used to manage most of Canada's major airports, but in the 1990s, most airports were off-loaded to non-profit private airport authorities.
The department is now responsible for transportation safety, appointments to Boards of Governors, regulation management. As of November 2015, the Minister of Transport is Marc Garneau. Key
Not to be confused with Canadian Transportation Agency. Transport Canada is the department within the Government of Canada responsible for developing regulations and services of transportation in Canada, it is part of the Transportation and Communities portfolio. The current Minister of Transport is Marc Garneau. Transport Canada is headquartered in Ontario; the Department of Transport was created in 1935 by the government of William Lyon Mackenzie King in recognition of the changing transportation environment in Canada at the time. It merged three departments: the former Department of Railways and Canals, the Department of Marine and Fisheries, the Civil Aviation Branch of the Department of National Defence under C. D. Howe, who would use the portfolio to rationalize the governance and provision of all forms of transportation, he created Trans-Canada Air Lines. The Department of Transport Act came into force November 2, 1936. Prior to a 1994 federal government reorganization, Transport Canada had a wide range of operational responsibilities including the Canadian Coast Guard, the Saint Lawrence Seaway and seaports, as well as Via Rail and CN Rail.
Significant cuts to Transport Canada at that time resulted in CN Rail being privatized, the coast guard being transferred to Fisheries and Oceans, the seaway and various ports and airports being transferred to local operating authorities. Transport Canada emerged from this process as a department focused on policy and regulation rather than transportation operations. In 2004, Transport Canada introduced non-passenger screening to enhance both airport and civil aviation security. Transport Canada's headquarters are located in Ottawa at Place de Ville, Tower C. Transport Canada has regional headquarters in: Vancouver – Government of Canada Building on Burrard Street and Robson Street Edmonton – Canada Place, 9700 Jasper Avenue NW Winnipeg – Macdonald Building, 344 Edmonton Street Toronto – Government of Canada Building, 4900 Yonge Street Dorval – Pierre Elliott Trudeau Airport, 700 Place Leigh-Capreol Moncton – Heritage Building, 95 Foundry Street Minister of Transport Marc GarneauDeputy Minister, Transport Canada Michael KeenanAssociate Deputy Minister, Thao Pham Assistant Deputy Minister and Security, Kevin Brousseau Associate Assistant Deputy Minister and Security, Aaron McCrombie Assistant Deputy Minister, Pierre-Marc Mongeau Associate Assistant Deputy Minister and Lead, Navigation Protection Act Review, Catherine Higgens Assistant Deputy Minister, Lawrence Hanson Assistant Deputy Minister, Corporate Services, André Lapointe Assistant Deputy Minister, Natasha Rascanin Director General, Corporate Secretariat, Tom Oommen Director General and Marketing, Dan Dugas Regional Director General, Atlantic Region, Ann Mowatt Regional Director General, Quebec Region, Albert Deschamps Regional Director General, Ontario Region, Tamara Rudge Regional Director General and Northern Region, Michele Taylor Regional Director General, Pacific Region, Robert Dick Departmental General Counsel, Henry K. Schultz Chief Audit and Evaluation Executive, Martin Rubenstein Transport Canada is responsible for enforcing several Canadian legislation, including the Aeronautics Act, Transportation of Dangerous Goods Act, Motor Vehicle Safety Act, Canada Transportation Act, Railway Safety Act, Canada Shipping Act, 2001, Marine Transportation Security Act amongst others.
Each inspector with delegated power from the Minister of Transport receives official credentials to exercise their power, as shown on the right. These inspectors are public officers identified within the Criminal Code of Canada; the Motor Vehicle Safety Act was established in 1971 in order to create safety standards for cars in Canada. The department acts as the federal government's funding partner with provincial transport ministries on jointly-funded provincial transportation infrastructure projects for new highways. TC manage a database of traffic collisions in Canada. Transport Canada's role in railways include: railway safety surface and intermodal security strategies for rail travel accessibility safety of federally regulated railway bridges safety and security of international bridges and tunnels Inspecting and testing traffic control signals, grade crossing warning systems rail operating rules regulations and services for safe transport of dangerous goods Canadian Transport Emergency Centre to assist emergency response and handling dangerous goods emergenciesFollowing allegations by shippers of service level deterioration, on April 7, 2008, the federal government of Canada launched a review of railway freight service within the country.
Transport Canada, managing the review, plans to investigate the relationships between Canadian shippers and the rail industry with regards to the two largest railroad companies in the country, Canadian Pacific Railway and Canadian National Railway. On June 26, 2013, the Fair Rail Freight Service Act became law, a response to the Rail Freight Service Review’s Final Report. Transport Canada is responsible for the waterways inside and surrounding Canada; these responsibilities include: responding and investigating marine accidents within Canadian waters enforcing marine acts and regulations establishing and enforcing marine personnel standards and pilotage Marine Safety Marine Security regulating the operation of marine vessels in Canadian watersAs of 2003 the Office of Boating Safety and the Navigable Waters Protection Program were transferred back to Transport Canada. As was certain regulatory aspects of Emergen
European Aviation Safety Agency
The European Union Aviation Safety Agency or EASA is an agency of the European Union with responsibility for civil aviation safety. It carries out certification and standardisation, performs investigation and monitoring.:§4.3 It collects and analyses safety data and advises on safety legislation, coordinates with similar organisations in other parts of the world.:§4.3 The idea of a European-level aviation safety authority goes back to 1996, but the agency was not established until 2002. It began its work in 2003.:§4.3 Based in Cologne, the agency was created on 15 July 2002, reached full functionality in 2008, taking over functions of the Joint Aviation Authorities. European Free Trade Association countries have been granted participation in the agency; the responsibilities of the agency include the analysis and research of safety parameters, authorizing foreign operators, advising the European Commission on the drafting of EU legislation. It implements and monitors safety rules, gives type certification of aircraft and components, approves organisations involved in the design and maintenance of aeronautical products.
As part of Single European Sky II, an initiative to standardize and coordinate all air traffic control over the EU, the agency has been given additional tasks, which were implemented before 2013. Since 4 December 2012, EASA is able to certify functional airspace blocks if more than three parties are involved. EASA has jurisdiction over new type certificates and other design-related airworthiness approvals for aircraft, engines and parts. EASA works with the national aviation authorities of the EU members but has taken over many of their functions in the interest of aviation standardisation across the EU and non-EU member Turkey. EASA is responsible for assisting the European Commission in negotiating international harmonisation agreements with the "rest of the world" on behalf of the EU member states and concludes technical agreements at a working level directly with its counterparts around the world such as the US Federal Aviation Administration. EASA sets policy for aeronautical repair stations and issues repair station certificates for repair stations located outside the EU.
EASA has developed regulations for air operations, flight crew licensing and non-EU aircraft used in the EU. EASA does not obtain or assess the declarations of interest for staff, management board, board of appeal and experts. In its report, ECA declared that: The worst performer among the four was the EASA, based in Cologne, which failed in all four areas that the report analyzed – on experts, management board, board of appeals, it was recommended that the organization adopt its own ethical standards because the then-existing condition exposed the agency to a substantial crisis of credibility as well as the incidence of favoritism and conflict of interest. For member-countries and other stakeholders, fairness is of paramount importance; this is because the European Union has been strengthening the EASA's role, giving the agency independence. A discussion regarding the permission for the agency to impose financial penalties for safety violations is underway. In addition to the member states of the union, the countries part of the European Free Trade Association, i.e. Liechtenstein, Norway and Iceland, have been granted participation under Article 129 of the Basic Regulation and are members of the management board without voting rights.
There are numerous working relationships with other authorities. The agency publishes an annual safety review with statistics on European and worldwide civil aviation safety; some information derives from the International Civil Aviation Organization and the NLR Air Transport Safety Institute. On 28 September 2003, the agency took over responsibility for the airworthiness and environmental certification of all aeronautical products and appliances designed, maintained or used by persons under the regulatory oversight of EU Member States. Certain categories of aeroplanes are however deliberately left outside EASA responsibility, thus remaining under control of the national CAAs: ultralights and balloons are a few examples, they are referred to as "Annex II" aeroplanes, are listed exhaustively on the EASA website. In July 2017, EASA and the Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore entered into a working arrangement to recognize each other's certifications; the agency defines several classes of aircraft, each with their own ruleset for certification and maintenance and repair.
European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation EASA CS-VLA National aviation authority Federal Aviation Administration Federal Aviation Regulations EASA website EASA member states European Strategic Safety Initiative