Glen Abbey Golf Course
Glen Abbey Golf Club is located in Oakville and was the first solo design by Jack Nicklaus in 1976. It is one of Canada's most famous golf courses and is home to the Golf Canada and the Canadian Golf Hall of Fame, it has hosted 30 Canadian Open Championships, more than any other course, with the first having been 1977. As of 2018, Glen Abbey is owned by Clublink, operated by TWC Enterprises Limited, a company, planning to demolish the golf course in order to build residential and commercial units, if it is successful in getting the approvals necessary to do so. In 2018, the company achieved some success in its efforts against the town, after a Superior Court hearing against the town's attempts to block its plan. A distinguishing feature of the Glen Abbey course are the "Valley Holes", numbered 11 through 15. On number 11, a par 4, players tee off a cliff to a fairway, 60 feet below on the valley floor; the second shot must clear Sixteen Mile Creek to the green. Holes 12, 13 and 14 all use Sixteen Mile Creek as a hazard of another.
Number 15 is a short par 3 with a sharply-sloping green, after which players climb out of the valley to the 16th hole. The 18th hole is notable due to its connection to Tiger Woods, who, in the final round of the 2000 Canadian Open, hit a six-iron shot 218 yards from a bunker on the right side of the fairway to about 18 feet from the hole; the shot was all carry over a large pond. In doing so, Woods won the tournament; the shot is regarded as one of the most spectacular both of Woods' career and in recent PGA Tour history. In 2009, Mark Calcavecchia set a new PGA Tour record with 9 consecutive birdies in his second round of the Canadian Open. After having started the round on the 10th hole, he birdied holes 12 through 18 holes 1 and 2 of the front nine. Clublink Corp first filed an application in October 2015 to redevelop the property. In its plan, there was no provision for a golf course; the Town of Oakville Council responded in August 2017 by declaring the golf course a heritage site under the Ontario Heritage Act.
This would make it more difficult for Clublink to develop the area as it had planned, with 3,222 housing units. 69,000 square feet of commercial/retail space and 107,000 square feet of office space. Golf Canada was concerned since it could not predict whether it could get the necessary permit to hold the Canadian Open at Glen Abbey in 2018; the event was in fact held at Glen Abbey. The Town of Oakville formally rejected the plan to demolish the golf course in a unanimous vote by the Planning and Development Council on February 12, 2018. In summer 2018, Clublink was awaiting a Superior Court decision on its plan to request a demolition permit and, in the meantime, the Canadian Open took place at the course. On 25 October 2018, Justice Edward Morgan ruled that Clublink had a right to take its demolition application to the Local Planning Appeal Tribunal, in spite of the town's previous denial of this step; the city council subsequently voted unanimously to take the issue to the Ontario Court of Appeal.
On 11 December 2018, the Ontario Superior Court ruled against the conservation plan and bylaws, enacted to stop the Glen Abbey development plan. Judge Edward Morgan said that the effort was made in bad-faith; the Local Planning Appeal Tribunal will hold an eight-day hearing in June 2019 on ClubLink’s appeal of the town’s updated official plan and amended bylaws and in 2019, another hearing about ClubLink’s development application appeal. A report at the time of the October 2018 hearing clarified the owner's plan: building "3,222 residential units, including nine apartment buildings between nine and 12 storeys in height"; these would be above the planned office space and commercial/retail space. The 2019 and 2023 Canadian Open were scheduled to be held at the Hamilton Golf and Country Club but the event may again be held at Glen Abbey in some future years if the redevelopment is not allowed to proceed. Official website
A museum is an institution that cares for a collection of artifacts and other objects of artistic, historical, or scientific importance. Many public museums make these items available for public viewing through exhibits that may be permanent or temporary; the largest museums are located in major cities throughout the world, while thousands of local museums exist in smaller cities and rural areas. Museums have varying aims, ranging from serving researchers and specialists to serving the general public; the goal of serving researchers is shifting to serving the general public. There are many types of museums, including art museums, natural history museums, science museums, war museums, children's museums. Amongst the world's largest and most visited museums are the Louvre in Paris, the National Museum of China in Beijing, the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D. C. the British Museum and National Gallery in London, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City and Vatican Museums in Vatican City.
According to The World Museum Community, there are more than 55,000 museums in 202 countries. The English "museum" comes from the Latin word, is pluralized as "museums", it is from the Ancient Greek Μουσεῖον, which denotes a place or temple dedicated to the Muses, hence a building set apart for study and the arts the Musaeum for philosophy and research at Alexandria by Ptolemy I Soter about 280 BC. The purpose of modern museums is to collect, preserve and display items of artistic, cultural, or scientific significance for the education of the public. From a visitor or community perspective, the purpose can depend on one's point of view. A trip to a local history museum or large city art museum can be an entertaining and enlightening way to spend the day. To city leaders, a healthy museum community can be seen as a gauge of the economic health of a city, a way to increase the sophistication of its inhabitants. To a museum professional, a museum might be seen as a way to educate the public about the museum's mission, such as civil rights or environmentalism.
Museums are, above all, storehouses of knowledge. In 1829, James Smithson's bequest, that would fund the Smithsonian Institution, stated he wanted to establish an institution "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge."Museums of natural history in the late 19th century exemplified the Victorian desire for consumption and for order. Gathering all examples of each classification of a field of knowledge for research and for display was the purpose; as American colleges grew in the 19th century, they developed their own natural history collections for the use of their students. By the last quarter of the 19th century, the scientific research in the universities was shifting toward biological research on a cellular level, cutting edge research moved from museums to university laboratories. While many large museums, such as the Smithsonian Institution, are still respected as research centers, research is no longer a main purpose of most museums. While there is an ongoing debate about the purposes of interpretation of a museum's collection, there has been a consistent mission to protect and preserve artifacts for future generations.
Much care and expense is invested in preservation efforts to retard decomposition in aging documents, artifacts and buildings. All museums display objects; as historian Steven Conn writes, "To see the thing itself, with one's own eyes and in a public place, surrounded by other people having some version of the same experience can be enchanting."Museum purposes vary from institution to institution. Some favor education over conservation, or vice versa. For example, in the 1970s, the Canada Science and Technology Museum favored education over preservation of their objects, they displayed objects as well as their functions. One exhibit featured a historic printing press that a staff member used for visitors to create museum memorabilia; some seek to reach a wide audience, such as a national or state museum, while some museums have specific audiences, like the LDS Church History Museum or local history organizations. Speaking, museums collect objects of significance that comply with their mission statement for conservation and display.
Although most museums do not allow physical contact with the associated artifacts, there are some that are interactive and encourage a more hands-on approach. In 2009, Hampton Court Palace, palace of Henry VIII, opened the council room to the general public to create an interactive environment for visitors. Rather than allowing visitors to handle 500-year-old objects, the museum created replicas, as well as replica costumes; the daily activities, historic clothing, temperature changes immerse the visitor in a slice of what Tudor life may have been. This section lists the 20 most visited museums in 2015 as compiled by AECOM and the Themed Entertainment Association's annual report on the world's most visited attractions. For 2016 figures see List of most visited museums; the cities of London and Washington, D. C. contain more of the 20 most visited museums in the world than any others, with six museums and four museums, respectively. Early museums began as the private collections of wealthy individuals, families or institutions of art and rare or curious natural objects and artifacts.
These were displayed in so-called wonder rooms or cabinets of curiosities. One of the oldest museums known is Ennigaldi-Nanna's museum, built by Princess Ennigaldi at the end of the Neo-Babylonian Empire; the site dates from c. 530 BCE, contained artifacts from earlier M
Gary Cowan is a Canadian golfer who has achieved outstanding results at the highest class in amateur competition. Cowan was born in Kitchener, Canada, he began to play golf at the municipal golf course, Rockway, in Kitchener, found great rivalries there with such excellent players as Moe Norman and Gerry Kesselring. The three were coached by Lloyd Tucker. Cowan reached the semi-finals of the Ontario Amateur Championship at age 17 in 1956, a record for a player so young, he won the 1956 Canadian Junior Championship. His first national championship victory at men's level was the 1961 Canadian Amateur Championship, to be his only win, but he reached the finals on four other occasions, finished second at stroke play twice more. Cowan finished as the low individual scorer at the 1962 Eisenhower Trophy, an international amateur team event, in Japan. Cowan went on to win the United States Amateur Championship on two occasions. In 1966, he was victorious at the Merion Golf Club in suburban Philadelphia, after defeating Deane Beman in an 18-hole playoff.
In 1971, he won at the Wilmington Country Club in Wilmington, Delaware, by sinking his approach shot on the final hole with a nine-iron for an eagle two. Cowan remains the only player to win the U. S. Amateur twice at stroke play, he remains one of only two Canadians to win the U. S. Amateur. Cowan won the Sunnehanna Amateur in 1964 and the Porter Cup in 1969. Cowan has captured a record. Cowan turned professional at age 52 and played on the Senior PGA Tour for a couple of years with three top-10 finishes. Cowan was inducted into Canada's Sports Hall of Fame in 1967, the Canadian Golf Hall of Fame in 1972, was selected as the Canadian Male Golfer of the 20th Century in 2000 by the Royal Canadian Golf Association. Cowan is a member of the Ontario Golf Hall of Fame. In 2003, he was inducted into the Ontario Sports Hall of Fame. Cowan had a successful career in the insurance business. 1956 Canadian Junior Amateur 1961 Canadian Amateur 1964 Ontario Amateur, Sunnehanna Amateur 1966 U. S. Amateur 1968 Ontario Amateur 1969 Porter Cup 1970 North and South Amateur 1971 U.
S. Amateur, Ontario Amateur 1974 Ontario Amateur 1975 Ontario Amateur 1977 Ontario Amateur 1978 Ontario Amateur 1981 Ontario Amateur 1984 Ontario Amateur this list may be incomplete Amateur Commonwealth Tournament: 1959, 1963, 1967, 1971 Eisenhower Trophy: 1960, 1962, 1964, 1966, 1968, 1970, 1978 Americas Cup: 1958, 1960, 1961, 1963, 1965, 1967 Biography at Canadian Golf Hall of Fame Biography at Canada's Sports Hall of Fame Gary Cowan at the PGA Tour official site
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Golf is a club-and-ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible. Golf, unlike most ball games and does not utilize a standardized playing area, coping with the varied terrains encountered on different courses is a key part of the game; the game at the usual level is played on a course with an arranged progression of 18 holes, though recreational courses can be smaller having 9 holes. Each hole on the course must contain a tee box to start from, a putting green containing the actual hole or cup 4 1⁄4 inches in diameter. There are other standard forms of terrain in between, such as the fairway, rough and various hazards but each hole on a course is unique in its specific layout and arrangement. Golf is played for the lowest number of strokes by an individual, known as stroke play, or the lowest score on the most individual holes in a complete round by an individual or team, known as match play. Stroke play is the most seen format at all levels, but most at the elite level.
The modern game of golf originated in 15th century Scotland. The 18-hole round was created at the Old Course at St Andrews in 1764. Golf's first major, the world's oldest tournament in existence, is The Open Championship known as the British Open, first played in 1860 in Ayrshire, Scotland; this is one of the four major championships in men's professional golf, the other three being played in the United States: The Masters, the U. S. Open, the PGA Championship. While the modern game of golf originated in 15th-century Scotland, the game's ancient origins are unclear and much debated; some historians trace the sport back to the Roman game of paganica, in which participants used a bent stick to hit a stuffed leather ball. One theory asserts that paganica spread throughout Europe as the Romans conquered most of the continent, during the first century BC, evolved into the modern game. Others cite chuiwan as the progenitor, a Chinese game played between the eighth and fourteenth centuries. A Ming Dynasty scroll dating back to 1368 entitled "The Autumn Banquet" shows a member of the Chinese Imperial court swinging what appears to be a golf club at a small ball with the aim of sinking it into a hole.
The game is thought to have been introduced into Europe during the Middle Ages. Another early game that resembled modern golf was known as chambot in France; the Persian game chaugán is another possible ancient origin. In addition, kolven was played annually in Loenen, beginning in 1297, to commemorate the capture of the assassin of Floris V, a year earlier; the modern game originated in Scotland, where the first written record of golf is James II's banning of the game in 1457, as an unwelcome distraction to learning archery. James IV lifted the ban in 1502 when he became a golfer himself, with golf clubs first recorded in 1503–1504: "For golf clubbes and balles to the King that he playit with". To many golfers, the Old Course at St Andrews, a links course dating to before 1574, is considered to be a site of pilgrimage. In 1764, the standard 18-hole golf course was created at St Andrews when members modified the course from 22 to 18 holes. Golf is documented as being played on Musselburgh Links, East Lothian, Scotland as early as 2 March 1672, certified as the oldest golf course in the world by Guinness World Records.
The oldest surviving rules of golf were compiled in March 1744 for the Company of Gentlemen Golfers renamed The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers, played at Leith, Scotland. The world's oldest golf tournament in existence, golf's first major, is The Open Championship, first played on 17 October 1860 at Prestwick Golf Club, in Ayrshire, with Scottish golfers winning the earliest majors. Two Scotsmen from Dunfermline, John Reid and Robert Lockhart, first demonstrated golf in the U. S. by setting up a hole in an orchard in 1888, with Reid setting up America's first golf club the same year, Saint Andrew's Golf Club in Yonkers, New York. A golf course consists of either 9 or 18 holes, each with a teeing ground, set off by two markers showing the bounds of the legal tee area, fairway and other hazards, the putting green surrounded by the fringe with the pin and cup; the levels of grass are varied to increase difficulty, or to allow for putting in the case of the green. While many holes are designed with a direct line-of-sight from the teeing area to the green, some holes may bend either to the left or to the right.
This is called a "dogleg", in reference to a dog's knee. The hole is called a "dogleg left" if the hole angles leftwards and "dogleg right" if it bends right. Sometimes, a hole's direction may bend twice. A regular golf course consists of 18 holes, but nine-hole courses are common and can be played twice through for a full round of 18 holes. Early Scottish golf courses were laid out on links land, soil-covered sand dunes directly inland from beaches; this gave rise to the term "golf links" applied to seaside courses and those built on sandy soil inland. The first 18-hole golf course in the United States was on a sheep farm in Downers Grove, Illinois, in 1892; the course is still there today. Every round of golf is based on playing a number of holes in a given order. A "round" consists of 18 holes that are played in the order determined by the course layout; each hole is played once in the round on a standard course of 18 holes. The game can be played by any number of people, although a typ
Ada Charlotte Mackenzie was a Canadian golfer who founded the Ladies Golf Club of Toronto in 1924. In 1933, Mackenzie was the first recipient of the Bobbie Rosenfeld Award as the top Canadian female athlete of the year, she was inducted into numerous hall of fames including the Canada Sports Hall of Fame in 1955 and the Canadian Golf Hall of Fame in 1971. Mackenzie was born on October 1891 in Toronto, Ontario, she went to Havergal College from 1903-1911 and became interested in sports like her parents, who were golfers. At Havergal, Mackenzie played various sports including cricket and tennis and was the college's top athlete three years in a row. After completing her schooling at Havergal College in 1911, she remained at the college as an instructor until 1914. After leaving Havergal College, Mackenzie worked for the Canadian Bank of Commerce until 1930. In 1924, Mackenzie created the Ladies Golf Club of Toronto in response to the time restrictions she was given as a woman golfer. In 1930, she opened up a women's sportswear store after she felt that the women's golf apparel at that time was not appropriate.
On the golf course, Mackenzie competed in various golf tournaments throughout North America and Bermuda. Her first tournament win was at the Canadian Women's Amateur in 1919, which she won five times throughout her career. Outside of Canada, Mackenzie medalled at the U. S. Women's Amateur in 1927. Mackenzie's last golf tournament win was at the Ontario Senior Women's Amateur in 1969. In 1933, Mackenzie was named the top female athlete of the year and was awarded the Bobbie Rosenfeld Award, making her the first Canadian woman to be awarded this trophy. Mackenzie was inducted in the Canada Sports Hall of Fame in 1955 and both the Canadian Golf Hall of Fame and the Canadian Olympic Hall of Fame in 1971. After her death, Mackenzie was posthumously inducted into the Ontario Golf Hall of Fame in 2000 and the Ontario Sports Hall of Fame in 2003. A park in Richmond Hill, Ontario is named after her. On January 25, 1973, Mackenzie died in Ontario. 1919 Canadian Women's Amateur 1925 Canadian Women's Amateur 1926 Canadian Women's Amateur, Canadian Ladies' Close Championship 1927 Canadian Ladies' Close Championship 1929 Canadian Ladies' Close Championship 1931 Canadian Ladies' Close Championship 1933 Canadian Women's Amateur, Canadian Ladies' Close Championship 1935 Canadian Women's Amateur 1937 Bermuda Tournament 1955 Canadian Senior Women's Championship 1958 Bercanus Tournament 1960 Canadian Senior Women's Championship 1962 Canadian Senior Women's Championship 1965 Canadian Senior Women's Championship, Ontario Senior Women's Championship 1969 Ontario Senior Women's Championship
George Lyon (golfer)
George Seymour Lyon was a Canadian golfer, an Olympic gold medalist in golf, an eight-time Canadian Amateur Championship winner, a member of Canada's Sports Hall of Fame. Lyon was born in Richmond, near Ottawa, his early sporting career was in cricket, where, as a batsman he represented Canada eight times, averaging 14.07, scoring 238 not out in a club game, at that time the highest score made in Canada. Although he only began playing golf at the age of 38, due to lack of available golf courses in most areas of Canada before that date, he won the gold medal in golf in the 1904 Summer Olympics in St. Louis, Missouri, at age 46, he won the Canadian Amateur Championship a record eight times between 1898 and 1914, the last time in his 56th year. He was runner-up in that event on two further occasions, he won the Canadian Seniors' Golf Association Championship ten times between 1918 and 1930, the final time in his 72nd year. Lyon lost in the finals of the 1906 U. S. Amateur, in his 48th year, in the round of 32 of the 1908 British Amateur, when in his 50th year.
He was a lifelong amateur golfer, never turning professional. He traveled to London in 1908 to defend his Olympic title, but plans to stage a golf tournament there were cancelled at the last minute, since representatives from England and Scotland were unable to agree on the format. Offered the gold medal by default, Lyon refused to accept it. Golf did not return to the Olympics until 2016. Lyon was a founding member, with Albert Austin, of the Lambton Golf and Country Club in Toronto, it was opened on June 13, 1903. Lyon partnered with the future Canadian golf hall of fame member, professional George Cumming. Lyon was buried in Toronto's Mount Pleasant Cemetery. In 1955, Lyon was inducted into Canada's Sports Hall of Fame. In 1971, he was inducted into the Canadian Golf Hall of Fame. A fictionalized version of Lyon, portrayed by Kevin Jubinville, is a supporting character in "A Case of the Yips", a 2016 episode of the Canadian series Murdoch Mysteries; the episode is set in 1903 -- Lyon mentions his planned upcoming trip to the 1904 Olympics in St. Louis.
A running gag through the episode is that as Lyon advises Detective Murdoch about golf, he is a pushy insurance salesman, trying to talk Murdoch into buying a policy. His life and achievement as an Olympic Gold medalist are described in the 2016 book "Olympic Lyon" by Michael G. Cochrane. Lyon reigned as the Olympic champion for 112 years, until golf returned to the program at the 2016 Summer Olympics, the gold medal being won by Englishman Justin Rose. 1898 Canadian Amateur 1900 Canadian Amateur 1903 Canadian Amateur 1905 Canadian Amateur 1906 Canadian Amateur 1907 Canadian Amateur 1912 Canadian Amateur 1914 Canadian Amateur Note: Lyon only played in the British Open, U. S. Amateur, the British Amateur. NT = No tournament CUT = missed the half-way cut DNQ = Did not qualify for match play portion R64, R32, R16, QF, SF = Round in which player lost in match play Sources: U. S. Open and U. S. Amateur, 1905 Open, 1905 Amateur, 1908 Amateur. Adams, P. A history of Canadian cricket, lulu.com. ISBN 978-1-4466-9652-1.
Cochrane, Michael G. Olympic Lyon, georgelyon.ca. ISBN 978-0994854520 George Seymour Lyon at The Canadian Encyclopedia Profile at Canadian Golf Hall of Fame George Seymour Lyon Olympic Lyon - The Story of George Lyon