Prime Minister of Canada
The Prime Minister of Canada is the primary minister of the Crown, chairman of the Cabinet, Canada's head of government. The current, 23rd, Prime Minister of Canada is the Liberal Party's Justin Trudeau, following the 2015 Canadian federal election. Canadian prime ministers are styled as The Right Honourable, a privilege maintained for life; the Prime Minister of Canada is in charge of the Prime Minister's Office. The Prime Minister chooses the ministers that make up the Cabinet; the two groups, with the authority of the Parliament of Canada, manage the Government of Canada and the Canadian Armed Forces. The Cabinet and the Prime Minister appoint members of the Senate of Canada, the judges of the Supreme Court of Canada and federal courts, the leaders and boards, as required under law, of various Crown Corporations, selects the Governor General of Canada. Under the Canadian constitution, all of the power to exercise these activities is vested in the Monarchy of Canada, but in practice the Canadian monarch or their representative, the Governor General of Canada approves them and their role is ceremonial, their powers are only exercised under the advice of the Prime Minister.
Not outlined in any constitutional document, the office exists only as per long-established convention that stipulates the monarch's representative, the governor general, must select as prime minister the person most to command the confidence of the elected House of Commons. The position of prime minister is not outlined in any Canadian constitutional document and is mentioned only in passing in the Constitution Act, 1982, the Letters Patent, 1947 issued by King George VI; the office and its functions are instead governed by constitutional conventions and modelled on the same office in the United Kingdom. The prime minister, along with the other ministers in cabinet, is appointed by the governor general on behalf of the monarch. However, by the conventions of responsible government, designed to maintain administrative stability, the governor general will call to form a government the individual most to receive the support, or confidence, of a majority of the directly elected members of the House of Commons.
While there is no legal requirement for the prime minister to be a member of parliament, for practical and political reasons the prime minister is expected to win a seat promptly. However, in rare circumstances individuals who are not sitting members of the House of Commons have been appointed to the position of prime minister. Two former prime ministers—Sir John Joseph Caldwell Abbott and Sir Mackenzie Bowell—served in the 1890s while members of the Senate. Both, in their roles as Government Leader in the Senate, succeeded prime ministers who had died in office—John A. Macdonald in 1891 and John Sparrow David Thompson in 1894; that convention has since evolved toward the appointment of an interim leader from the commons in such a scenario. Prime ministers who are not Members of Parliament upon their appointment have since been expected to seek election to the commons as soon as possible. For example, William Lyon Mackenzie King, after losing his seat in the 1925 federal election "governed from the hallway" before winning a by-election a few weeks later.
John Turner replaced Pierre Trudeau as leader of the Liberal Party in 1984 and subsequently was appointed prime minister while not holding a seat in the House of Commons. Turner was the last serving prime minister to not hold a commons seat. Should a serving prime minister today lose his or her seat in the legislature, or should a new prime minister be appointed without holding a seat, the typical process that follows is that a junior member in the governing political party will resign to allow the prime minister to run in the resulting by-election. A safe seat is chosen. However, if the governing party selects a new leader shortly before an election is due, that new leader is not a member of the legislature, he or she will await the upcoming election before running for a seat in parliament. In a poll conducted by Ipsos-Reid following the first prorogation of the 40th parliament on December 4, 2008, it was found that 51% of the sample group thought the prime minister was directly elected by Canadians.
The Canadian prime minister serves at Her Majesty's pleasure, meaning the post does not have a fixed term. Once appointed and sworn in by the governor general, the prime minister remains in office until he or she resigns, is dismissed, or dies; the lifespan of parliament was limited by the constitution to five years, though the governor general may still, on the advice of the prime minister, dissolve parliament and issue the writs of election prior to the date mandated by the Canada Elections Act. As of 2007, with an amendment to the Elections Act, Section 56.1 was changed
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h
The October Crisis occurred in October 1970 in the province of Quebec in Canada in the Montreal metropolitan area. Members of the Front de libération du Québec kidnapped the provincial Deputy Premier Pierre Laporte and British diplomat James Cross. In response, Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau invoked the only peacetime use of the War Measures Act; the kidnappers murdered Laporte and negotiations led to Cross's release and the kidnappers' exile to Cuba. The Premier of Quebec Robert Bourassa and the Mayor of Montreal Jean Drapeau supported Trudeau's invocation of the War Measures Act, which limited civil liberties; the police were enabled with far-reaching powers, they arrested and detained, without bail, 497 individuals, all but 62 of whom were released without charges. The Government of Quebec requested military aid to the civil power, Canadian Forces deployed throughout Quebec. At the time, opinion polls throughout Canada, including in Quebec, showed widespread support for the use of the War Measures Act.
The response, was criticized at the time by prominent politicians such as René Lévesque and Tommy Douglas. The events of October 1970 galvanized support against the use of violence in efforts to gain Quebec sovereignty and accelerated the movement towards electoral means of attaining greater autonomy and independence, including support for the sovereigntist Parti Québécois, which formed the provincial government in 1976. From 1963 to 1970 the Quebec nationalist group Front de libération du Québec detonated over 95 bombs. While mailboxes—particularly in the affluent and predominantly Anglophone city of Westmount—were common targets, the largest single bombing was of the Montreal Stock Exchange on February 13, 1969, which caused extensive damage and injured 27 people. Other targets included Montreal City Hall, Royal Canadian Mounted Police, armed forces recruiting offices, railway tracks, army installations. FLQ members, in a strategic move, had stolen several tons of dynamite from military and industrial sites, financed by bank robberies, they threatened through their official communication organ, known as La Cognée, that more attacks were to come.
By 1970, 23 members of the FLQ were including four convicted of murder. On February 26, 1970, two men in a panel truck – including Jacques Lanctôt – were arrested in Montreal when they were discovered with a sawed-off shotgun and a communique announcing the kidnapping of the Israeli consul. In June, police raided a home in the small community of Prévost, north of Montreal in the Laurentian Mountains, found firearms, ammunition, 300 pounds of dynamite and the draft of a ransom note to be used in the kidnapping of the United States consul. October 5: Montreal, Quebec: Two members of the "Liberation Cell" of the FLQ kidnap British diplomat James Cross from his home; the kidnappers are disguised as delivery men bringing a package for his recent birthday. Once the maid lets them in, they pull out a revolver and kidnap Cross; this is followed by a communique to the authorities containing the kidnappers' demands, which include the exchange of Cross for "political prisoners", a number of convicted or detained FLQ members, the CBC broadcast of the FLQ Manifesto.
The terms of the ransom note are the same as those found in June for the planned kidnapping of the U. S. consul. At this time, the police do not connect the two. October 8: Broadcast of the FLQ Manifesto in all French- and English-speaking media outlets in Quebec. October 10: Montreal, Quebec: Members of the Chenier Cell approach the home of the Deputy Premier of the province of Quebec, Pierre Laporte, while he is playing football with his nephew on his front lawn. Members of the "Chenier cell" of the FLQ kidnap Laporte. October 11: The CBC broadcasts a letter from captivity from Pierre Laporte to the Premier of Quebec, Robert Bourassa. October 12: General Gilles Turcot sends troops from the Royal 22e Régiment to guard federal property in the Montreal region, by request of the federal government. Lawyer Robert Lemieux is appointed by the FLQ to negotiate the release of James Cross and Pierre Laporte; the Quebec Government appoints Robert Demers. October 13: Prime Minister Trudeau is interviewed by the CBC with respect to the military presence.
In a combative interview, Trudeau asks Tim Ralfe, what he would do in his place. When Ralfe asks Trudeau how far he would go Trudeau replies, "Just watch me". October 14: Sixteen prominent Quebec personalities, including René Lévesque and Claude Ryan, call for negotiating "exchange of the two hostages for the political prisoners". FLQ's lawyer Robert Lemieux urges Université de Montréal students to boycott classes in support of FLQ. October 15: Quebec City: The negotiations between lawyers Lemieux and Demers are put to an end; the Government of Quebec formally requests the intervention of the Canadian army in "aid of the civil power" pursuant to the National Defence Act. All three opposition parties, including the Parti Québécois, rise in the National Assembly and agree with the decision. On the same day, separatist groups are permitted to speak at the Université de Montréal. Robert Lemieux organizes a 3,000 student rally in Paul Sauvé Arena to show support for the FLQ; the rally frightens many Canadians, who view it as a possible prelude to outright insurrection in Quebec.
October 16: Premier Bourassa formally requests that the government of Canada grant the government of Quebec "emergency powers" that allow them to "appr
Pierre Francis de Marigny Berton was a noted Canadian author of non-fiction Canadiana and Canadian history, was a television personality and journalist. He won many awards for his books. An accomplished storyteller, Berton was one of Canada's most popular authors, he wrote on popular culture, Canadian history, critiques of mainstream religion, children's books and historical works for youth. He was a founder of the Writers' Trust of Canada, a non-profit literary organization that seeks to encourage Canada's writing community. Berton's 50 books became popular in part due to fast-paced writing style, he was born on July 12, 1920, in Whitehorse, where his father had moved for the 1898 Klondike Gold Rush. His family moved to Dawson City, Yukon in 1921, his mother, Laura Beatrice Berton was a school teacher in Toronto until she was offered a job as a teacher in Dawson City at the age of 29 in 1907. She met Frank Berton in the nearby mining town of Granville shortly after settling in Dawson and teaching kindergarten.
Laura Beatrice Berton's autobiography of life in the Yukon entitled I Married the Klondike was published in her years and gave her, what her son Pierre describes as'a modicum of fame, which she enjoyed.'Berton's family moved to Victoria, British Columbia in 1932. At age 12 he joined the Scout Movement and wrote that "The Scout Movement was the making of me", he credited Scouting with keeping him from becoming a juvenile delinquent. He started his journalism career in scouting and wrote that "the first newspaper I was associated with was a weekly typewritten publication issued by the Seagull Patrol of St. Mary’s Troop." He remained in scouting for seven years and wrote about his experiences in an article titled "My Love Affair with the Scout Movement". Like his father, Pierre Berton worked in Klondike mining camps during his years as a history major at the University of British Columbia, where he worked on the student paper The Ubyssey, he spent his early newspaper career in Vancouver, where at 21 he was the youngest city editor on any Canadian daily, replacing editorial staff, called up during the Second World War.
Berton himself was conscripted into the Canadian Army under the National Resources Mobilization Act in 1942 and attended basic training in British Columbia, nominally as a reinforcement soldier intended for The Seaforth Highlanders of Canada. He elected to "go Active" and his aptitude was such that he was appointed Lance Corporal and attended NCO school, became a basic training instructor in the rank of corporal. Due to a background in university Canadian Officers' Training Corps and inspired by other citizen-soldiers, commissioned, he sought training as an officer. Berton spent the next several years attending a variety of military courses, becoming, in his words, the most trained officer in the military, he was warned for overseas duty many times, was granted embarkation leave many times, each time finding his overseas draft being cancelled. A coveted trainee slot with the Canadian Intelligence Corps saw Berton, now a Captain, trained to act as an Intelligence Officer, after a stint as an instructor at the Royal Military College in Kingston, Ontario, he went overseas in March 1945.
In the UK, he was told that he would have to requalify as an IO because the syllabus in the UK was different from that in the intelligence school in Canada. By the time Berton had requalified, the war in Europe had ended, he volunteered for the Canadian Army Pacific Force, granted a final "embarkation leave", found himself no closer to combat employment by the time the Japanese surrendered in September 1945. In 1947 he went on an expedition to the Nahanni River with pilot Russ Baker. Berton's account for the Vancouver Sun was picked up by International News Service, making him a noted adventure-travel writer. Berton moved to Toronto in 1947. At the age of 31 he was named managing editor of Maclean's. In 1957, he became a key member of the CBC's public affairs flagship program, Close-Up, a permanent panelist on the popular television show Front Page Challenge; that same year, he narrated the Academy Award-nominated National Film Board of Canada documentary City of Gold, exploring life in his hometown of Dawson City during the Klondike Gold Rush.
He released an album in conjunction with Folkways Records, entitled The Story of the Klondike: Stampede for Gold – The Golden Trail. Berton joined the Toronto Star as associate editor of the Star Weekly and columnist for the daily paper in 1958, leaving in 1962 to commence The Pierre Berton Show, which ran until 1973. On this show in 1971 Berton interviewed Bruce Lee in what was to be the famous martial artist's only surviving television interview. Berton's television career included spots as host and writer on My Country, The Great Debate, Heritage Theatre, The Secret of My Success and The National Dream. From 1966 to 1984, Berton and long-time collaborator Charles Templeton made the daily syndicated radio debate show Dialogue. Berton served as the Chancellor of Yukon College and, along with numerous honorary degrees, received over 30 literary awards such as the Governor General's Award for Creative Non-Fiction, the Stephen Leacock Medal of Humour, the Gabrielle Léger Award for Lifetime Achievement in Heritage Conservation.
He is a member of Canada's Walk of Fame, having been inducted in 1998. In The Greatest Canadian project, he was voted No. 31 in the list of great Canadians. Berton was named Toronto Humanist of the Year 2003 by the Humanist Association of Toronto; the honour is presented by H. A. T. to men and women who, in
Dominique Clément is a Professor of Sociology at the University of Alberta and a member of the Royal Society of Canada's College of New Scholars and Scientists. He is a Canadian historical sociologist who specializes in social movements, his is an Adjunct Professor in the Departments of History and Classics as well as Educational Policy Studies at the University of Alberta and the Department of Sociology and Social Anthropology at Dalhousie University. He is the founder and creator of Canada's Human Rights History, a popular teaching and research portal on the history of human rights in Canada, his Facebook and Twitter sites explore current affairs in human rights and social movements in Canada. He is the Principal Investigator of a SSHRC-funded national research team that includes numerous community partners engaged in an unprecedented examination of the relationship between public funding and the non-profit sector: State Funding for Social Movements, he earned his B. A. from Queen's University Kingston, a Master of Arts from University of British Columbia, his PhD from Memorial University of Newfoundland.
He was a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Victoria. He has been a visiting scholar at the University of Sydney in Australia and Beijing Normal University in China. Clément is a public intellectual whose work has been profiled on radio and print media including the CBC, The Globe and Mail, National Post, Toronto Star, Edmonton Journal and the Vancouver Sun, he is the author of the award-winning books Canada’s Rights Revolution: Social Movements and Social Change, Equality Deferred: Sex Discrimination and British Columbia’s Human Rights State, Human Rights in Canada: A History and Debating Rights Inflation: A Sociology of Human Rights. He is the co-editor for Alberta's Human Rights Story and Debating Dissent: Canada and the Sixties. Clément is the author of numerous articles on Human rights, Social movement, immigration policy, public finances, Olympic Games, Freedom of information, national security and Counter-terrorism policy, legal history, labour history and women’s history, he has consulted for the Canadian Human Rights Commission, Canadian Museum for Human Rights and the Canadian Heritage Information Network.
He is on the Board of Directors for the Canadian Civil Liberties Association, Centre for Constitutional Studies University of Alberta and the Canadian Committee on Women’s History. He is a former board member of the John Humphrey Centre for Peace and Human Rights, Association for Canadian Studies, L’Institut d’études canadiennes de l’Université de l’Alberta, Canadian Committee on Labour History, British Columbia Civil Liberties Association and the Canadian Historical Association. Clément is an Associate Editor for the Canadian Review of Sociology and a Research Affiliate with the Canadian Network for Research on Terrorism and Society as well as a Co-Investigator with the Child and Youth Refugee Research Coalition. Debating Rights Inflation in Canada: A Sociology of Human Rights Human Rights in Canada: A History Equality Deferred: Sex Discrimination and British Columbia’s Human Rights State Canada’s Rights Revolution: Social Movements and Social Change Debating Dissent: Canada and the Sixties Alberta's Human Rights Story People's Citizenship Guide: A Response to Conservative Canada edited by Adele Perry and Esyllt Jones The Academy as Community: A Manual of Best Practices for Meeting the Needs of New Scholars The Royal Society of Canada announces 2018 Fellows and Members The Royal Society of Canada and its Members have elected this year’s new Fellows, named the incoming class of The College of New Scholars and Scientists Canada's Human Rights History Detailed biography and list of publications Dominique Clément interview on TV Rogers on the 1976 Montreal Summer Olympics Dominique Clément debates Pearl Elidais on CBC's The 180 on rights inflation Joseph Brean.
“The dark side of ‘rights inflation': Why activists should ‘reject the impulse to frame all grievances as human rights‘.” National Post, 1 June 2015. Canadian Museum for Human Rights Canada's Rights Revolution Equality Deferred Human Rights in Canada Debating Dissent Clément was elected to the Royal Society of Canada's College of New Scholars and Scientists in 2018, he was awarded the John Porter Traditional of Excellence Book Award from the Canadian Sociological Association for Canada’s Rights Revolution. His book, Equality Deferred, was awarded the Canadian Historical Association Clio Book Prize and an Honourable Mention for the Canadian Law and Society Association book award. Another book, Human Rights in Canada, was a finalist for the INDIE Book Awards. In 2014 and 2017, he was awarded the Faculty of Arts Research Award at the University of Alberta. Biography on HistoryOfRights.ca Canada's Rights Revolution Equality Deferred Human Rights in Canada Debating Rights Inflation Department of Sociology Faculty page Canadian Civil Liberties Association Board of Directors Canadian Historical Association
Civil liberties or personal freedoms are personal guarantees and freedoms that the government cannot abridge, either by law or by judicial interpretation, without due process. Though the scope of the term differs between countries, civil liberties may include the freedom of conscience, freedom of press, freedom of religion, freedom of expression, freedom of assembly, the right to security and liberty, freedom of speech, the right to privacy, the right to equal treatment under the law and due process, the right to a fair trial, the right to life. Other civil liberties include the right to own property, the right to defend oneself, the right to bodily integrity. Within the distinctions between civil liberties and other types of liberty, distinctions exist between positive liberty/positive rights and negative liberty/negative rights. Many contemporary states have a constitution, a bill of rights, or similar constitutional documents that enumerate and seek to guarantee civil liberties. Other states have enacted similar laws through a variety of legal means, including signing and ratifying or otherwise giving effect to key conventions such as the European Convention on Human Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.
The existence of some claimed civil liberties is a matter of dispute, as are the extent of most civil rights. Controversial examples include property rights, reproductive rights, civil marriage; the degree that democracies have involved themselves in needs to take into fact the influence of terrorism. Whether the existence of victimless crimes infringes upon civil liberties is a matter of dispute. Another matter of debate is the suspension or alteration of certain civil liberties in times of war or state of emergency, including whether and to what extent this should occur; the formal concept of civil liberties is dated back to Magna Carta, an English legal charter agreed in 1215 which in turn was based on pre-existing documents, namely the Charter of Liberties. The Constitution of People's Republic of China its Fundamental Rights and Duties of Citizens, claims to protect many civil liberties. Taiwan, separated from China, has its own Constitution; the Fundamental Rights—embodied in Part III of the constitution—guarantee liberties such that all Indians can lead their lives in peace as citizens of India.
The six fundamental rights are right to equality, right to freedom, right against exploitation, right to freedom of religion and educational rights and right to constitutional remedies. These include individual rights common to most liberal democracies, incorporated in the fundamental law of the land and are enforceable in a court of law. Violations of these rights result in punishments as prescribed in the Indian Penal Code, subject to discretion of the judiciary; these rights are neither immune from constitutional amendments. They have been aimed at overturning the inequalities of pre-independence social practices, they resulted in abolishment of un-touchability and prohibit discrimination on the grounds of religion, caste, sex, or place of birth. They forbid unfree labour, they protect cultural and educational rights of ethnic and religious minorities by allowing them to preserve their languages and administer their own educational institutions. All people, irrespective of race, caste or sex, have the right to approach the High Courts or the Supreme Court for the enforcement of their fundamental rights.
It is not necessary. In public interest, anyone can initiate litigation in the court on their behalf; this is known as "Public interest litigation". High Court and Supreme Court judges can act on their own on the basis of media reports; the Fundamental Rights emphasize equality by guaranteeing to all citizens the access and use of public institutions and protections, irrespective of their background. The rights to life and personal liberty apply for persons of any nationality, while others, such as the freedom of speech and expression are applicable only to the citizens of India; the right to equality in matters of public employment cannot be conferred to overseas citizens of India. Fundamental Rights protect individuals from any arbitrary State actions, but some rights are enforceable against private individuals too. For instance, the constitution prohibits begar; these provisions act as a check both on State action and actions of private individuals. Fundamental Rights are not absolute and are subject to reasonable restrictions as necessary for the protection of national interest.
In the Kesavananda Bharati vs. state of Kerala case, the Supreme Court ruled that all provisions of the constitution, including Fundamental Rights can be amended. However, the Parliament cannot alter the basic structure of the constitution like secularism, federalism, separation of powers. Called the "Basic structure doctrine", this decision is regarded as an important part of Indian history. In the 1978 Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India case, the Supreme Court extended the doctrine's importance as superior to any parliamentary legislation. According to the verdict, no act of parliament can be considered a law if it violated the basic structure of the constitution; this landmark guarantee of Fundamental Rights was regarded as a unique example of judicial independence in preserving the sanctity of Fundamental Rights. The Fundamental Rights can only be altered by a constitutional amendment, hence their inclusion is a check not only on the executive branch, but on the Parliament and state legislatures.
The imposition of a state of em
The Ford Foundation is an American private foundation with the mission of advancing human welfare. Created in 1936 by Edsel Ford and Henry Ford, it was funded by a US$25,000 gift from Edsel Ford. By 1947, after the death of the two founders, the foundation owned 90% of the non-voting shares of the Ford Motor Company. Between 1955 and 1974, the foundation sold its Ford Motor Company holdings and now plays no role in the automobile company. Ahead of the foundation selling its Ford Motor Company holdings, in 1949 Henry Ford II created the Ford Motor Company Fund, a separate corporate foundation which to this day serves as the philanthropic arm of the Ford Motor Company and is not associated with the foundation. For years it was the largest, one of the most influential foundations in the world, with global reach and special interests in economic empowerment, human rights, the creative arts, Third World development; the foundation makes grants through ten international field offices. For fiscal year 2014, it approved US$507.9 million in grants.
After its establishment in 1936, Ford Foundation shifted its focus from Michigan philanthropic support to four areas of action. In the 1950 Report of the Study of the Ford Foundation on Policy and Program, the trustees set forth five "areas of action," according to Richard Magat: economic improvements, education and democracy, human behaviour, world peace. Since the middle of the 20th century, many of the Ford Foundation's programs have focused on increased under-represented or "minority" group representation in education and policy-making. For over eight decades their mission decisively advocates and supports the reduction of poverty and injustice among other values including the maintenance of democratic values, promoting engagement with other nations, sustaining human progress and achievement at home and abroad; the Ford Foundation is one of the primary foundations offering grants that support and maintain diversity in higher education with fellowships for pre-doctoral and post-doctoral scholarship to increase diverse representation among Native Americans, African Americans, Latinos/Latinas and other under-represented Asian and Latino sub-groups throughout the U.
S. academic labor market. The outcomes of scholarship by its grantees from the late 20th century through the 21st century have contributed to substantial data and scholarship including national surveys such as the Nelson Diversity Surveys in STEM; the foundation was established January 15, 1936, in Michigan by Edsel Ford and two other executives "to receive and administer funds for scientific and charitable purposes, all for the public welfare." During its early years, the foundation operated in Michigan under the leadership of Ford family members and their associates and supported the Henry Ford Hospital and the Henry Ford Museum and Greenfield Village, among other organizations. After the deaths of Edsel Ford in 1943 and Henry Ford in 1947, the presidency of the foundation fell to Edsel's eldest son, Henry Ford II, it became clear that the foundation would become the largest philanthropic organisation in the world. The board of trustees commissioned the Gaither Study Committee to chart the foundation's future.
The committee, headed by California attorney H. Rowan Gaither, recommended that the foundation become an international philanthropic organisation dedicated to the advancement of human welfare and "urged the foundation to focus on solving humankind's most pressing problems, whatever they might be, rather than work in any particular field...." The board embraced the recommendations in 1949. The board of directors decided to diversify the foundation's portfolio and divested itself of its substantial Ford Motor Company stock between 1955 and 1974; this divestiture allowed Ford Motor to become a public company. Henry Ford II resigned from his trustee's role in a surprise move in December 1976. In his resignation letter, he cited his dissatisfaction with the foundation holding on to their old programs, large staff and what he saw as anti-capitalist undertones in the foundation's work. In February 2019, Henry Ford III was elected to the Foundation's Board of Trustees, becoming the first Ford family member to serve on the board since his grandfather resigned in 1976.
In 2012, stating that it is not a research library, the foundation transferred its archives from New York City to the Rockefeller Archive Center in Sleepy Hollow, New York. Based on recommendations made by the Gaither Study Committee and embraced by the foundation's board of trustees in 1949, the foundation expanded its grant making to include support for higher education, the arts, economic development, civil rights, the environment, among other areas. In 1951, the foundation made its first grant to support the development of the public broadcasting system known as National Educational Television, which went on the air in 1952; these grants continued, in 1969 the foundation gave US$1 million to the Children's Television Workshop to help create and launch Sesame Street. The Corporation for Public Broadcasting replaced NET with the Public Broadcasting Service on October 5, 1970; the foundation underwrote the Fund for the Republic in the 1950s. The foundation's first international field office opened in 1952 in India.
Throughout the 1950s, the foundation provided arts and humanities fellowships that supported the work of figures like Josef Albers, James Baldwin, Saul Bellow, Herbert Blau, E. E. Cummings, Flannery O'Connor, Jacob Lawrence, Maurice Valency, Robert Lowell, Margaret Mead. In 1961, Kofi Annan received an educati