Canadian French

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Canadian French
Français canadien
Native toCanada (primarily Quebec, Eastern Ontario and New Brunswick, but present throughout the country); smaller numbers in emigrant communities in New England, United States
Native speakers
7,300,000 (2011 census)[1]
Official status
Official language in
Canada

United States

Recognised minority
language in
Language codes
ISO 639-3
GlottologNone
IETFfr-CA

Canadian French (French: français canadien) is the French language spoken in Canada. It includes the varieties of French used in Canada such as Quebec French. Formerly Canadian French referred solely to Quebec French and the closely related varieties of Ontario (Franco-Ontarian) and Western Canada—in contrast with Acadian French, which is spoken in some areas of eastern Quebec, New Brunswick (including the Chiac dialect), and some areas of Nova Scotia (including the dialect St. Marys Bay French). PEI and Newfoundland & Labrador have Newfoundland French.

In 2011, the total number of native French speakers in Canada was around 7.3 million (22% of the entire population), while another 2 million spoke it as a second language. At the federal level, it has official status alongside English. At the provincial level, French is the sole official language of Quebec as well as one of two official languages of New Brunswick, and jointly official (derived from its federal legal status) in Nunavut, Yukon, and the Northwest Territories. Government services are offered in French at select localities in Manitoba and Ontario (through the French Language Services Act) and, to a lesser extent, elsewhere in the country, depending largely on the proximity to Quebec and/or French Canadian influence on any given region.

New England French (a dialect spoken in northern New England) is essentially a variety of Canadian French and exhibits no particular differences from the Canadian dialects, unlike Louisiana French and Louisiana Creole.[2]

Varieties[edit]

Quebec French is spoken in Quebec. Closely related varieties are spoken by francophone communities in Ontario, Western Canada and the New England region of the United States, differing only from Quebec French primarily by their greater conservatism; the term Laurentian French has limited applications as a collective label for all these varieties, and Quebec French has also been used for the entire dialect group. The overwhelming majority of francophone Canadians speak this dialect.

Acadian French is spoken by over 350,000 Acadians in parts of the Maritime Provinces, Newfoundland, the Magdalen Islands, the Lower North Shore and the Gaspé peninsula.[3] St. Marys Bay French is a variety of Acadian French spoken in Nova Scotia.

Métis French is spoken in Manitoba and Western Canada by the Métis, descendants of First Nations mothers and voyageur fathers during the fur trade. Many Métis spoke Cree in addition to French, and over the years they developed a unique mixed language called Michif by combining Métis French nouns, numerals, articles and adjectives with Cree verbs, demonstratives, postpositions, interrogatives and pronouns. Both the Michif language and the Métis dialect of French are severely endangered.

Newfoundland French is spoken by a small population on the Port-au-Port Peninsula of Newfoundland, it is endangered—both Quebec French and Acadian French are now more widely spoken among Newfoundland francophones than the distinctive peninsular dialect.

Brayon French is spoken in the area around Edmundston, New Brunswick, and, to a lesser extent, Madawaska, Maine, and Beauce of Quebec. Although superficially a phonological descendant of Acadian French, analysis reveals it is morphosyntactically identical to Quebec French,[4] it is believed to have resulted from a localized levelling of contact dialects between Québécois and Acadian settlers.

New England French is spoken in parts of New England in the United States. Essentially a local variant of Quebec French, it is one of three major forms of French that developed in what is now the U.S., the others being Louisiana French and the nearly-extinct Missouri French. It is endangered, though its use is supported by bilingual education programs in place since 1987.[2]

Sub-varieties[edit]

There are two main sub-varieties of Canadian French. Joual is an informal variety of French spoken in working-class neighbourhoods in the province of Quebec. Chiac is a blending of Acadian French syntax and vocabulary with numerous lexical borrowings from English.

Historical usage[edit]

The term "Canadian French" was formerly used to refer specifically to Quebec French and the closely related varieties of Ontario and Western Canada descended from it;[5] this is presumably because Canada and Acadia were distinct parts of New France, and also of British North America, until 1867. However, today the term is not usually deemed to exclude Acadian French.

Phylogenetically, Quebec French, Métis French and Brayon French are representatives of koiné French in the Americas whereas Acadian French, Cajun French, and Newfoundland French are derivatives of non-koiné local dialects in France.[6]

Vocabulary[edit]

France Canada Translation
Glace Crème glacée Ice cream
Pastèque Melon d’eau Watermelon
Myrtille Bleuet Blueberry
Un steward, une hôtesse de l’air Un(e) agent(e) de bord Flight attendant
Citronnade Limonade Lemonade
Petit déjeuner Déjeuner (Belgium and Switzerland too) Breakfast
Déjeuner Dîner (Belgium and Switzerland too) Lunch
Dîner Souper (Belgium and Switzerland too) Dinner/Supper
(Téléphone) portable (Téléphone) cellulaire Cellphone/Mobile phone
Maillot de bain Costume de bain Swimsuit
Shopping Magasiner / Magasinage Shopping
Pékin Beijing Beijing

Parking (Parc de) stationnement Parking
Gomme/Gomme à effacer Efface/Gomme à effacer Eraser/Rubber
Weekend Fin de semaine Weekend
(Woman): Copine/Meuf/Petite amie

(Man): Copain/Mec/Petit ami

(Woman): Petite amie/Blonde

(Man): Petit ami/Chum

Girlfriend/Boyfriend
Cartable Sac d’école/Sac à dos Backpack/Schoolbag
(Coupon) réduction/Bon réduction (Coupon de) rabais Discount (coupon)
Chewing-gum Gomme/Gomme à mâcher Chewing gum
Caddie/Chariot Panier Shopping trolley/Shopping cart
Ferry/Bac Traversier Ferry/Ferry Boat
Un job (masculine) Une job (feminine) A job (colloquial)
Monter (à bord) Embarquer Climb on board/Get in (a vehicle)
Aspirateur Balayeuse Vacuum cleaner/Hoover
Milkshake Lait frappé Milkshake
Mixeur Mélangeur Blender
Tuto Astuce Tutorial (Video type on the Internet)
Sponsoriser Commanditer/Adhérer Sponsor
Buanderie Salle de lavage (inside a house) Utility room/Laundry room

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ French (Canada) at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ a b Ammon, Ulrich; International Sociological Association (1989). Status and Function of Languages and Language Varieties. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 306–308. ISBN 0-89925-356-3. Retrieved February 1, 2012.
  3. ^ Ethnologue report for Canada
  4. ^ Geddes, James (1908). Study of the Acadian-French language spoken on the north shore of the Baie-des-Chaleurs. Halle: Niemeyer; Wittmann, Henri (1995) "Grammaire comparée des variétés coloniales du français populaire de Paris du 17e siècle et origines du français québécois." in Fournier, Robert & Henri Wittmann. Le français des Amériques. Trois-Rivières: Presses universitaires de Trois-Rivières, 281–334.[1]
  5. ^ Francard and Latin, in Le régionalisme lexical, write:
    "Le français du Québec a rayonné en Ontario et dans l'ouest du Canada, de même qu'en Nouvelle-Angleterre. [...] Le français québécois et le français acadien peuvent être regroupés sous l'appellation plus large de français canadien2, laquelle englobe aussi le français ontarien et le français de l'Ouest canadien. Ces deux derniers possèdent des traits caractéristiques qui leur sont propres aujourd'hui dans l'ensemble canadien et qui s'expliquent surtout par un phénomène de conservatisme, mais il s'agit de variétés qui sont historiquement des prolongements du français québécois.
    2Il faut noter ici que le terme de «français canadien» avait autrefois un sens plus restreint, désignant le français du Québec et les variétés qui s'y rattachent directement, d'où l'emploi à cette époque de «canadianisme» pour parler d'un trait caractéristique du français du Québec."
  6. ^ Robert Fournier & Henri Wittmann. 1995. Le français des Amériques. Trois-Rivières: Presses universitaires de Trois-Rivières.

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Darnell, Regna, ed. (1971). Linguistic Diversity in Canadian Society, in Sociolinguistics Series, 1. Edmonton, Alta.: Linguistic Research. Without ISBN or SBN

External links[edit]