Sidney Earle Smith
Sidney Earle Smith, was a noted academic and Canada's Secretary of State for External Affairs in the government of Prime Minister John Diefenbaker. Born and raised on Nova Scotia's Port Hood Island, Smith grew up speaking both Gaelic, he received a B. A. and an M. A. from the University of King's College, followed by an LL. B. from Dalhousie University. Smith became a lawyer and a professor of law, lecturing at Osgoode Hall Law School and at Dalhousie University. In 1929, he became dean of Dalhousie's law school. In 1934, he left the Maritimes to become president of the University of Manitoba. In 1945, he was appointed the president of the University of Toronto, he remained in that role for twelve years. A strong Conservative in the Red Tory tradition, Smith became a prominent member of the Progressive Conservative Party. In 1956, he was considered a possibility for the party's leadership, but decided not to run, disappointing those in the party establishment who wished to prevent the populist John Diefenbaker from becoming leader.
After Diefenbaker won a surprise minority government in 1957, Smith was appointed as Secretary of State for External Affairs. Despite Smith's brilliance and popularity in academia, his success in this new role was limited. After holding the position for two years, he died of a stroke in 1959. Sidney Smith Hall, the central building of the Faculty of Arts and Science at the University of Toronto, is named after him. Martin Friedland, The University of Toronto: A History. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2002. Sidney Earle Smith – Parliament of Canada biography Archival papers held at University of Toronto Archives and Records Management Services
Robert Henry Winters, was a Canadian politician and businessman. Born in Lunenburg, Nova Scotia, the son of a fishing captain, Winters went to Mount Allison University in New Brunswick, to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to complete his degree in electrical engineering, he worked for Northern Electric before joining the army in World War II becoming a lieutenant-colonel. He was first elected to the House of Commons in the 1945 general election as a Liberal for the riding of Queens—Lunenburg in Nova Scotia. Winters was appointed to Cabinet in 1948, served as minister of public works, among other portfolios, under Prime Minister Louis St. Laurent. Defeated along with the St. Laurent government in the 1957 election, Winters entered the corporate world, becoming a Chief Executive Officer at a series of companies, he was hired as a special advisor to the Newfoundland government to help negotiate the Churchill Falls deal, for which he became popular in that province. He was persuaded to return to politics by Lester Pearson, won the Toronto seat of York West in the 1965 election, becoming minister of trade and commerce in Pearson's government.
He was seen as close to the business community and far more fiscally conservative than Walter L. Gordon, he announced that he would not seek to replace the retiring Pearson, but changed his mind and ran to succeed Pearson at the 1968 Liberal leadership convention, coming in second to Pierre Trudeau. Winters left politics, to become president and director of Brazilian Light and Power and a vice president of CIBC, he was involved in the new York University and served as the first chair of its board of governors. In 1969, while in California, he suffered a heart attack during a game of tennis, he died at age 59 in an ambulance on his way to hospital. Winters College at York University is named in honour of him. Marble, A. E. Nova Scotians at home and abroad: biographical sketches of over six hundred native born Nova Scotians pp. 409–10 ISBN 0-88999-074-3 Robert Winters – Parliament of Canada biography
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the most populous city in Canada, with a population of 2,731,571 in 2016. Current to 2016, the Toronto census metropolitan area, of which the majority is within the Greater Toronto Area, held a population of 5,928,040, making it Canada's most populous CMA. Toronto is the anchor of an urban agglomeration, known as the Golden Horseshoe in Southern Ontario, located on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A global city, Toronto is a centre of business, finance and culture, is recognized as one of the most multicultural and cosmopolitan cities in the world. People have travelled through and inhabited the Toronto area, situated on a broad sloping plateau interspersed with rivers, deep ravines, urban forest, for more than 10,000 years. After the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase, when the Mississauga surrendered the area to the British Crown, the British established the town of York in 1793 and designated it as the capital of Upper Canada. During the War of 1812, the town was the site of the Battle of York and suffered heavy damage by United States troops.
York was incorporated in 1834 as the city of Toronto. It was designated as the capital of the province of Ontario in 1867 during Canadian Confederation; the city proper has since expanded past its original borders through both annexation and amalgamation to its current area of 630.2 km2. The diverse population of Toronto reflects its current and historical role as an important destination for immigrants to Canada. More than 50 percent of residents belong to a visible minority population group, over 200 distinct ethnic origins are represented among its inhabitants. While the majority of Torontonians speak English as their primary language, over 160 languages are spoken in the city. Toronto is a prominent centre for music, motion picture production, television production, is home to the headquarters of Canada's major national broadcast networks and media outlets, its varied cultural institutions, which include numerous museums and galleries and public events, entertainment districts, national historic sites, sports activities, attract over 25 million tourists each year.
Toronto is known for its many skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, in particular the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere, the CN Tower. The city is home to the Toronto Stock Exchange, the headquarters of Canada's five largest banks, the headquarters of many large Canadian and multinational corporations, its economy is diversified with strengths in technology, financial services, life sciences, arts, business services, environmental innovation, food services, tourism. When Europeans first arrived at the site of present-day Toronto, the vicinity was inhabited by the Iroquois, who had displaced the Wyandot people, occupants of the region for centuries before c. 1500. The name Toronto is derived from the Iroquoian word tkaronto, meaning "place where trees stand in the water"; this refers to the northern end of what is now Lake Simcoe, where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral fish. However, the word "Toronto", meaning "plenty" appears in a 1632 French lexicon of the Huron language, an Iroquoian language.
It appears on French maps referring to various locations, including Georgian Bay, Lake Simcoe, several rivers. A portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, known as the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, led to widespread use of the name. In the 1660s, the Iroquois established two villages within what is today Toronto, Ganatsekwyagon on the banks of the Rouge River and Teiaiagon on the banks of the Humber River. By 1701, the Mississauga had displaced the Iroquois, who abandoned the Toronto area at the end of the Beaver Wars, with most returning to their base in present-day New York. French traders abandoned it in 1759 during the Seven Years' War; the British defeated the French and their indigenous allies in the war, the area became part of the British colony of Quebec in 1763. During the American Revolutionary War, an influx of British settlers came here as United Empire Loyalists fled for the British-controlled lands north of Lake Ontario; the Crown granted them land to compensate for their losses in the Thirteen Colonies.
The new province of Upper Canada was being needed a capital. In 1787, the British Lord Dorchester arranged for the Toronto Purchase with the Mississauga of the New Credit First Nation, thereby securing more than a quarter of a million acres of land in the Toronto area. Dorchester intended the location to be named Toronto. In 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the Toronto Purchase lands, naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe decided to move the Upper Canada capital from Newark to York, believing that the new site would be less vulnerable to attack by the United States; the York garrison was constructed at the entrance of the town's natural harbour, sheltered by a long sand-bar peninsula. The town's settlement formed at the eastern end of the harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day intersection of Parliament Street and Front Street. In 1813, as part of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the town's capture and plunder by United States forces.
The surrender of the town was negotiated by John Strachan. American soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation; because of the sacking of York, British troops retaliated in the war with the Burning of Wa
Kamouraska is a 1973 Québécois film directed by Claude Jutra, based on the novel by Anne Hébert, who worked as screenwriter. It won four Canadian Film Awards, for Best Actress, Best Supporting Actress, Art Direction and a Special Award; the film is set in rural Québec in the 1830s. Élisabeth is at the deathbed of her second husband Jérôme recounting her past, conveyed through a series of flashbacks. Geneviève Bujold as Élisabeth d'Aulnières Richard Jordan as Georges Nelson Philippe Léotard as Antoine Tassy Marcel Cuvelier as Jérôme Rolland Huguette Oligny as the mother of Élisabeth Camille Bernard as the mother of Antoine Janine Sutto as Tante Olivette Thibault as Tante Marie Fresnières as Tante Suzie Baillargeon as Aurélie Colette Cortois as Florida Gigi Duckett as Anne-Marie Marcel Marineau as Greffier, médecin Len Watt as Le gouverneur A slow-moving but beautiful film shot by cinematographer Michel Brault, it cost nearly $1 million, making it the most expensive Canadian film to date. Poorly reviewed by critics, it was a modest commercial success in Canada and was not a major release in France and the United States.
Henry Herx gave it a mixed review in his Family Guide to Movies on Video: "he movie captures a vanished era, has excellent acting and the beauty of its settings but its story of hot passion in a cold climate is melodramatic." Kamouraska on IMDb Kamouraska at Rotten Tomatoes
James Beveridge was a Canadian filmmaker and educator. Beveridge was a pioneering filmmaker at the fledgling National Film Board of Canada and rose to become Head of Production and Executive Producer at the NFB in postwar years. James A. Beveridge was born in Vancouver and after completing his Bachelor's degree in Journalism at the University of British Columbia, he received an Imperial Relations Trust Bursary to travel to England where he wanted to write a book on the history of film. In 1939, while seeking out sponsors for his book in London, he met the famous documentary filmmaker, John Grierson who persuaded him to seek out the GPO Film Unit in London to learn about documentary filmmaking; when the Second World War broke out, Grierson sent Beveridge to Ottawa, to help establish the National Film Board of Canada. He was hired as a film cutter as an editor. During the war, in various duties as editor and producer, Beveridge worked on more than 80 documentary films. Films he directed, Look to the North.
Beveridge became a war correspondent in the Royal Canadian Air Force, serving in Europe from 1944–1945. While working on the NFB documentary film, Inside Fighting Canada, he had met fellow NFB colleague Jane Smart a director and editor. Coming back to Canada after the Second World War, Beveridge married Jane Marsh, but their marriage was short-lived. According to Beveridge's daughter, he recounted that "I think Jane couldn't resist a man in an aviator's jacket, they had a disastrous marriage after the war was over. When I once asked him about it, Dad told me that'they were both too nutty' and so they went their separate ways."From 1947 to 1949, Beveridge was Head of Production and Executive Producer at the NFB. From 1951 -- 1954, he was based in London. After 1954, Beveridge worked as an independent producer on contract to the NFB, before leaving the Board in 1962. Seeking work internationally, in 1954, Beveridge first began a project in India for the Burmah Shell Oil Company where he produced and directed 40 training films.
In the same year, he had married Margaret Coventry, a colleague from his NFB days, his son Alexander was born. During his sojourn in India, his film,Himalayan Tapestry. After a brief role as host and moderator on Lets Face It, the CBC public affairs television series in 1961, Beveridge became the Director, North Carolina Film Board where he produced 15 half-hour documentary and educational films from 1962–1964. Beveridge returned to Canada to head his own production company in 1965, producing a multi-screen presentation in the "Man in Control" theme pavilion at Expo 1967. From 1970, his filmmaking work again took him back to the Far East. While in Japan, Beveridge produced Hands for Mobil Sekiyu Oil Company, winning the Grand Prize, World Craft Council Film Festival, New York, 1975. Beveridge was the scriptwriter on Transformations for Heavy Industries of India. Beveridge continued to be active as a filmmaker for the rest of his life, contributing as a screenwriter and advisor on a number of international projects.
He collaborated with his wife, Margaret, on his many projects. In 1970, Beveridge began teaching, as well as acting as a consultant to nascent rural television programs for UNESCO in India. In the same year, he established the Department of Film at York University and went on to launch the university's graduate film studies program, the first of its kind in Canada. While maintaining an active international career as a filmmaker and educator, he taught at York University intermittently until 1987. During his tenure, Beveridge promoted joint ventures with India and developed a national program for adult literacy, sponsored by UNESCO. In recounting his work at the NFB and his close association with John Grierson, Beveridge was the author of John Grierson: Film Master, he was the author of Script Writing for Short Films and co-author with Wilbur Lang Schramm, of Television and the Social Education of Women: A First Report on the Unesco-Senegal Pilot Project at Dakar, Issues 49-58. In 2006, Beveridge's life was made the subject of a film written and directed by his daughter, York alumna Nina Beveridge, entitled The Idealist: James Beveridge, Film Guru, which won the Platinum Remi Award for World Peace and Understanding at the 39th WorldFest-Houston International Film Festival.
The Idealist: James Beveridge, Film Guru James Beveridge on IMDb James Beveridge.
Imperial Oil Limited is a Canadian petroleum company. It is Canada's second-biggest integrated oil company. Exxon Mobil Corp. has a 69.6 percent ownership stake in the company. It is a significant producer of crude oil, diluted bitumen and natural gas, Canada’s major petroleum refiner, a key petrochemical producer and a national marketer with coast-to-coast supply and retail networks, its retail operations include Esso-brand service stations and On the Run/Marché Express and Tiger Express-brand convenience stores. It is known for its holdings in the Alberta Oil Sands. Imperial owns 25 percent of Syncrude, one of the world’s largest oil sands operations. Imperial is in a joint venture oil sands mining operation with ExxonMobil Corp. called Kearl Oil Sands. It is headquartered in Alberta. Imperial Oil was based in Toronto, until 2005. Most of Imperial's production is from its vast natural resource holdings in the Alberta Oil sands and the Norman Wells oil field in the Northwest Territories; the company was incorporated in London, Ontario, in 1880.
The company's association with ExxonMobil dates back to 1898 when the then-Standard Oil of New Jersey acquired a controlling stake in Imperial Oil. Imperial Oil discovered the Leduc Woodbend Devonian oil reef in 1947, marking the beginning of the contemporary period in Canadian oil and gas development. Drilling began on the landmark discovery well Leduc No. 1 on November 20, 1946. In 1989, Imperial Oil acquired Texaco's Canadian operations. From the 1934-35 season through the 1975-76 season, Imperial Oil was a sponsor of the Canadian Broadcasting Corp. program Hockey Night in Canada for both radio and television broadcasts. In the same era, the company was involved in film production providing funding support for the production of independent documentary films. Calgary's Glenbow Museum holds a large collection of Imperial Oil's film inventory. In February 2013, Richard Kruger, President of ExxonMobil Production Co. and a Vice President of Exxon Mobil Corp. was appointed to be Chief Executive of Imperial Oil.
His predecessor, Bruce March, left to become senior vice president of global operations for ExxonMobil Chemical Co. Besides Richard Kruger, other members of the board of directors of Imperial Oil are Krystyna Hoeg, Jack Mintz, David Sutherland, Darren Woods, Sheelagh Whittaker and Victor Young. Imperial Oil has 1,700 service stations; the majority are owned by third parties. It sold 497 stations in 2016 to retailers such as Alimentation Couche-Tard Inc. 7-Eleven Canada Inc. Parkland Fuel Corp. Harnois Groupe pétrolier and Wilson Fuel Co. Ltd. In the late early 1990s Imperial Oil acquired retail operations from Texaco's Canadian unit Texaco Canada Incorporated. With ExxonMobil having majority ownership, Imperial Oil uses its parent company's brands, including the Esso and Mobil names for service stations, On the Run for convenience stores, the Speedpass electronic payment system; until 2018, Imperial Oil was a member of the rewards program Aeroplan. On March 13, 2018, Loblaw Companies announced that it had reached a deal for the Esso-branded stations to join the PC Optimum rewards program, beginning on June 1, 2018.
Loblaw Companies had sold its network of 213 gas stations to Brookfield Business Partners in 2017. As part of the sale agreement, these stations continue to participate in PC Optimum. ExxonMobil Esso Imperial Oil - Dartmouth Refinery Imperial Oil - Nanticoke Refinery Imperial Oil - Strathcona Refinery Imperial Oil Building Nuns' Island gas station, an Esso station designed by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe in 1969 Ioco, Port Moody Official website
Louis St. Laurent
Louis Stephen St. Laurent was the 12th prime minister of Canada, from 15 November 1948 to 21 June 1957, he was a Liberal with a strong base in the Catholic francophone community, from which base he had long mobilised support to Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King. His foreign policy initiatives transformed Canada from an isolationist ex-colony with little role in world affairs to an active "middle power". St. Laurent was an enthusiastic proponent of Canada's joining NATO in 1949 to fight the spread of Communism, overcoming opposition from some intellectuals, the Labor-Progressive Party, many French Canadians; the contrast with Mackenzie King was not dramatic – they agreed on most policies. St. Laurent had more hatred of communism, less fear of the United States, he was neither an idealist nor a bookish intellectual, but an "eminently moderate, cautious conservative man... and a strong Canadian nationalist". Louis St. Laurent was born on 1 February 1882 in Compton, Quebec, a village in the Eastern Townships, to Jean-Baptiste-Moïse Saint-Laurent, a French Canadian, Mary Anne Broderick, an Irish Canadian.
He grew up fluently bilingual. His English had a noticeable Irish brogue, he received degrees from Université Laval. He was offered, but declined, a Rhodes Scholarship upon this graduation from Laval in 1905. In 1908, he married Jeanne Renault, with whom he had two sons and three daughters, including Jean-Paul St. Laurent. St-Laurent worked as a lawyer from 1905 to 1941 becoming a professor of law at Université Laval in 1914. St-Laurent practised corporate and constitutional law in Quebec and became one of the country's most respected counsel, he served as President of the Canadian Bar Association from 1930 to 1932. St-Laurent's father, a Compton shopkeeper, was a staunch supporter of the Liberal Party of Canada and was enamoured with Sir Wilfrid Laurier; when Laurier led the Liberals to victory in the 1896 election, 14-year-old Louis relayed the election returns from the telephone in his father's store. However, while an ardent Liberal, Louis remained aloof from active politics for much of his life, focusing instead on his legal career and family.
He became one of Quebec's leading lawyers and was so regarded that he was offered a position in the Cabinet of the Conservative Prime Minister Arthur Meighen in 1926 and was offered a seat as a justice in the Supreme Court of Canada. It was not until he was nearly 60 that St-Laurent agreed to enter politics when Liberal Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King appealed to his sense of duty in late 1941. Following the death of his Quebec lieutenant, Ernest Lapointe, in November 1941, King was well aware of the need for the government to have a strong, well-respected member of cabinet to serve as a new deputy for Quebec to help deal with the volatile conscription issue. King had been in his political infancy when he witnessed the Conscription Crisis of 1917 during World War I and he wanted to prevent the same divisions from threatening his government. No Quebec or francophone members of King's cabinet or government were willing to step into the role, but many recommended St. Laurent to take the post instead.
On these recommendations, King recruited St. Laurent to his World War II cabinet as Minister of Justice, Lapointe's former post, on 9 December. St. Laurent agreed to go to Ottawa out of a sense of duty, but only on the understanding that his foray into politics was temporary and that he would return to Quebec at the conclusion of the war. In February 1942, he won a by-election for Lapointe's former riding. St-Laurent supported King's decision to introduce conscription in 1944, despite the lack of support from other French Canadians, his support prevented more than a handful of Quebec Liberal Members of Parliament from leaving the party, was therefore crucial to keeping the government and the party united. He had to deal with the defection of Soviet cipher clerk Igor Gouzenko in Ottawa in September 1945. King came to regard St-Laurent as natural successor, he persuaded St-Laurent that it was his duty to remain in government following the war in order to help with the construction of a post-war international order and promoted him to the position of Secretary of State for External Affairs in 1945, a portfolio King had always kept for himself.
In this role, St-Laurent represented Canada at the Dumbarton Oaks Conference and San Francisco Conference that led to the founding of the United Nations. At the conferences, St-Laurent, compelled by his belief that the UN would be ineffective in times of war and armed conflict without some military means to impose its will, advocated the adoption of a UN military force; this force he proposed would be used in situations that called for both tact and might to preserve peace or prevent combat. In 1956, this idea was actualized by St-Laurent and his Secretary of State for External Affairs Lester B. Pearson in the development of UN Peacekeepers that helped to put an end to the Suez Crisis. In 1948, King retired, persuaded his senior ministers to support St-Laurent's selection as the new Liberal leader at the Liberal leadership convention of August 1948. St-Laurent won, was sworn in as Prime Minister of Canada on 15 November, making him Canada's second French-Canadian Prime Minister, aft