Canadian Broadcasting Corporation

The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, branded as CBC/Radio-Canada, is a Canadian federal Crown corporation that serves as the national public broadcaster for both radio and television. The English- and French-language service units of the corporation are known as CBC and Radio-Canada, respectively. Although some local stations in Canada predate the CBC's founding, CBC is the oldest existing broadcasting network in Canada; the CBC was established on November 2, 1936. The CBC operates four terrestrial radio networks: The English-Language CBC Radio One and CBC Music, the French-Language Ici Radio-Canada Première and Ici Musique; the CBC operates two terrestrial television networks, the English-Language CBC Television and the French-Language Ici Radio-Canada Télé, along with the satellite/cable networks CBC News Network, Ici RDI, Ici Explora, Documentary Channel, Ici ARTV. The CBC operates services for the Canadian Arctic under the names CBC Radio-Canada Nord; the CBC operates digital services including, CBC Radio 3, CBC Music/ and Ici. TOU. TV, owns 20.2% of satellite radio broadcaster Sirius XM Canada, which carries several CBC-produced audio channels. CBC/Radio-Canada offers programming in English and eight aboriginal languages on its domestic radio service, in five languages on its web-based international radio service, Radio Canada International. However, budget cuts in the early 2010s have contributed to the corporation reducing its service via the airwaves, discontinuing RCI's shortwave broadcasts as well as terrestrial television broadcasts in all communities served by network-owned rebroadcast transmitters, including communities not subject to Canada's over-the-air digital television transition. CBC's federal funding is supplemented by revenue from commercial advertising on its television broadcasts; the radio service employed commercials from its inception to 1974, but since its primary radio networks have been commercial-free. In 2013, CBC's secondary radio networks, CBC Music and Ici Musique, introduced limited advertising of up to four minutes an hour, but this was discontinued in 2016.

In 1929, the Aird Commission on public broadcasting recommended the creation of a national radio broadcast network. A major concern was the growing influence of American radio broadcasting as U. S.-based networks began to expand into Canada. Meanwhile, Canadian National Railways was making a radio network to keep its passengers entertained and give it an advantage over its rival, CP. This, the CNR Radio, is the forerunner of the CBC. Graham Spry and Alan Plaunt lobbied intensely for the project on behalf of the Canadian Radio League. In 1932 the government of R. B. Bennett established the CBC's predecessor, the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission; the CRBC took over a network of radio stations set up by a federal Crown corporation, the Canadian National Railway. The network was used to broadcast programming to riders aboard its passenger trains, with coverage in central and eastern Canada. On November 2, 1936, the CRBC was reorganized under its present name. While the CRBC was a state-owned company, the CBC was a Crown corporation on the model of the British Broadcasting Corporation, reformed from a private company into a statutory corporation in 1927.

Leonard Brockington was the CBC's first chairman. For the next few decades, the CBC was responsible for all broadcasting innovation in Canada; this was in part because, until 1958, it was not only a broadcaster, but the chief regulator of Canadian broadcasting. It used this dual role to snap up most of the clear-channel licences in Canada, it began a separate French-language radio network in 1937. It introduced FM radio to Canada in 1946, though a distinct FM service wasn't launched until 1960. Television broadcasts from the CBC began on September 6, 1952, with the opening of a station in Montreal, a station in Toronto, Ontario opening two days later; the CBC's first owned affiliate television station, CKSO in Sudbury, launched in October 1953. From 1944 to 1962, the CBC split its English-language radio network into two services known as the Trans-Canada Network and the Dominion Network; the latter, carrying lighter programs including American radio shows, was dissolved in 1962, while the former became known as CBC Radio.

On July 1, 1958, CBC's television signal was extended from coast to coast. The first Canadian television show shot in colour was the CBC's own The Forest Rangers in 1963. Colour television broadcasts began on July 1, 1966, full-colour service began in 1974. In 1978, CBC became the first broadcaster in the world to use an orbiting satellite for television service, linking Canada "from east to west to north". Starting in 1967 and continuing until the mid-1970s, the CBC provided limited television service to remote and northern communities. Transmitters were built in a few locations and carried a four-hour selection of black-and-white videotaped programs each day; the tapes were flown into communities to be shown transported to other communities by the "bicycle" method used in television syndication. Transportation delays ranged from one week for larger centres to a month for small communities; the first FCP station was star

Lactuca biennis

Lactuca biennis is a North American species of wild lettuce known by the common names tall blue lettuce and blue wood lettuce. It is widespread across much of the United States and Canada from Alaska and Yukon south as far as California, New Mexico, Georgia. Lactuca biennis is a biennial herb in the dandelion tribe within the daisy family growing from a taproot to heights anywhere from one half to four meters. There are lobed, toothed leaves all along the stem; the top of the stem bears a multibranched inflorescence with many flower heads. Each head is just over a centimeter wide and has many whitish to light blue ray florets but no disc florets; the fruit is a mottled achene about half a centimeter long with a brownish pappus. Lactuca biennis was described botanically in 1794, with the name Sonchus biennis transferred to Lactuca in 1940. Jepson Manual Treatment, University of California Calphotos Photo gallery, University of California

Pedro Zambrano Ortiz

Pedro Zambrano Ortiz, O. F. M. was a Spanish Franciscan friar, guardian of the Mission Nuestra Señora de los Ángeles de Porciúncula de los Pecos in the settlement of Pecos, in the Province of Santa Fe de Nuevo México of New Spain, from no than 1619 until the fall of 1621. He served at Galisteo Pueblo, was still in charge of the mission in 1632 Zambrano was born in the Canary Islands around 1586; as a young man, he moved to Spanish colony of New Spain, where he became a Franciscan novice at the Convento Grande in Mexico City on 27 October 1609, took religious vows a year later. In the fall of 1616, Zambrano accompanied the mission supply caravan north to New Mexico, arriving before the end of January 1617. An early attempt had been abandoned. Seventeen missionaries led by Fray Alonso de Peinado had arrived between 1610 and 1612, but had been assigned to other missions. Zambrano and his fellow-missionaries may have founded the convent at Pecos in makeshift quarters as early as August 1617. Zambrano was first mentioned as guardián of Pecos in 1619.

He built the first church, an isolated building on a narrow ridge about 440 yards northeast of the pueblo's main quadrangle. The pueblo would not allow construction of a church closer to their dwellings; the missionaries were opposed in their efforts by the Governor of New Mexico, the veteran soldier Juan de Eulate, who held office from 1618 to 1625. The governor told the Pueblo Indians of the province that they did not have to renounce their traditional religious practices. According to Zambrano, Eulate protected "idolators and witches because they trade him tanned skins." According to the missionaries the governor was not interested in protecting Indian rights, but was only interested in exploiting them. He gave his followers licenses that permitted them to take Indian "orphans" and use them as servants, as long as they did not mistreat them and taught them the Christian catechism. At some time before August 1621, Zambrano changed place with the missionary serving Galisteo Pueblo. Zambrano was recorded as guardian of Galisteo in 1621, was still in charge of the mission in 1632.

On his arrival there he found that the Tanos were practicing idolatry. He was told by a native catechist whom he reproached for keeping a concubine that the Tanos were expecting to soon receive permission to "live as before they were Christians."Zambrano blamed Eulate for the conditions at Galisteo, saying he was "more suited to a junk shop than to the office of governor he holds... a bag of arrogance and vanity without love for God or zeal for divine honor or for the king our lord, a man of evil example in word and deed who does not deserve to be governor but rather a hawker and of these vile pursuits." On 11 April 1626 Zambrano said that Governor Eulate had ordered a deputy of the Confraternity of the Mother of God de la Concepcíon to be falsely accused and hanged because of his membership, because he was a pious man. He said that due to Eulate's bad influence the settlers would rather gamble in his house than attend the confraternities. Zambrano was still in New Mexico in 1636, was still attacking the governor of the day.

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